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Impact Of Cations On The Sorption Capabilities Of Kaolin Towards Biofilm-Forming Bacteria, Rachel E. Brineman 2017 Georgia College and State University

Impact Of Cations On The Sorption Capabilities Of Kaolin Towards Biofilm-Forming Bacteria, Rachel E. Brineman

Georgia College Student Research Events

Biofilm-forming bacteria cause problems for industries such as medical, food, and water treatment. Due to its heterogeneous charges, kaolin is capable of sorption of these microorganisms. These charges are impacted by pH and cations, which change the electrostatic interactions between kaolin particles and microorganisms. Proper pH and cation composition may lead to enhanced sorption. The impact of Al3+ cations on kaolin sorption of Gram negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram positive (B. megaterium and S. aureus) was investigated. Calcined kaolin and Diatomaceous Earth kaolin, which were selected in previous studies, were incubated in triplicates with the above organisms ...


In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony 2017 University of Mississippi

In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony

John Williamson

Microbial transformation of natural products is a well established model for mammalian metabolism. Salvinorin A, a diterpenoid isolated from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M (Lamiaceae), is a potent non-nitrogenous κ-opioid receptor agonist. The metabolism of salvinorin A has still not yet been well established. Thirty fungal species were screened for the ability to metabolize salvinorin A. We observed that salvinorin A undergoes fast hydrolysis of the acetate group at carbon atom C2, resulting in formation of the pharmacologically inactive product, salvinorin B. Ex vivo experiments were also performed using organelle fractions isolated from rat liver and brain. Crude ...


Microflora In The Cheek Pouches Of Ord's Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ordii) From The Nebraska Sandhills, Devin M. Christensen 2017 University of Nebraksa Omaha

Microflora In The Cheek Pouches Of Ord's Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ordii) From The Nebraska Sandhills, Devin M. Christensen

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The microflora living within the Ord’s kangaroo rat (Dipodymis ordii) cheek pouches has never been extensively studied before. Kangaroo rats use their cheek pouches to transport seeds and grasses in their mouths that they later store. It is predicted that the cheek pouches harbor fungal and bacterial growth that could be either helpful or harmful to the kangaroo rat and its environment. 8 kangaroo rats were humanely captured using Sherman live traps in the Nebraska Sandhills; their cheek pouches were swabbed, and the microorganisms obtained were grown on agar plates and in liquid media until an adequate amount of ...


Relating Watershed Characteristics To Elevated Stream Escherichia Coli Levels In Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes: An Iowa Case Study, Conrad Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir 2017 Iowa State University

Relating Watershed Characteristics To Elevated Stream Escherichia Coli Levels In Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes: An Iowa Case Study, Conrad Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a leading cause of surface water impairments in the United States. However, the relative impacts of different watershed characteristics on microbial water quality in agriculturally dominated watersheds are unclear. Spatial and statistical analyses were utilized to examine relationships between watershed characteristics and FIB and a multiple regression model was created. Geometric mean E. coli concentration data were obtained for 395 ambient water quality monitoring locations in Iowa. Watersheds were delineated for thirty randomly selected monitoring locations and drainage areas ranged from 93 to 1.1 million hectares. Watershed characteristics ...


Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Novakova, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez 2017 Sofia University

Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Novakova, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez

International Journal of Speleology

Magura Cave, north-western Bulgaria, possesses valuable rock-art paintings made with bat guano and dated from the period between the Eneolithic and Bronze Ages. Since 2008, the Art Gallery is closed to the general public in order to protect the paintings from vandalism, microclimatic changes caused by visitors and artificial illumination, and the consequent growth of fungi and phototrophs. Nevertheless, some tourist visits are allowed under the supervision of cave managers. This study provides the first scientific report on cultivable fungal assemblages dwelling different substrata in the Art Gallery. A total of 78 strains, belonging to 37 OTUs (Ascomycota 81%, Zygomycota ...


Microbial Repopulation Following In Situ Star Remediation, Gavin Overbeeke 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Microbial Repopulation Following In Situ Star Remediation, Gavin Overbeeke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In situ STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an emerging remediation technology which uses smouldering combustion to destroy nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface. Since STAR smouldering travels through contaminated soils slowly (~0.5 to 5 m/day) and subjects them to high temperatures (400–1000°C), it is expected that this technology will thoroughly dry and sterilize the zones which it treats. Further, soils surrounding the treatment zone which are not smouldered will be heated, although not smouldered, by virtue of their proximity to STAR, impacting microbial communities within them. Therefore, the objectives of this work ...


