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Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

Stream metabolism is a critical functional measure of stream health that integrates physical parameters like slope and discharge, with ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and respiration. Stream metabolism is widely studied; however, urban stream metabolism remains poorly understood. Stream metabolism was measured for five streams ranging from 1st to 5th orders from October 11th to October 18th 2017 and four streams ranging from 1st to 4th order from October 22nd to 25th 2017 located within an approximately 9.3 square kilometer watershed of Rock Island, IL that has an urban to suburban type ...


Synechococcus As An Hooh-Consuming Helper For Prochlorococcus, Abigail Mcgettigan Jarratt 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Synechococcus As An Hooh-Consuming Helper For Prochlorococcus, Abigail Mcgettigan Jarratt

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is an abundant and globally important microbe that contributes an estimated 40% of bacterial production in the oligotrophic ocean. The success of this photosynthetic bacterium is largely a consequence of its small cell size and streamlined genome, which are advantageous in nutrient-limited environments. However, this genomic streamlining has also led to the loss of the gene (katG) encoding catalase, an enzyme that is essential for the degradation and detoxification of the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). HOOH is naturally present in the illuminated waters of the ocean, and in the absence of catalase, Prochlorococcus is ...


Examining Manganese Oxidation In Bacteria Through Bioinformatics And Environmental Sampling, T'onna Collins 2018 Lynchburg College

Examining Manganese Oxidation In Bacteria Through Bioinformatics And Environmental Sampling, T'Onna Collins

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

Manganese is an essential element for all living things. Manganese plays a role in geochemical cycles, like the nitrogen fixation cycle and the oxygen-evolving complex. The focus of this study is the manganese oxidation mechanism. Manganese oxidation plays a role in metabolic and antioxidant processes. Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is commonly used to study the process of manganese oxidation in bacteria. We used the previously identified Mn-oxidase genes, mopA, mnxG and mcoA, from P. putida GB-1 to look for conservation of manganese oxidation in other organisms. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) was used to find homologs of these three genes ...


Sulfur Cave (Romania), An Extreme Environment With Microbial Mats In A Co2-H2S/O2 Gas Chemocline Dominated By Mycobacteria, Serban M. Sarbu, Joost W. Aerts, Jean-François Flot, Rob J.M. Van Spanning, Calin Baciu, Artur Ionescu, Boglárka M. Kis, Reka Incze, Sándor Sikó-Barabási, Zoltan Para, Botond Hegyeli, Nicu-Viorel Atudorei, Casey Barr, Kenneth Nealson, Ferenc L. Forray, Cristian Lascu, Emily J. Fleming, Wilbert Bitter, Radu Popa 2018 California State University, Chico

Sulfur Cave (Romania), An Extreme Environment With Microbial Mats In A Co2-H2S/O2 Gas Chemocline Dominated By Mycobacteria, Serban M. Sarbu, Joost W. Aerts, Jean-François Flot, Rob J.M. Van Spanning, Calin Baciu, Artur Ionescu, Boglárka M. Kis, Reka Incze, Sándor Sikó-Barabási, Zoltan Para, Botond Hegyeli, Nicu-Viorel Atudorei, Casey Barr, Kenneth Nealson, Ferenc L. Forray, Cristian Lascu, Emily J. Fleming, Wilbert Bitter, Radu Popa

International Journal of Speleology

Sulfur Cave (Puturosu Mountain, Romania) is an extreme environment, unique for displaying life in a gas chemocline. The lower part of the cave is filled with CO2, CH4, and H2S of mofettic origin, while the upper part contains air that floats above the heavier volcanic gasses. S° and H2SO4 (from sulfur-oxidation) cover the cave wall at and below the CO2-H2S:O2 gas/gas interface. On the cave wall, near the interface the pH is < 1 and unusual microbial biofilms occur on the rock’s surface. We provide context information on the geology, mineralogy, chemistry and biology to better understand this unique environment. We have used X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDAX capabilities, stable isotope analysis and 16S and 18S rDNA amplicon sequencing. The most common taxa in the microbial biofilms are Mycobacteria, Acidithiobacillus and Ferroplasmaceae. Liquid water in this system originates solely from condensation of water ...


Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogenesis is the biological production of methane. Only anaerobic archaea known as methanogens are capable of such a metabolic feat. They have strict living conditions and substrate sources which determine their rate of metabolism. This is of particular importance from a greenhouse gas reduction perspective or biogas capturing perspective. One of the best ways to optimize methanogen methane production is via genetic manipulation. The current procedures are timely though, therefore a faster cloning processes should be developed. The objective of this study was to optimize a premade genetic transformation kit known as the Gibson Kit. The Gibson Kit was supposed ...


