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Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Novakova, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez 2017 Sofia University

Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Novakova, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez

International Journal of Speleology

Magura Cave, north-western Bulgaria, possesses valuable rock-art paintings made with bat guano and dated from the period between the Eneolithic and Bronze Ages. Since 2008, the Art Gallery is closed to the general public in order to protect the paintings from vandalism, microclimatic changes caused by visitors and artificial illumination, and the consequent growth of fungi and phototrophs. Nevertheless, some tourist visits are allowed under the supervision of cave managers. This study provides the first scientific report on cultivable fungal assemblages dwelling different substrata in the Art Gallery. A total of 78 strains, belonging to 37 OTUs (Ascomycota 81%, Zygomycota ...


Beyond The Obvious: Emerging Contaminants And Biogeochemistry As A Cause And Solution For Nitrogen Pollution, Stephanie L. DeVries 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Beyond The Obvious: Emerging Contaminants And Biogeochemistry As A Cause And Solution For Nitrogen Pollution, Stephanie L. Devries

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Following a comprehensive review of the occurrence and impacts of antibiotics and related pharmaceutical compounds on the terrestrial N-cycle, three experiments were performed to explore the topic of biogeochemistry as a source or a sink for N-pollution. The first of these experiments addresses the question of whether environmentally relevant concentrations of antibiotics (µg·kg-1) have a significant effect on denitrification or N2O production, a question that has not been well addressed in previous studies. Having determined that there is a significant shift, the second study aims to comprehensively follow changes to soil N pools and N2 ...


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


The Influence Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) Leaf Litter On Aquatic Chemistry And Microbial Community Composition, Raymond D. Montez 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

The Influence Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) Leaf Litter On Aquatic Chemistry And Microbial Community Composition, Raymond D. Montez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change and anthropogenic activity have facilitated the movement and invasive potential of nonnative plants in native environments. These invasions can have negative effects on ecosystem diversity and function. The nonnative and invasive plant, Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera), has already invaded much of the south eastern US where it is outcompeting native tree species and changing ecosystem diversity in a variety of habitats. Leaf litter from the Chinese tallow has been shown cause changes in dissolved oxygen and pH in the aquatic environment. Turbidity is also affected when Chinese tallow litter is present in water. A series of experiments ...


Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman

Master's Theses

Anurans are mass spawners, often with multiple females spawning together, resulting in thousands of tadpoles sharing a habitat. Such large numbers of tadpoles with limited dispersal can lead to intense competition for resources. Inter and intra-specific competition for food could have negative impacts on the growth and survival of smaller tadpoles. Fecal bacterial communities have the potential to be used as indicators of changes in diet making it possible to determine if tadpoles in the wild are eating the same food or not. After feeding on two prepared diets that differed in the percentage of complex carbohydrates, the fecal bacterial ...


Molecular And Ecological Aspects Of The Interactions Between Aureococcus Anophagefferens And Its Giant Virus, Mohammad Moniruzzaman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular And Ecological Aspects Of The Interactions Between Aureococcus Anophagefferens And Its Giant Virus, Mohammad Moniruzzaman

Doctoral Dissertations

Viruses are increasingly being recognized as an important biotic component of all ecosystems including agents that control the rapid ecological events that are harmful algal blooms (HABS). Aureococcus anophagefferens is a pelagophyte which causes recurrent ecosystem devastating brown tide blooms along the east coast of the USA and has recently spread to China and South Africa. It has been suggested that a large virus (AaV) is possibly an important agent for demise of brown tide blooms. This observation is consistent with the recognition of a number of other giant viruses modulating algal blooms in marine systems. In this dissertation, we ...


Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Plant-Biocrust Interactions Mediated By The Fungal Loop, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson 2016 University of New Mexico

Plant-Biocrust Interactions Mediated By The Fungal Loop, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson

Biology ETDs

Plant-microbial interactions influence biogeochemical cycles. Plants and biological soil crusts are primary producers in drylands. Biocrusts include cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, algae, fungi, bacteria, and archaea on the soil surface, some of which fix atmospheric nitrogen. I investigated controls on biocrust carbon fluxes and their contribution to ecosystem fluxes, the incorporation of plant-derived carbon into biocrusts, and the role of soil fungi in promoting performance of plants and biocrusts. Biocrusts responded to temperature and moisture differently by biome. Biocrusts in grasslands/shrublands contributed >25% of total summertime ecosystem respiration, but biocrusts in savannas/woodlands contributed <1%. Biocrusts contributed <2% to GPP in any biome. To augment their native photosynthesis, biocrusts may include 16% plant-derived carbon. Fungal connections improved plant and biocrust performance and reduced differences in the CN ratio between organisms compared to when connections were impeded. Investigation of interactions among biocrusts, plants, and fungi has improved understanding of resource cycling in drylands.


