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Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li 2021 The University of Maine

Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Potato early dying (PED) is a yield-constraining soilborne disease of potato, caused by Verticillium spp. with V. dahliae being the predominant causal agent. Since the pathogen inhabits soil for long periods, PED management aims to reduce the population of V. dahliae in soil. Benzovindiflupyr and azoxystrobin are effective chemicals and frequently used in the control of V. dahliae. In this study, field trials were conducted at Aroostook Farm, Presque Isle, ME in 2019 and 2020. Chemical and biological products have been studied for PED control, and fungicide resistance was also examined. To evaluate fungicide resistance, benzovindiflupyr was characterized on sensitivity ...


Spotted Salamander Egg Masses Exhibit A Unique Internal Microbiome In Relation To Their Environment, Elizabeth Leonard 2021 Liberty University

Spotted Salamander Egg Masses Exhibit A Unique Internal Microbiome In Relation To Their Environment, Elizabeth Leonard

Senior Honors Theses

Microbial studies have led to various ecological and medicinal discoveries. Amphibian eggs, like those of Ambystoma maculatum, exhibit natural resistance to bacterial invasion that may be microbiome related. The purpose of this research was to sequence the external and internal microbiome of A. maculatum egg masses and compare with the environmental microbiome. It was hypothesized that the external and internal microbiome would bear more similarity to each other than the water. A significant difference was observed between the microbiome of the inside surface of the egg mass and the water but not the outside surface of the egg and the ...


Factors Affecting The Epizootics Of Entomopathogenic Fungi-A Review, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Huda Bilal, Unsar Naeem Ullah:, Habib Ali, Hasnain Raza, Muhammad Wajid 2021 Institute of Plant Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan.

Factors Affecting The Epizootics Of Entomopathogenic Fungi-A Review, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Huda Bilal, Unsar Naeem Ullah:, Habib Ali, Hasnain Raza, Muhammad Wajid

Journal of Bioresource Management

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) specifically infect and kill insects can serve as a potential biological control agent. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect their occurrence, persistence, and epizootics caused by them. In biotic factors, fungi characters (host range, latency, spore density and dispersal, mainly host-pathogen compatibility), insect host factors (behavioral, morphological, and physiological), plant-mediated effects (plant architecture, surface chemistry, and leaf topology) are included supports or causes the barrier to mycobiopesticide. Abiotic factors which affect the EPF field persistence are mainly environmental (temperature, sunlight, humidity, rainfall) physical and chemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, E.c, moisture, C/N content, and ...


Plastic Biodegradation Through Insects And Their Symbionts Microbes: A Review, Huda Bilal, Hasnain Raza, Haseena Bibi, Tehmina Bibi 2021 Institute of Plant Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan.

Plastic Biodegradation Through Insects And Their Symbionts Microbes: A Review, Huda Bilal, Hasnain Raza, Haseena Bibi, Tehmina Bibi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Plastic waste has recently been identified as one of the most serious environmental issues, affecting all life forms, natural habitats, and the economy, and is one of the most serious global environmental problems, second only to climate change. Seeking alternative environmentally sustainable options, such as biodegradation instead of conventional disposal, is critical in the face of this challenge. However, there is currently a lack of information about the mechanisms and efficacy of plastic biodegradation. From this perspective, this study aims to illustrate the negative environmental impacts of the plastic waste. It also addresses the role of insects and gut microbiota ...


Metabolic Modeling Of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota From Patient Samples, Arsh Vyas 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Metabolic Modeling Of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota From Patient Samples, Arsh Vyas

Masters Theses

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder, found with higher prevalence in the Caucasian population, affecting > 30,000 individuals in the United States and > 70,000 worldwide. Due to the astoundingly high rate of mortality among CF patients being attributed to respiratory failure brought on by chronic bacterial infections and subsequent airway inflammation, there has been a lot of focus on systematically analyzing CF lung airway communities. While it is observed traditionally that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most threatening and persistent CF colonizer due to high antibiotic resistance, recent studies have elicited the roles of other pathogens and it has ...


Response Of The Soil Bacterial Community, Resistome, And Mobilome To A Decade Of Macrolide Antibiotic Contamination, Liam Paul Brown 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Response Of The Soil Bacterial Community, Resistome, And Mobilome To A Decade Of Macrolide Antibiotic Contamination, Liam Paul Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biosolids (treated sewage sludge) are used as agricultural fertilizer but are frequently contaminated with macrolide antibiotics, to which resistance is rising among historically susceptible bacteria. To determine if the land-application of macrolides carried in biosolids could promote antibiotic resistance in soil bacteria, soil plots were exposed annually to environmentally realistic or high doses of macrolides for ten years. I sequenced the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, metagenomic DNA, and integron gene cassettes within the treated and antibiotic-free soil to compare the compositions and diversities of the bacterial communities, antibiotic resistance genes, and mobile genetic elements. I determined that the high dose ...


