Bacterial Diversity Impacts As A Result Of Combined Sewer Overflow In A Polluted Waterway, 2017 CUNY LaGuardia Community College
Bacterial Diversity Impacts As A Result Of Combined Sewer Overflow In A Polluted Waterway, Olga Calderón, Holly Porter-Morgan, Joby Jacob, Willis Elkins
Publications and Research
Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive ...
Disturbance And The Community Composition Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Ontario Tallgrass Prairies, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Disturbance And The Community Composition Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Ontario Tallgrass Prairies, Sarah N. Allan
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota) form beneficial symbiotic relationships with the majority of land plants, especially in grasslands. Tallgrass prairies in Ontario are an endangered plant community currently being restored on former agricultural land. The objectives of my study were to determine if there were differences in the communities of Glomeromycota between disturbed and undisturbed tallgrass prairies in Ontario and if there were any potential indicator taxa for the ends of the disturbance spectrum. A molecular approach using DNA derived from soil samples was used to compare species composition between disturbed and undisturbed tallgrass prairies. A total of 177 operational taxonomic ...
Microbial Ecology Electronic Resources, 2017 Iowa State University
Microbial Ecology Electronic Resources, Michael Bobb
Microbial ecology covers sub-disciplines of both microbiology and ecology. To put it briefly, it is the study of the roles and relationships that microorganisms (predominantly bacteria and fungi) have with the environment and other organisms within the environment. There is much overlap in the topic areas, and often research covers several different sub-disciplines simultaneously. Major topic areas within microbial ecology are ecology, microbiology, soil science, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental science, biogeography, biogeochemistry, oceanography, restoration ecology, and dentistry/biofilm biology. Researchers and research programs cover a broad spectrum of topics; for example, molecular researchers who are interested in the metabolic processes and ...
Differences In Soil Biological Activity By Terrain Types At The Sub-Field Scale In Central Iowa Us, 2017 Iowa State University
Differences In Soil Biological Activity By Terrain Types At The Sub-Field Scale In Central Iowa Us, Amy L. Kaleita, Linda R. Schott, Sarah K. Hargreaves, Kirsten S. Hofmockel
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications
Soil microbial communities are structured by biogeochemical processes that occur at many different spatial scales, which makes soil sampling difficult. Because soil microbial communities are important in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, it is important to understand how microbial communities function within the heterogeneous soil landscape. In this study, a self-organizing map was used to determine whether landscape data can be used to characterize the distribution of microbial biomass and activity in order to provide an improved understanding of soil microbial community function. Points within a row crop field in south-central Iowa were clustered via a self-organizing map using six ...
Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li
Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C ...
The Role Of Dietary Highly Unsaturated N-3 Fatty Acids In Northern Quahogs, Mercenaria Mercenaria, Through Decreasing Temperature, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
The Role Of Dietary Highly Unsaturated N-3 Fatty Acids In Northern Quahogs, Mercenaria Mercenaria, Through Decreasing Temperature, Sixto E. Portilla
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The series of investigations described in this thesis were designed to assess the effect of diet on mortality through decreasing temperature in two genetic varieties of M. mercenaria important to the natural environment and the aquaculture industry: “wild” from natural stocks and “notata” selected for fast growth. Data from these novel investigations demonstrate a temperature specific sensitivity to each dietary component designating 20:5n-3 as homeoviscously favorable in the upper thermal range above 12°C, and 22:6n-3 as favorable in the lower. Statistical analyses of variance demonstrate distinct cumulative mortalities among the 5 dietary treatments (P < 0.05) for each genetic variety at each thermal range, upper (>12°C) and ...
Ancient Bacteria–Amoeba Relationships And Pathogenic Animal Bacteria, 2017 Washington University in St Louis
Ancient Bacteria–Amoeba Relationships And Pathogenic Animal Bacteria, Joan E. Strassmann, Longfei Shu
Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations
Long before bacteria infected humans, they infected amoebas, which remain a potentially important reservoir for human disease. Diverse soil amoebas including Dictyostelium and Acanthamoeba can host intracellular bacteria. Though the internal environment of free-living amoebas is similar in many ways to that of mammalian macrophages, they differ in a number of important ways, including temperature. A new study in PLOS Biology by Taylor-Mulneix et al. demonstrates that Bordetella bronchiseptica has two different gene suites that are activated depending on whether the bacterium finds itself in a hot mammalian or cool amoeba host environment. This study specifically shows that B. bronchiseptica ...