Beyond The Obvious: Emerging Contaminants And Biogeochemistry As A Cause And Solution For Nitrogen Pollution, Stephanie L. DeVries 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Beyond The Obvious: Emerging Contaminants And Biogeochemistry As A Cause And Solution For Nitrogen Pollution, Stephanie L. Devries

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Following a comprehensive review of the occurrence and impacts of antibiotics and related pharmaceutical compounds on the terrestrial N-cycle, three experiments were performed to explore the topic of biogeochemistry as a source or a sink for N-pollution. The first of these experiments addresses the question of whether environmentally relevant concentrations of antibiotics (µg·kg-1) have a significant effect on denitrification or N2O production, a question that has not been well addressed in previous studies. Having determined that there is a significant shift, the second study aims to comprehensively follow changes to soil N pools and N2 ...


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


The Influence Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) Leaf Litter On Aquatic Chemistry And Microbial Community Composition, Raymond D. Montez 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

The Influence Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) Leaf Litter On Aquatic Chemistry And Microbial Community Composition, Raymond D. Montez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change and anthropogenic activity have facilitated the movement and invasive potential of nonnative plants in native environments. These invasions can have negative effects on ecosystem diversity and function. The nonnative and invasive plant, Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera), has already invaded much of the south eastern US where it is outcompeting native tree species and changing ecosystem diversity in a variety of habitats. Leaf litter from the Chinese tallow has been shown cause changes in dissolved oxygen and pH in the aquatic environment. Turbidity is also affected when Chinese tallow litter is present in water. A series of experiments ...


Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman

Master's Theses

Anurans are mass spawners, often with multiple females spawning together, resulting in thousands of tadpoles sharing a habitat. Such large numbers of tadpoles with limited dispersal can lead to intense competition for resources. Inter and intra-specific competition for food could have negative impacts on the growth and survival of smaller tadpoles. Fecal bacterial communities have the potential to be used as indicators of changes in diet making it possible to determine if tadpoles in the wild are eating the same food or not. After feeding on two prepared diets that differed in the percentage of complex carbohydrates, the fecal bacterial ...


Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Molecular And Ecological Aspects Of The Interactions Between Aureococcus Anophagefferens And Its Giant Virus, Mohammad Moniruzzaman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular And Ecological Aspects Of The Interactions Between Aureococcus Anophagefferens And Its Giant Virus, Mohammad Moniruzzaman

Doctoral Dissertations

Viruses are increasingly being recognized as an important biotic component of all ecosystems including agents that control the rapid ecological events that are harmful algal blooms (HABS). Aureococcus anophagefferens is a pelagophyte which causes recurrent ecosystem devastating brown tide blooms along the east coast of the USA and has recently spread to China and South Africa. It has been suggested that a large virus (AaV) is possibly an important agent for demise of brown tide blooms. This observation is consistent with the recognition of a number of other giant viruses modulating algal blooms in marine systems. In this dissertation, we ...


Plant-Biocrust Interactions Mediated By The Fungal Loop, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson 2016 University of New Mexico

Plant-Biocrust Interactions Mediated By The Fungal Loop, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson

Biology ETDs

Plant-microbial interactions influence biogeochemical cycles. Plants and biological soil crusts are primary producers in drylands. Biocrusts include cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, algae, fungi, bacteria, and archaea on the soil surface, some of which fix atmospheric nitrogen. I investigated controls on biocrust carbon fluxes and their contribution to ecosystem fluxes, the incorporation of plant-derived carbon into biocrusts, and the role of soil fungi in promoting performance of plants and biocrusts. Biocrusts responded to temperature and moisture differently by biome. Biocrusts in grasslands/shrublands contributed >25% of total summertime ecosystem respiration, but biocrusts in savannas/woodlands contributed <1%. Biocrusts contributed <2% to GPP in any biome. To augment their native photosynthesis, biocrusts may include 16% plant-derived carbon. Fungal connections improved plant and biocrust performance and reduced differences in the CN ratio between organisms compared to when connections were impeded. Investigation of interactions among biocrusts, plants, and fungi has improved understanding of resource cycling in drylands.