Human Fecal Contamination Corresponds To Changes In The Freshwater Bacterial Communities Of A Large River Basin, Jill McClary-Gutierrez, Zac Driscoll, Cheryl Nenn 2021 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Human Fecal Contamination Corresponds To Changes In The Freshwater Bacterial Communities Of A Large River Basin, Jill Mcclary-Gutierrez, Zac Driscoll, Cheryl Nenn

Freshwater Faculty Articles

Microbial water quality is generally monitored by culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), which are intended to signal human health risk due to fecal pollution. However, FIB have limited utility in most urbanized watersheds as they do not discriminate among fecal pollution sources, tend to make up a small fraction of the total microbial community, and do not inform on pollution impacts on the native ecosystem. To move beyond these limitations, we assessed entire bacterial communities and investigated how bacterial diversity relates to traditional ecological and human health-relevant water quality indicators throughout the Milwaukee River Basin. Samples were collected from 16 ...


A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

A Novel Approach for Characterizing the Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community

Students: Abdullah Salim, Priscilla Pineda, Isabella Alamilla

Mentors/Supervisors: Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

ABSTRACT

The ultra-micro size-fraction (UMSF) are bacteria that can pass through the 0.2 µm pore membrane filters employed in environmental surveys. Despite being ubiquitous and having high metabolic activity, UMSF remain elusive and largely uncultured. Investigations of UMSF are skewed by difficulties in culturing and a lack of techniques for measuring UMSF biogeochemical signatures. This study measures surface stream UMSF community diversity, and community response to the addition of the synthetic pharmaceutical and cosmetic carbon product ...


Soil Bacteria: Metabolic Diversity In A Wildlife Management Area, Nicholas Green 2021 Kennesaw State University

Soil Bacteria: Metabolic Diversity In A Wildlife Management Area, Nicholas Green

Symposium of Student Scholars

This research is part of a larger study linking the soil microbiome and processes to the aboveground plant community.

Soil samples were collected from six plots under closed canopy in the Sheffield Wildlife management area in the Piedmont ecoregion of Georgia in Paulding County. Two of the plots were located in the longleaf pine savanna where restoration of longleaf pine has been in place since 2010. Samples were collected in sterile plastic tubes at the center of each plot and 10 meters above and below the center. For each sample, soil pH and the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P ...


Glide Another Day: Characterization Of Wild Isolates Of Predatory Myxobacteria, Daniella Krakue, Juan Vasquez, Simone Dakare 2021 Kennesaw State University

Glide Another Day: Characterization Of Wild Isolates Of Predatory Myxobacteria, Daniella Krakue, Juan Vasquez, Simone Dakare

Symposium of Student Scholars

Myxobacteria belongs to a group of predatory bacteria that are found in various soil environments. They are exceptionally unique microbes who use their gliding motility to move towards prey microbes and consume them. They also have the remarkable ability to produce secondary metabolites that have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor properties. For this reason, they are of interest to us so that we can understand their abilities and apply them to discover their potential as a source of novel metabolites with potential therapeutic applications. Our methodology began by collecting soil samples from various sites around the country. We then standardized ...


Community Level Physiological Profiling Of The Longleaf Pine Savannah Microbiome, Gavin Treadaway 2021 Kennesaw State University

Community Level Physiological Profiling Of The Longleaf Pine Savannah Microbiome, Gavin Treadaway

Symposium of Student Scholars

Soil microorganisms secrete chemicals into their surroundings, which the root system will uptake and in return release root exudates, which usually consist of low-molecular-weight organic compounds. These root exudates behave as signaling molecules and substrates for microorganisms to recruit beneficial soil bacteria to the plant root system, which will provide the plants with immunity to foliar diseases and pathogen infection. Studies have shown that bacteria on the root surface can protect aerial sections of the plant by promoting induced systemic resistance, a mechanism of increasing physical or chemical barriers of the plant.

The longleaf pine is an endangered species of ...


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and ...


Investigation Of Shocked Basalts From Vargeão Dome And Vista Alegre: Implications For The Search For Life On Mars, Nikol Posnov 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Shocked Basalts From Vargeão Dome And Vista Alegre: Implications For The Search For Life On Mars, Nikol Posnov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact craters represent excellent astrobiological targets for planetary exploration missions to Mars. The impact of an asteroid or comet into a crystalline, H2O-bearing target may result in development of a hydrothermal system and increase the habitability of the substrate for the colonization of endolithic microorganisms. Given that Mars’ surface is covered by cratered basaltic rock, this study investigated target rocks and impact breccias from Vargeão Dome and Vista Alegre impact structures that formed in basalt in the Paraná Basin of Brazil.