Burkholderia Cenocepacia J2315-Mediated Destruction Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nrs77 Biofilms., 2017 University of Louisville
Burkholderia Cenocepacia J2315-Mediated Destruction Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nrs77 Biofilms., Rachel Thompson
College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that affects over 30,000 people in the US and more than 70,000 people worldwide. Recurring bacterial infections in CF patients result in tissue damage that dramatically lowers respiratory function and are ultimately fatal. The formation of bacterial biofilms in the mucus and on lung epithelial tissue allows pathogens to be protected from antibiotics and the host immune system, making treatment of infection difficult. The interactions between CF pathogens in co-culture biofilms are not well understood and were examined in this study. Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia, two common CF pathogens, were ...
Ecological And Evolutionary Dynamics Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks: Influences On Evolution And Range Dynamics, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Ecological And Evolutionary Dynamics Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks: Influences On Evolution And Range Dynamics, Michael E. Van Nuland
Plants interact with, modify, and are affected by their soil environments. Though plant-soil interactions are well known to be important and active regulators of ecosystem function and community structure, much less is known about how these interactions affect plant evolution. The primary goal of my dissertation was to examine plant-soil interactions under a range of ecological and evolutionary contexts to better understand patterns of biodiversity, ecosystem function, and whole system responses to environmental change. Taking such an eco-evolutionary perspective allows for a holistic understanding of the causes and consequences of complex abiotic and biotic interactions that link ecosystem ecology and ...
A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle
Organic waste streams, like domestic wastewater and municipal solid waste, have the potential to be used as feedstocks for biotechnology processes to produce high value products and energy. This thesis investigated the technological, economical, and environmental potential for integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and bioelectrochemical system (BES) platforms as they were theoretically and physically evaluated for energy recovery from domestic wastewater. The first chapter of this thesis compared the theoretical energy efficiencies of converting waste directly into electricity, using AD and BES alone and in various combinations. This chapter reviewed the experimentally demonstrated energy efficiencies reported in the literature with comparisons ...
Impact Of Cations On The Sorption Capabilities Of Kaolin Towards Biofilm-Forming Bacteria, 2017 Georgia College and State University
Impact Of Cations On The Sorption Capabilities Of Kaolin Towards Biofilm-Forming Bacteria, Rachel E. Brineman
Georgia College Student Research Events
Biofilm-forming bacteria cause problems for industries such as medical, food, and water treatment. Due to its heterogeneous charges, kaolin is capable of sorption of these microorganisms. These charges are impacted by pH and cations, which change the electrostatic interactions between kaolin particles and microorganisms. Proper pH and cation composition may lead to enhanced sorption. The impact of Al3+ cations on kaolin sorption of Gram negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram positive (B. megaterium and S. aureus) was investigated. Calcined kaolin and Diatomaceous Earth kaolin, which were selected in previous studies, were incubated in triplicates with the above organisms ...
In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, 2017 University of Mississippi
In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony
John S. Williamson
Microbial transformation of natural products is a well established model for mammalian metabolism. Salvinorin A, a diterpenoid isolated from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M (Lamiaceae), is a potent non-nitrogenous κ-opioid receptor agonist. The metabolism of salvinorin A has still not yet been well established. Thirty fungal species were screened for the ability to metabolize salvinorin A. We observed that salvinorin A undergoes fast hydrolysis of the acetate group at carbon atom C2, resulting in formation of the pharmacologically inactive product, salvinorin B. Ex vivo experiments were also performed using organelle fractions isolated from rat liver and brain. Crude ...
Phytohormone Signaling In Chlorella Sorokiniana: Perspectives On The Evolution Of Plant Cell-To-Cell Signaling, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Phytohormone Signaling In Chlorella Sorokiniana: Perspectives On The Evolution Of Plant Cell-To-Cell Signaling, Maya Khasin
Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences
Cell-to-cell communication is a key aspect of microbial physiology and population dynamics, and a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of multicellularity. Quorum sensing in bacteria is a canonical example of microbial cell-to-cell signaling, in which bacteria use small molecule signals in order to monitor their population size and modulate their physiology accordingly. We propose that the evolution of plant hormone signaling arose in unicellular green algae, analogously to quorum sensing in bacteria, and that the complexity of these pathways required the recruitment of increasingly specific enzymes to increasingly sophisticated gene networks throughout the course of phytohormone signaling evolution. Using Chlorella ...