Hydrothermal Venting And Mineralization In The Crater Of Kick’Em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles), Steven Carey, Rene Olsen, Katherine L. C. Bell, Robert Ballard, Frederic Dondin, Chris Roman, Clara Smart, Marvin Lilley, John Lupton, Brad Seibel, Winton Cornell, Craig L. Moyer 2016 Western Washington University

Hydrothermal Venting And Mineralization In The Crater Of Kick’Em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles), Steven Carey, Rene Olsen, Katherine L. C. Bell, Robert Ballard, Frederic Dondin, Chris Roman, Clara Smart, Marvin Lilley, John Lupton, Brad Seibel, Winton Cornell, Craig L. Moyer

Craig L. Moyer

Kick’em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~70 3 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180ᵒC. The gas consists ...


Characterization Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From Krubera-Voronja Cave, Aiste Klusaite, Vida Vickackaite, Birute Vaitkeviciene, Rasa Karnickaite, Dominykas Bukelskis, Ieva Kieraite-Aleksandrova, Nomeda Kuisiene 2016 Vilnius University

Characterization Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From Krubera-Voronja Cave, Aiste Klusaite, Vida Vickackaite, Birute Vaitkeviciene, Rasa Karnickaite, Dominykas Bukelskis, Ieva Kieraite-Aleksandrova, Nomeda Kuisiene

International Journal of Speleology

In the present study we aimed to perform the first analysis of antimicrobial activity of bacteria isolated from Krubera-Voronja Cave, with the main focus on their activity against Grampositive bacteria, including Gram-positive pathogens. Using five different media, in total 874 heterotrophic cultures were isolated from water and sediment samples collected in Krubera-Voronja Cave at a depth from 220 m to 1640 m. 14.0% of all isolates demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative test microorganisms. Our results show that this percentage was not uniform; it increased with the sampling depth and was the highest in the lower part of ...


Fungi In The Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Mallory J. Suhr 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fungi In The Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Mallory J. Suhr

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented ...


Atp Luminescence Assay As A Bioburden Estimator Of Biomass Accumulation In Caves, Janez Mulec, Andreea Oarga-Mulec 2016 Karst Research Institute, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Atp Luminescence Assay As A Bioburden Estimator Of Biomass Accumulation In Caves, Janez Mulec, Andreea Oarga-Mulec

International Journal of Speleology

A commercially available adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection system (Hygiena, USA), supported by cultivable microbial indicators, was used to estimate bioburden in different habitats in and outside show caves: air, water and solid surfaces. A strong positive correlation between ATP concentration expressed as Relative Light Units (RLU) and Colony-Forming-Units (CFU) was observed for swab samples from cave surfaces. In terms of ATP units, surfaces in a single cave system (Postojna Cave) varied considerably (240-1,258,800 RLU/ 20 cm2) and commonly exceeded the bioburden level of analogues on the surface (0-114,390 RLU/ 20 cm2). Cave sub-habitats were colonized ...


Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr. 2016 Buffalo State College

Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr.

Biology Theses

Invasive plants often dominate novel habitats where they did not co-evolve with local species. Several hypotheses suggest mechanisms that explain increased exotic plant success, including 'novel weapons' and 'degraded mutualisms'. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) are widespread plant invaders in North America that can dominate ecosystems. The goal of this study is to test whether these impacts are more consistent with novel weapons or degraded mutualism hypotheses. I examine tree seedling recruitment, (germination and initial survival) growth, (biomass) and mycorrhizal invasion (AMF content) as a function of F. japonica and R. cathartica root exudates. Given that ...


Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt

Masters Theses

The deep biosphere is defined as the subsurface ecosystem in which little energy is available to microorganisms and microorganisms can live for thousands of years. Heterotrophic microbes survive in the deep biosphere even though organic matter is limited and highly recalcitrant in nature. Measuring microbial extracellular enzyme activity provides a potential means to evaluate the rate at which microorganisms are performing carbon remineralization in the energy limited sediment beneath the seafloor. Extracellular enzymes breakdown organic compounds so that the nutrients can move inside the cell and be used for energy. This study explored the role extracellular enzymes play in the ...