Utilizing petrography and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD), the degree of shock metamorphism in plagioclase was quantitively determined. Measuring ...


Lead And Cadmium Detoxification By Halophilic Bacteria Isolated From Solar Salterns In Lebanon, Nadine G. Zmorrod N. G. Zmorrod, Nawal Al Hakawati, Ranya A. Amer, Hoda H. Yusef 2021 PhD Candidate , Faculty of Science , Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Lead And Cadmium Detoxification By Halophilic Bacteria Isolated From Solar Salterns In Lebanon, Nadine G. Zmorrod N. G. Zmorrod, Nawal Al Hakawati, Ranya A. Amer, Hoda H. Yusef

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Water contamination by heavy metals has gained considerable attention globally. These inorganic pollutants can enter the aquatic environments via different routes thereby threatening biodiversity and human health. Lead and cadmium are hazardous pollutants where their removal by traditional techniques is identified to be costly and ineffective. However, bioremediation by extremophilic microorganisms is considered to be a promising technique as they have considerable potentials to grow in harsh environmental conditions. The present study deals with the isolation of halophilic bacterial isolates from solar salterns in North Lebanon. The isolate H1S9 was identified as Halomonas venusta H9 after showing tolerance to 500 ...


Comparative Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Of Ruminal Fluid And Feces Of Nelore Steers (Bos Indicus), Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Banny Silva Barbosa Correia, Caroline Ceribeli, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, James Mark Reecy, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares, Alexandre Berndt, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano 2021 Embrapa Southeast Livestock

Comparative Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Of Ruminal Fluid And Feces Of Nelore Steers (Bos Indicus), Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Banny Silva Barbosa Correia, Caroline Ceribeli, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, James Mark Reecy, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares, Alexandre Berndt, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano

Animal Science Publications

We conducted a study to identify the fecal metabolite profile and its proximity to the ruminal metabolism of Nelore steers based on an untargeted metabolomic approach. Twenty-six Nelore were feedlot with same diet during 105 d. Feces and rumen fluid were collected before and at slaughter, respectively. The metabolomics analysis indicated 49 common polar metabolites in the rumen and feces. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate were the most abundant polar metabolites in both bio-samples. The rumen presented significantly higher concentrations of the polar compounds when compared to feces (P < 0.05); even though, fecal metabolites presented an accentuated representability of the ruminal fluid metabolites. All fatty acids present in the ruminal fluid were also observed in the feces, except for C20:2n6 and C20:4n6. The identified metabolites offer information on the main metabolic pathways (higher impact factor and P < 0.05), as synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; the alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolisms, the glycine, serine; and threonine metabolism and the pyruvate metabolism. The findings reported herein on the close relationship between the ruminal fluid and feces metabolic profiles may offer new metabolic information, in addition to facilitating the sampling for metabolism investigation in animal production and health routines.


Structure Of Chimpanzee Gut Microbiomes Across Tropical Africa, Clifton P. Bueno de Mesquita, Lauren M. Nichols, Matthew J. Gebert, Caihong Vanderburgh, Gaëlle Bocksberger, Jack D. Lester, Ammie K. Kalan, Paula Dieguez, Maureen S. McCarthy, Anthony Agbor, Paula Álvarez Varona, Ayuk Emmanuel Ayimisin, Mattia Bessone, Rebecca Chancellor, Heather Cohen, Charlotte Coupland, Tobias Deschner, Villard Ebot Egbe, Annemarie Goedmakers, Anne-Céline Granjon, Cyril C. Grueter, Josephine Head, R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Sorrel Jones, Parag Kadam, Michael Kaiser, Juan Lapuente, Bradley Larson, Sergio Marrocoli, David Morgan, Badru Mugerwa, Felix Mulindahabi, Emily Neil, Protais Niyigaba, Liliana Pacheco, Alex K. Piel, Martha M. Robbins, Aaron S. Rundus, Crickette M. Sanz, Lilah Sciaky, Douglas Sheil, Volker Sommer, Fiona A. Stewart, Els Ton, Joost van Schijndel, Virginie Vergnes, Erin G. Wessling, Roman M. Wittig, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Kyle Yurkiw, Klaus Zuberbühler, Jan F. Gogarten, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Noah Fierer, Mimi Arandjelovic, Robert R. Dunn 2021 University of Colorado, Boulder

