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Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Commons

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All Articles in Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology

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Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

Comparison Of Microbial Communities In The Sediments And Water Columns Of Frozen Cryoconite Holes In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Pacifica Sommers, John Lawrence Darcy, Dorota L. Porazinska, Eli M.S. Gendron, Andrew G. Fountain, Felix Zamora, Kim Vincent, Kaelin M. Cawley, Adam J. Solon, Lara Vimercati, Jenna Ryder, Steven K. Schmidt

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Although cryoconite holes, sediment-filled melt holes on glacier surfaces, appear small and homogenous, their microbial inhabitants may be spatially partitioned. This partitioning could be particularly important for maintaining biodiversity in holes that remain isolated for many years, such as in Antarctica. We hypothesized that cryoconite holes with greater species richness and biomass should exhibit greater partitioning between the sediments and water, promoting greater biodiversity through spatial niche partitioning. We tested this hypothesis by sampling frozen cryoconite holes along a gradient of biomass and biodiversity in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, where ice-lidded cryoconite holes are a ubiquitous feature of glaciers. We ...


Data Evidencing Slow Anaerobic Digestion In Emergency Treatment And Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) van Leeuwen, Lam T. Nguyen 2019 Iowa State University

Data Evidencing Slow Anaerobic Digestion In Emergency Treatment And Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, Lam T. Nguyen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Burial of infectious and potentially infectious livestock and poultry animals is the most common response to an emergency situation. The data set summarizes 22-week-long experiment that simulates the environment found within conventional burial trenches for emergency disposal of animal carcasses, worldwide, sometimes with a topical application of quicklime as it is required in the Republic of Korea. This data set shows the rarely presented evidence of the extremely slow decay of animal carcasses. Besides visual evidence of no visible breakdown of carcass material, i.e., carcass (or carcass quarters and coarse cuts) still resembled the initial material at the end ...


Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe 2018 Iowa State University

Temporal Dynamics Of Bacterial Communities In Soil And Leachate Water After Swine Manure Application, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Fan Yang, Adina C. Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Application of swine manure to agricultural land allows recycling of plant nutrients, but excess nitrate, phosphorus and fecal bacteria impact surface and drainage water quality. While agronomic and water quality impacts are well studied, little is known about the impact of swine manure slurry on soil microbial communities. We applied swine manure to intact soil columns collected from plots maintained under chisel plow or no-till with corn and soybean rotation. Targeted 16S-rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize and to identify shifts in bacterial communities in soil over 108 days after swine manure application. In addition, six simulated rainfalls were ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley 2018 Western Oregon University

The Gut Microbiota Of Cornu Aspersum, Parker Neal Smith, Sarah M. Boomer, Michael Baltzley

PURE Insights

The “Brown Garden Snail,” Cornu aspersum is a widely distributed land snail, whose consumption of soil to acquire calcium results in soil microbes colonizing their gut. While previous work has utilized culture-based approaches to analyze the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, no previous studies have used high throughput DNA sequencing, or examined the changes in the gut microbiota over time in response to antibiotics exposure. In this study, we use 16S amplicon sequencing and fecal plating to characterize the gut microbiota of C. aspersum, and to monitor changes in their microbiota over time after a short penicillin treatment. We found ...


Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester PhD, Alan Cohen MD 2018 Northern Kentucky University

Novel Inactivation Of The Causative Fungus Of White Nose Syndrome With Methoxsalen And Ultraviolet A Light, Colin J. Hartman, Joseph Mester Phd, Alan Cohen Md

Posters-at-the-Capitol

White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a newly recognized disease responsible for the rapid mass destruction of the North American bat populations. This study addressed the novel inactivation of fungal spores from Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of WNS, using ultraviolet A (UVA) light at 365nm and methoxsalen, a photosensitizer from a family of compounds known as furanocoumarins. Penicillium crustosum, an environmental fungus, was studied as a comparator.

Spore suspensions were soaked in specific concentrations of methoxsalen and subsequently exposed to UVA light. The plates were examined for both spore inactivation and resultant inhibition of colony growth. The results demonstrated that ...


21 - Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated With Sharks Of St. Helena And Port Royal Sound, Daniel Conrad 2018 University of South Carolina - Beaufort

21 - Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated With Sharks Of St. Helena And Port Royal Sound, Daniel Conrad

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated with Sharks of St. Helena and Port Royal Sound

Daniel Conrad1, Diego L. GilAgudelo1,2, Kim B. Ritchie1

1. University of South Carolina at Beaufort, Beaufort South Carolina

2. Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston Texas

Elasmobranchs possess the ability to heal quickly from wounds yet, limited research has been done to explore the roll of beneficial bacterial associations in this healing process (Ritchie et al., 2017). Our objectives were to identify antibiotic producing bacteria associated with sharks as a measure of potential beneficial roles. Three Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), two Bull ...


Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock 2018 Arizona State University

Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers 2018 Liberty University

Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Microbes play a significant role in ecosystems, effecting the vital functions of other organisms, interspecies relationships, and population sizes. Based upon previous research (Skelton et al., 2016), it has been hypothesized that crayfish symbionts (branchiobdellidans) play a significant role in regulating the amount of microbiota associated with the host. A growing body of knowledge is known regarding both the condition of gill fouling and the annelid worm’s symbiotic relationship with the crayfish (Skelton et al., 2016; Skelton et al., 2016). However, there is little to no evidence available concerning the bacteria’s role in the process (Skelton et al ...


Sensitivity Of Marine Cynobacteria And Green Microlage To Nano And Bulk Zinc Oxides, Jennifer Gil-Acevedo 3664585 2018 Florida International University

Sensitivity Of Marine Cynobacteria And Green Microlage To Nano And Bulk Zinc Oxides, Jennifer Gil-Acevedo 3664585

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nanoparticles are particles with sizes between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm). Owing to their unique chemical, electrical, mechanical, optical, and piezoelectric properties, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are finding widespread use in numerous applications with yearly production over 550 tons per year. Increasing use of ZnO NPs, and NPs in wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources will have significant potential for adverse impacts on aquatic phototrophic organisms. Comparative studies on microalgae species response to ZnO NPs and variation in tolerance among species is still mostly unexplored. The proposed research aims to evaluate interspecies’ variation in tolerance to ZnO NPs among ...


Identification And Characterization Of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Associated With Kudzu Root Nodules, Chasity Lawless, Michelle Zedonek, Debbie Curtis, Jonda Scharringhausen, Jared Bryant, Wendy A. Dustman, Alexandra M. Kurtz, Bekah Ward Dr. 2018 Georgia Gwinnett College

Identification And Characterization Of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Associated With Kudzu Root Nodules, Chasity Lawless, Michelle Zedonek, Debbie Curtis, Jonda Scharringhausen, Jared Bryant, Wendy A. Dustman, Alexandra M. Kurtz, Bekah Ward Dr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Pueraria montana, better known as kudzu, is an invasive species rapidly spreading throughout the southeastern United States. This plant can form root nodules which house nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing atmospheric nitrogen to be converted into biologically available forms of nitrogen for use by the plant host. Given the centrality of these bacteria to the spread of kudzu, isolates from nodules were characterized after collection from seven different locations across the metropolitan Atlanta area. Twenty-five isolates were grown on two different variants of nitrogen free media. Four different carbon sources were evaluated as well. Finally, growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions ...


Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Next Generation Sequencing Methods For Coastal Zone Water Quality Monitoring, Catherine Iskrenko

HCNSO Student Capstones

When analyzing the water quality of the coastal zone, culture-based techniques have been utilized most often to identify Fecal Indicator Bacteria in samples. Since the advent of the Sanger Method for DNA sequencing, other techniques have arisen that provide significantly more information on the microorganisms in sample, but they are still not the mainstream for water quality analysis. This capstone reviews and compares culture-based techniques, DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, qPCR for biomarker, and 16S rDNA sequencing to highlight their merits and shortcomings for analyzing environmental water samples. The technique presented that provides the broadest range of information (including the identification ...


Microbial Ecology Of South Florida Surface Waters: Examining The Potential For Anthropogenic Influences, Chase P. Donnelly 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Microbial Ecology Of South Florida Surface Waters: Examining The Potential For Anthropogenic Influences, Chase P. Donnelly

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

South Florida contains one of the largest subtropical wetlands in the world, and yet not much is known about the microbes that live in these surface waters. These microbes play an important role in chemical cycling and maintaining good water quality for both human and ecosystem health. The hydrology of Florida’s surface waters is tightly regulated with the use of canal and levee systems run by the US Army Corps of Engineers and The South Florida Water Management District. These canals run through the Everglades, agriculture, and urban environments to control water levels in Lake Okeechobee, the Water Conservation ...


Influence Of A Guanidine Riboswitch In Bacterial Cells, Erik S. Timsak, Jefferey A. Kimbrel, Chris S. Ward, Rhona K. Stuart, Michael P. Thelen 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Influence Of A Guanidine Riboswitch In Bacterial Cells, Erik S. Timsak, Jefferey A. Kimbrel, Chris S. Ward, Rhona K. Stuart, Michael P. Thelen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Bacteria live in environments containing complex ecologies of other microbes that communicate and survive through the action of a variety of small metabolic compounds. One common yet relatively unstudied metabolite is guanidine. Although it can be toxic to cells, recent studies have revealed that guanidine may function as a cellular metabolite through a specialized RNA sequence known as a riboswitch. Within our overall project on improving algal productivity, the focus of this study is to: (a) describe various guanidine riboswitch sequences in bacteria that interact with biofuel producing algae; and (b) determine if guanidine has a positive or negative influence ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Enriched Chicken Bone Broth Prevents Trigeminal Sensitization Meditated By Early Life Stress, Orion Peterson 2018 Missouri State Univerity