From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

This project aimed to implement the use of metal silos to improve quality and safety of maize consumed by inhabitants of the highlands of Guatemala. This manuscript includes a literature review of the maize production chain in Guatemala, a survey about agricultural practices used in the region of study, as well as a characterization of the analyzed maize regarding its mycoflora, nutritional composition, and insect infestation. To better understand the current situation regarding agricultural practices and maize consumption, a survey was carried out. Sample consisted of 280 families representing 14 rural communities distributed in the townships of Todos Santos and ...


Bioaugmentation And Correlating Anaerobic Digester Microbial Community To Process Function, Kaushik Venkiteshwaran 2016 Marquette University

Bioaugmentation And Correlating Anaerobic Digester Microbial Community To Process Function, Kaushik Venkiteshwaran

Dissertations (2009 -)

This dissertation describes two research projects on anaerobic digestion (AD) that investigated the relationship between microbial community structure and digester function. Both archaeal and bacterial communities were characterized using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing technology with universal 16S rRNA gene primers. In the first project, bioaugmentation using a methanogenic, aerotolerant propionate enrichment culture was investigated as a possible method to increase digester methane production. Nine anaerobic digesters, seeded with different biomass, were operated identically and their quasi steady state function was compared. Before bioaugmentation, different seed biomass resulted in different quasi steady state function, with digesters clustering into high, medium or low ...


Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Most animal–microbe symbiotic interactions must be advantageous to the host and provide nutritional benefits to the endosymbiont. When the host provides nutrients, it can gain the capacity to control the interaction, promote self-growth, and increase its fitness. Chlorella-like green algae engage in symbiotic relationships with certain protozoans, a partnership that significantly impacts the physiology of both organisms. Consequently, it is often challenging to grow axenic Chlorella cultures after isolation from the host because they are nutrient fastidious and often susceptible to virus infection. We hypothesize that the establishment of a symbiotic relationship resulted in natural selection for nutritional and ...


Microbial Biodiversity Associated With The Walnut Juglans Regia L. In South Tyrol (Italy), Ruth Pardatscher, Wolfgang Schweigkofler 2016 Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Laimburg

Microbial Biodiversity Associated With The Walnut Juglans Regia L. In South Tyrol (Italy), Ruth Pardatscher, Wolfgang Schweigkofler

Wolfgang Schweigkofler

The endophytic and epiphytic microflora from walnut trees in South Tyrol (Northern Italy) was analyzed. A total of 16 trees from 8 sites were sampled at three dates during the warm season (May, July and September) in 2005, using plant material from three different tissue types (leaves, fruit and lignified twigs). Samples were either transferred directly onto nutrient medium or surface sterilized prior to plating to distinguish between epiphytic and endophytic growth. A total of 3,880 culturable isolates were obtained, the vast majority of the isolates (3,742) belonging to fungi (96.4%); only 138 (3.6%) were bacteria ...


Comparison Of Synthetic Versus Organic Herbicides/Insecticides On Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Abelmoschus Esculentus, Ariel Freidenreich 2016 Florida International University

Comparison Of Synthetic Versus Organic Herbicides/Insecticides On Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Abelmoschus Esculentus, Ariel Freidenreich

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in improving the growth of a vast majority of plants. Past researchers have discovered that agricultural practices have a significant negative effect on the diversity of AMF. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are reported to enhance plant nutrient uptake, stress tolerance, and soil aggregate formation which are key aspects of productive low-input farming. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four pesticides on the ability of AMF to colonize the roots of okra plants (Abelmoschus esculentus). The pesticides being tested include two synthetic chemicals (glyphosate and carbaryl) and two organic ...


Characterization Of The Marine Sponge Amphimedon Compressa Microbiome Across A Spatial Gradient, Renee Michelle Potens 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Characterization Of The Marine Sponge Amphimedon Compressa Microbiome Across A Spatial Gradient, Renee Michelle Potens

Theses and Dissertations

Diverse and ecologically important microbial communities (microbiomes) are symbiotic within marine sponges. In this study, the microbiome of Amphimedon compressa from three sample locations (Broward and Dade Counties, Southeast Florida, USA and the Southern Caribbean, Bocas del Toro, Panama) is characterized using 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing. The predominant taxa are Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, as expected for Low Microbial Abundance sponges, accounting for over 53% of the total microbiome community. The numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) decrease from Broward County (2,900) to Dade County (2,300) and then Bocas del Toro (1,200). The correlates to a decreasing north-south ...


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