Structure Of Chimpanzee Gut Microbiomes Across Tropical Africa, Clifton P. Bueno De Mesquita, Lauren M. Nichols, Matthew J. Gebert, Caihong Vanderburgh, Gaëlle Bocksberger, Jack D. Lester, Ammie K. Kalan, Paula Dieguez, Maureen S. Mccarthy, Anthony Agbor, Paula Álvarez Varona, Ayuk Emmanuel Ayimisin, Mattia Bessone, Rebecca Chancellor, Heather Cohen, Charlotte Coupland, Tobias Deschner, Villard Ebot Egbe, Annemarie Goedmakers, Anne-Céline Granjon, Cyril C. Grueter, Josephine Head, R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Sorrel Jones, Parag Kadam, Michael Kaiser, Juan Lapuente, Bradley Larson, Sergio Marrocoli, David Morgan, Badru Mugerwa, Felix Mulindahabi, Emily Neil, Protais Niyigaba, Liliana Pacheco, Alex K. Piel, Martha M. Robbins, Aaron S. Rundus, Crickette M. Sanz, Lilah Sciaky, Douglas Sheil, Volker Sommer, Fiona A. Stewart, Els Ton, Joost Van Schijndel, Virginie Vergnes, Erin G. Wessling, Roman M. Wittig, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Kyle Yurkiw, Klaus Zuberbühler, Jan F. Gogarten, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Noah Fierer, Mimi Arandjelovic, Robert R. Dunn

Psychology Faculty Publications

Understanding variation in host-associated microbial communities is important given the relevance of microbiomes to host physiology and health. Using 560 fecal samples collected from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across their range, we assessed how geography, genetics, climate, vegetation, and diet relate to gut microbial community structure (prokaryotes, eukaryotic parasites) at multiple spatial scales. We observed a high degree of regional specificity in the microbiome composition, which was associated with host genetics, available plant foods, and potentially with cultural differences in tool use, which affect diet. Genetic differences drove community composition at large scales, while vegetation and potentially tool use drove ...


Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool 2021 CUNY Queens College

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool

Student Theses

The presence of Legionella pneumophila was assessed using a cultivation-based approach in New York City waterways, a freshwater portion of the lower Hudson River Estuary near Kingston NY, and in urban and suburban street water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 51% of brackish New York City Estuary samples, most with concentrations near minimum detection (=>1 organism/ mL). In contrast, it was detected in 22% of suburban freshwater Hudson River Estuary samples. Levels of the bacterium were found to be higher during wet weather compared to dry weather in the highly dense urban setting, but not in the less dense suburban ...


Evidence For Perchlorate-Coupled Molybdenum And Nickel Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Co Oxidation And Characterization Of Novel Perchlorate-Reducing Haloarchaea, Marisa Russell Myers 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Evidence For Perchlorate-Coupled Molybdenum And Nickel Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Co Oxidation And Characterization Of Novel Perchlorate-Reducing Haloarchaea, Marisa Russell Myers

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Carbon monoxide (CO) has been exploited as a microbial energy source for much of life’s evolutionary history. A phylogenetically diverse array of microorganisms can oxidize CO using two distinct CO dehydrogenases, molybdenum-dependent (Mo-CODH) and nickel-dependent (Ni-CODH). Aerobes and facultative organisms contain Mo-CODHs which allow them to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor in addition to alternatives such as nitrate and sulfate. Obligate anaerobic organisms contain Ni-CODHs, which oxidize CO at elevated concentrations, but cannot utilize oxygen. In systems where organic matter deposits are limited or absent, atmospheric trace gases such as CO are thought to assist in supporting the ...


Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle 2021 Kennesaw State University

Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background/Questions/Methods

The introduction of the Chinese chestnut blight in 1904 decimated native American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) populations. In this study we aim to: 1) document the location of individual chestnuts in our vicinity; 2) document healthy versus blight infected individuals; 3) characterize putative differences in the soil microbiome between infected and non-infected individuals, as well as between chestnuts and hardwood neighbors. With this information we hope to provide new insights into mechanisms that may enhance blight and fungal resistance in American chestnuts through the understanding of the interactions between the trees and their surrounding soil microbiome ...


Fungi Associated With Herbaceous Plants In Coastal Northern California, Greg Huffman 2021 Dominican University of California

Fungi Associated With Herbaceous Plants In Coastal Northern California, Greg Huffman

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Biological Sciences Master's Theses

The presence of fungal species associated with herbaceous plants was monitored in coastal Marin County, California, USA. The research involved a combination of field sampling surveys and data collection using a stratified random design, pathogen identification through microbiological and molecular analysis, and descriptive analysis and ordination of results. A total of two years of repeated sampling (four times a year) was organized to allow for the detection of seasonal differences in pathogen presence on aerial plant parts. The objective of this study was to identify microbial species present on herbaceous plants using ITS1 sequence analysis. Throughout March of 2018 to ...


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