Dietary Inclusion Of Enriched Chicken Bone Broth Prevents Trigeminal Sensitization Meditated By Early Life Stress, Orion Peterson

MSU Graduate Theses

Early life stress is considered a risk factor for development of migraine, which is a prevalent painful neurological disorder involving sensitization and activation of trigeminal neurons, and irritable bowel syndrome, a condition often comorbid with chronic migraine. The focus of my study was to determine the effects of early life stress and dietary inclusion of enriched chicken bone broth on trigeminal nociceptor sensitization and the gut microbiota. Adult Sprague-Dawley male “sender” rats subjected to primary traumatic stress were placed next to breeding or pregnant female rats that served as “receiver” rats (secondary traumatic stress) and in proximity to the offspring ...


Detecting A Probiotic Product Within The Gut Of Broiler Chickens, Anneka Pisula 2018 ter California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Ob

Detecting A Probiotic Product Within The Gut Of Broiler Chickens, Anneka Pisula

Master's Theses and Project Reports

As of January 2017, the U.S. poultry industry banned the use of antibiotics and now relies on alternatives such as probiotics to help protect animal health. Although probiotic use is not a new concept in the poultry industry, identifying the best combination of bacterial strains to generate an effective probiotic formula requires further investigation. This study aimed to detect a probiotic product of four bacterial strains (Pedioccoccus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus subtilis) in a feeding trial with broiler chickens. Birds given the probiotic were predicted to show an improved growth performance with the probiotics colonizing the ...


Utilizing Molecular And Statistical Modeling Methods To Enhance White Nose Syndrome Detection In Bat Hibernacula, Samuel Miller 2018 Pittsburg State University

Utilizing Molecular And Statistical Modeling Methods To Enhance White Nose Syndrome Detection In Bat Hibernacula, Samuel Miller

Electronic Thesis Collection

White Nose Syndrome (WNS) is a fungal infection in bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Successfully identifying hibernacula infected with WNS is essential to help control and regulate the spread of WNS. Assessing the presence of WNS in bat hibernacula is usually done by visually confirming Pd on hibernating bats within infected hibernacula. This can be problematic because most visual confirmation occurs during the winter when bat populations are at their peak within hibernacula. When surveys are conducted in the winter, there is an increased chance of disturbing bats. One alternative method to visually confirming WNS on bats in the ...


Isolating And Identifying Fungal Endophytes From Roots Of Rare Orchid Cypripedium Arietinum In Grand Sable Dunes, Michigan, Kari Farkas-Lasich 2018 Northern Michigan University

Isolating And Identifying Fungal Endophytes From Roots Of Rare Orchid Cypripedium Arietinum In Grand Sable Dunes, Michigan, Kari Farkas-Lasich

All NMU Master's Theses

Recently the population of Cypripedium arietinum in Grand Sable Dunes, Michigan was estimated at more than 3.5 million plants, greater than 90% of the world’s known population. There is little research on this species’ root associated fungal endophytes. This new population estimate allows the ethical, destructive sampling required to shed light on root associated symbionts and further successful preservation and restoration of the species. Samples were collected of current year’s roots from 75 C. arietinum orchids at 75 locations within 4 jack pine forests in the Grand Sable Dunes, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan. Fungal endophyte cultures ...


Investigating Present-Day Health Issues Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Deborah A. Bouchard 2018 University of Maine

Investigating Present-Day Health Issues Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Deborah A. Bouchard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, H. Milne Edwards, 1837, supports the most economically valuable fishery along the North Atlantic coast of North America. A collapse in lobster populations in Southern New England (SNE) has coincided with increasing ocean temperatures and emerging diseases. This research investigated the etiologies of limp lobster disease (LLD) and epizootic shell disease (ESD), two diseases that continue to cause significant mortality in natural lobster populations. Mortality from LLD is associated with the bacteria Photobacterium indicum and is more intense in impounded lobsters. To more clearly define the community ecology of this suspected opportunistic pathogen, the microbial ...


Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

Stream metabolism is a critical functional measure of stream health that integrates physical parameters like slope and discharge, with ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and respiration. Stream metabolism is widely studied; however, urban stream metabolism remains poorly understood. Stream metabolism was measured for five streams ranging from 1st to 5th orders from October 11th to October 18th 2017 and four streams ranging from 1st to 4th order from October 22nd to 25th 2017 located within an approximately 9.3 square kilometer watershed of Rock Island, IL that has an urban to suburban type ...


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