Chloride Salt Inhibition On Lipid Production In Wastewater-Grown Algae For Biofuel Production, Will Richardson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Chloride Salt Inhibition On Lipid Production In Wastewater-Grown Algae For Biofuel Production, Will Richardson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Algae are increasingly being recognized as useful organisms for many applications in today’s world. Their ability to remove nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace metals from water while adding oxygen to water makes them an attractive tertiary treatment technology in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. At the same time, algae produce lipids and carbohydrates that are useful for biofuel production, and they are not a human food crop unlike many biofuel feedstocks. In this study the effect of increased chloride concentrations in wastewater was assessed on the ability of two species of algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus, to function as a ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Isolation And Identification Of A Chloromethane-Degrading Bacterium From A Strictly Anaerobic Mixed Culture, Samiha Sadruddin 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Isolation And Identification Of A Chloromethane-Degrading Bacterium From A Strictly Anaerobic Mixed Culture, Samiha Sadruddin

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria In Water Environments In Louisville, Kentucky., Amy Priest 2018 University of Louisville

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria In Water Environments In Louisville, Kentucky., Amy Priest

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Antibiotic resistant bacterial strains are an increasing problem, particularly in clinical health care settings. As a result, bacterial infections are becoming increasingly challenging to treat with more cases becoming life threatening. Aquatic environments facilitate microbial diversity and the transfer of genetic elements and thus may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic resistant microbes. Human misuse of antibiotics may further facilitate the spread of resistance in water environments. With little known about the bacteria communities in local water environments, this study aimed to learn more about these populations through the following aims: 1) identify the microbial community composition from water environments ...


Predator-By-Environment Interactions Mediate Bacterial Competition In The Dictyostelium Discoideum Microbiome, R Fredrik Inglis, Odion Asikhia, Erica Ryu, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Predator-By-Environment Interactions Mediate Bacterial Competition In The Dictyostelium Discoideum Microbiome, R Fredrik Inglis, Odion Asikhia, Erica Ryu, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Interactions between species and their environment play a key role in the evolution of diverse communities, and numerous studies have emphasized that interactions among microbes and among trophic levels play an important role in maintaining microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we investigate how two of these types of interactions, public goods cooperation through the production of iron scavenging siderophores and predation by the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, mediate competition between two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens that were co-isolated from D. discoideum. We find that although we are able to generally predict the competitive outcomes between strains based ...


The Effects Of Salt Concentration On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Crp1 Gene Expression, Anna Sapone, Rachel Tremaine,, Katie Mchugh 2018 Carroll College

The Effects Of Salt Concentration On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Crp1 Gene Expression, Anna Sapone, Rachel Tremaine,, Katie Mchugh

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The use of salt to remove ice from roads has resulted in increased salinity in many freshwater lakes in North America. For this project, we wanted to explore how environmental salt concentrations influence the rate of growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and expression of the CRP1 gene. We hypothesized that if the sodium concentration is increased in the media, Tetrahymena growth would decrease and expression of the CRP1 gene would increase. The CRP1 gene encodes a protein that helps regulate calcium concentrations within a cell based on the concentration of sodium ions. The media of the experimental group was treated with ...


Interactions And Growth Dynamics Of Prochlorococcus, Rhodospirilaceae, And Alteromonas In A Coculture Environment, Vasily Giovanni Carniello 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Interactions And Growth Dynamics Of Prochlorococcus, Rhodospirilaceae, And Alteromonas In A Coculture Environment, Vasily Giovanni Carniello

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Interactions between different species of microorganisms have a significant role in the growth dynamics within the environment. (Morris 08) The specifics mechanisms of these interactions, however, are overall poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to study the interactions between the heterotrophs Rhodospirilaceae (EZ54), and Alteromonas (EZ55) and the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus (Vol 1). Here we establish the effects the cyanobacterium has on the growth dynamics of each of the heterotrophs as well as the effect the two heterotrophs have on one another.


Detection, Activity Measurement And Phylogeny Of Ureolytic Bacteria Isolated From Elasmobranch Tissue, yimu Yang 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Detection, Activity Measurement And Phylogeny Of Ureolytic Bacteria Isolated From Elasmobranch Tissue, Yimu Yang

Master's Theses

Free-ranging marine elasmobranch tissue-associated micro-organisms were cultured from free-ranging Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) and Atlantic sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae). 16S rRNA gene phylogeny indicated bacteria community structure in both elasmobranchs were under phylum Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. By conducting split-plot ANOVA, we found the microbial richness is significantly different (P=0.0814) between two superorders of elasmobranch, which may largely due to their preferred habitats and feeding habits. Urease presentence and activity was detected in phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains. Species with high urea-hydrolyzing ability, such as Micrococcus luteus (shark blood isolate: 46.84 mU/mg protein; stingray blood isolate: 24 ...


Tracking A Tree-Killer: Improving Detection And Characterizing Species Distribution Of Phytophthora Cinnamomi In Appalachian Forests, Kenton L. Sena 2018 University of Kentucky

Tracking A Tree-Killer: Improving Detection And Characterizing Species Distribution Of Phytophthora Cinnamomi In Appalachian Forests, Kenton L. Sena

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Phytophthora cinnamomi is a soil-borne oomycete pathogen causing root rot in susceptible host species. P. cinnamomi is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia, but has since been introduced to many regions around the world, where it causes dramatic declines in many forest tree species. In the eastern US, the primary susceptible tree species of concern are American chestnut (Castanea dentata), white oak (Quercus alba), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). American chestnut, functionally eliminated in the early 1900s by the rapidly acting chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), has been the subject of decades-long breeding efforts aimed at improving chestnut resistance to ...