Hydrothermal Venting And Mineralization In The Crater Of Kick’Em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles), Steven Carey, Rene Olsen, Katherine L. C. Bell, Robert Ballard, Frederic Dondin, Chris Roman, Clara Smart, Marvin Lilley, John Lupton, Brad Seibel, Winton Cornell, Craig L. Moyer 2016 Western Washington University

Hydrothermal Venting And Mineralization In The Crater Of Kick’Em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles), Steven Carey, Rene Olsen, Katherine L. C. Bell, Robert Ballard, Frederic Dondin, Chris Roman, Clara Smart, Marvin Lilley, John Lupton, Brad Seibel, Winton Cornell, Craig L. Moyer

Craig L. Moyer

Kick’em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~70 3 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180ᵒC. The gas consists ...


Characterization Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From Krubera-Voronja Cave, Aiste Klusaite, Vida Vickackaite, Birute Vaitkeviciene, Rasa Karnickaite, Dominykas Bukelskis, Ieva Kieraite-Aleksandrova, Nomeda Kuisiene 2016 Vilnius University

Characterization Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From Krubera-Voronja Cave, Aiste Klusaite, Vida Vickackaite, Birute Vaitkeviciene, Rasa Karnickaite, Dominykas Bukelskis, Ieva Kieraite-Aleksandrova, Nomeda Kuisiene

International Journal of Speleology

In the present study we aimed to perform the first analysis of antimicrobial activity of bacteria isolated from Krubera-Voronja Cave, with the main focus on their activity against Grampositive bacteria, including Gram-positive pathogens. Using five different media, in total 874 heterotrophic cultures were isolated from water and sediment samples collected in Krubera-Voronja Cave at a depth from 220 m to 1640 m. 14.0% of all isolates demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative test microorganisms. Our results show that this percentage was not uniform; it increased with the sampling depth and was the highest in the lower part of ...


Fungi In The Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Mallory J. Suhr 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fungi In The Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Mallory J. Suhr

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented ...


Atp Luminescence Assay As A Bioburden Estimator Of Biomass Accumulation In Caves, Janez Mulec, Andreea Oarga-Mulec 2016 Karst Research Institute, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Atp Luminescence Assay As A Bioburden Estimator Of Biomass Accumulation In Caves, Janez Mulec, Andreea Oarga-Mulec

International Journal of Speleology

A commercially available adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection system (Hygiena, USA), supported by cultivable microbial indicators, was used to estimate bioburden in different habitats in and outside show caves: air, water and solid surfaces. A strong positive correlation between ATP concentration expressed as Relative Light Units (RLU) and Colony-Forming-Units (CFU) was observed for swab samples from cave surfaces. In terms of ATP units, surfaces in a single cave system (Postojna Cave) varied considerably (240-1,258,800 RLU/ 20 cm2) and commonly exceeded the bioburden level of analogues on the surface (0-114,390 RLU/ 20 cm2). Cave sub-habitats were colonized ...


Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr. 2016 Buffalo State College

Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr.

Biology Theses

Invasive plants often dominate novel habitats where they did not co-evolve with local species. Several hypotheses suggest mechanisms that explain increased exotic plant success, including 'novel weapons' and 'degraded mutualisms'. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) are widespread plant invaders in North America that can dominate ecosystems. The goal of this study is to test whether these impacts are more consistent with novel weapons or degraded mutualism hypotheses. I examine tree seedling recruitment, (germination and initial survival) growth, (biomass) and mycorrhizal invasion (AMF content) as a function of F. japonica and R. cathartica root exudates. Given that ...


Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt

Masters Theses

The deep biosphere is defined as the subsurface ecosystem in which little energy is available to microorganisms and microorganisms can live for thousands of years. Heterotrophic microbes survive in the deep biosphere even though organic matter is limited and highly recalcitrant in nature. Measuring microbial extracellular enzyme activity provides a potential means to evaluate the rate at which microorganisms are performing carbon remineralization in the energy limited sediment beneath the seafloor. Extracellular enzymes breakdown organic compounds so that the nutrients can move inside the cell and be used for energy. This study explored the role extracellular enzymes play in the ...


From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

This project aimed to implement the use of metal silos to improve quality and safety of maize consumed by inhabitants of the highlands of Guatemala. This manuscript includes a literature review of the maize production chain in Guatemala, a survey about agricultural practices used in the region of study, as well as a characterization of the analyzed maize regarding its mycoflora, nutritional composition, and insect infestation. To better understand the current situation regarding agricultural practices and maize consumption, a survey was carried out. Sample consisted of 280 families representing 14 rural communities distributed in the townships of Todos Santos and ...


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