Photosynthetic Activity Under Low Light, Danijela Lonco 2018 The University of Akron

Photosynthetic Activity Under Low Light, Danijela Lonco

Honors Research Projects

Are bacteria capable of undergoing oxygenic photosynthesis under low-light conditions inside of caves? Inside of an Australian cave, Chlorophyll f was recently discovered. This chlorophyll pigment was found to demonstrate the capability for photosynthesis, suggesting that Chlorophyll f extends the spectrum of usable light needed for oxygenic photosynthesis (Lars, 2015). Due to the findings in this study, a team went to Carlsbad Caverns to see if there were any bacteria capable of undergoing oxygenic photosynthesis under low light.


Bioassessment Of A Drinking Water Reservoir Using Plankton: High Throughput Sequencing Vs. Traditional Morphological Method, Wanli Gao, Zhaojin Chen, Yuying Li, Yangdong Pan, Jingya Zhu, Shijun Guo, Lanqun Hu, Jin Huang 2018 Nanyang Normal University

Bioassessment Of A Drinking Water Reservoir Using Plankton: High Throughput Sequencing Vs. Traditional Morphological Method, Wanli Gao, Zhaojin Chen, Yuying Li, Yangdong Pan, Jingya Zhu, Shijun Guo, Lanqun Hu, Jin Huang

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Drinking water safety is increasingly perceived as one of the top global environmental issues. Plankton has been commonly used as a bioindicator for water quality in lakes and reservoirs. Recently, DNA sequencing technology has been applied to bioassessment. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of the 16S and 18S rRNA high throughput sequencing method (HTS) and the traditional optical microscopy method (TOM) in the bioassessment of drinking water quality. Five stations reflecting different habitats and hydrological conditions in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia, were sampled May 2016. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed ...


Abundance Of Methanosaeta Concilii-Like Species In The Sediment Of Ledbetter Creek Embayment Of Kentucky Lake, Juanita Von Dwingelo 2018 Murray State University

Abundance Of Methanosaeta Concilii-Like Species In The Sediment Of Ledbetter Creek Embayment Of Kentucky Lake, Juanita Von Dwingelo

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Reservoirs, including Kentucky Lake, are unique in that they do not follow a natural cycle of rising during the rainy seasons and dropping during the dry summers. The lake is manipulated, mainly for flood control and transportation, so that the water level is increased during the summer months and decreased during the winter months. This manipulation leaves the littoral sediment of the lake submerged in the summer and exposed in the winter. The seasonal water level, along with other factors, like farming practices in the watershed, contributes to the availability of nutrients for organisms inhabiting the sediment of the lake ...


Nutritional Regulation Of Sulfonamide Antibiotic Biodegradation By Microbacterium Sp. Strain C448, Tonya Malcolm 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Nutritional Regulation Of Sulfonamide Antibiotic Biodegradation By Microbacterium Sp. Strain C448, Tonya Malcolm

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sulfonamide antibiotics are frequently released into the environment due to their widespread use in livestock production, imposing a potential selection pressure for the development and dissemination of sulfonamide resistance. Recently, a sulfonamide-degrading bacterium Microbacterium sp. Strain C448 was discovered, whose activity has the potential to be used as a sulfonamide removal strategy from agricultural soils. This research gains insight into the sulfonamide biodegradation pathway by 1) evaluating the nutritional regulation of sulfamethazine biodegradation and 2) undertaking a comparative proteomic analysis of cells grown in the presence and in the absence of sulfamethazine. The nutritional analyses revealed that increasing amounts of ...


Quantatative Analysis Of Microbial Abundance Within Arctic Fjord Sediments Assessed Through Direct Counting, Alex Taylor Swystun 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Quantatative Analysis Of Microbial Abundance Within Arctic Fjord Sediments Assessed Through Direct Counting, Alex Taylor Swystun

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Microbes found in the marine sediments are responsible for the production of nearly half of the carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere (Arrigo, 2005). The fjords of Svalbard (79°N) are not considered typical marine sediments because high iron content influences unique subsurface redox chemistry. Radiotracer studies have shown that these sediments contain active bacterial sulfate-reducing communities (Finke et al., 2016). In addition to bacteria, archaeal cells within these sediments have been in aggregates encompassed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Ravenschlag et al., 2001). These anaerobic organisms participate in mediating environmental biogeochemical cycles, including the oxidation of methane (Ravenschlag et al., 2001 ...


Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Through their transformation of naturally occurring organic matter, coastal marine bacteria play an essential role in carbon cycling. A phenomenon termed the priming effect (PE) occurs when microbial communities remineralize recalcitrant organic matter faster in the presence of labile organic matter and may be prevalent in coastal systems. To understand how microbial community members interact to induce PE, it is essential to first understand the mechanisms underlying PE in single strains and simplified bacterial communities. The effect to which different concentrations and sources of labile carbon stimulated the production of bacterial biomass from riverine organic matter by two marine bacteria ...


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