Soil Respiration Rates And Caron Isotope Emissions Under Differing Herbivory And Plant Diversity Treatments In A Restoration Prairie, Miranda E. Salsbery
Honors Projects and Posters
As we attempt to restore native habitat, particularly in the Midwestern United States, we cannot overlook the importance soil microbes play in carbon cycling. Agricultural fields provide different ecosystems for microbes and may have long term effects on restoration efforts. By measuring soil respiration rates and carbon isotope emissions, it is possible to gage variations in the sources of respired carbon. In this project we looked at these two factors under herbivory and non-herbivory condition as well as low and high plant species diversity conditions to examine how these treatments effect sources and pool size of rapidly-cycling carbon. We hypothesize ...
Microflora In The Cheek Pouches Of Ord's Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ordii) From The Nebraska Sandhills, 2017 University of Nebraksa Omaha
Microflora In The Cheek Pouches Of Ord's Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ordii) From The Nebraska Sandhills, Devin M. Christensen
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
The microflora living within the Ord’s kangaroo rat (Dipodymis ordii) cheek pouches has never been extensively studied before. Kangaroo rats use their cheek pouches to transport seeds and grasses in their mouths that they later store. It is predicted that the cheek pouches harbor fungal and bacterial growth that could be either helpful or harmful to the kangaroo rat and its environment. 8 kangaroo rats were humanely captured using Sherman live traps in the Nebraska Sandhills; their cheek pouches were swabbed, and the microorganisms obtained were grown on agar plates and in liquid media until an adequate amount of ...
Relating Watershed Characteristics To Elevated Stream Escherichia Coli Levels In Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes: An Iowa Case Study, Conrad Brendel, Michelle L. Soupir
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications
Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a leading cause of surface water impairments in the United States. However, the relative impacts of different watershed characteristics on microbial water quality in agriculturally dominated watersheds are unclear. Spatial and statistical analyses were utilized to examine relationships between watershed characteristics and FIB and a multiple regression model was created. Geometric mean E. coli concentration data were obtained for 395 ambient water quality monitoring locations in Iowa. Watersheds were delineated for thirty randomly selected monitoring locations and drainage areas ranged from 93 to 1.1 million hectares. Watershed characteristics ...
Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Nováková, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez
International Journal of Speleology
Magura Cave, north-western Bulgaria, possesses valuable rock-art paintings made with bat guano and dated from the period between the Eneolithic and Bronze Ages. Since 2008, the Art Gallery is closed to the general public in order to protect the paintings from vandalism, microclimatic changes caused by visitors and artificial illumination, and the consequent growth of fungi and phototrophs. Nevertheless, some tourist visits are allowed under the supervision of cave managers. This study provides the first scientific report on cultivable fungal assemblages dwelling different substrata in the Art Gallery. A total of 78 strains, belonging to 37 OTUs (Ascomycota 81%, Zygomycota ...
An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon
Master's Theses and Project Reports
The genetic information found in each species of organism is unique, and can be used as a tool to differentiate at the molecular level. This has caused rapid genotyping methods to become the cornerstone of a new area of research dependent on reading the genome as a form of identification. One of these specific identification methods, known as pyroprinting, relies on the small variation of DNA sequences within the same species to develop a unique, reproducible fingerprint. By simultaneously pyrosequencing multiple polymorphic loci within the ribosomal operons known as the intergenic transcribed spacers, a reproducible output is obtained, known as ...
Microbial Repopulation Following In Situ Star Remediation, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Microbial Repopulation Following In Situ Star Remediation, Gavin Overbeeke
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
In situ STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an emerging remediation technology which uses smouldering combustion to destroy nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface. Since STAR smouldering travels through contaminated soils slowly (~0.5 to 5 m/day) and subjects them to high temperatures (400–1000°C), it is expected that this technology will thoroughly dry and sterilize the zones which it treats. Further, soils surrounding the treatment zone which are not smouldered will be heated, although not smouldered, by virtue of their proximity to STAR, impacting microbial communities within them. Therefore, the objectives of this work ...
Beyond The Obvious: Emerging Contaminants And Biogeochemistry As A Cause And Solution For Nitrogen Pollution, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Beyond The Obvious: Emerging Contaminants And Biogeochemistry As A Cause And Solution For Nitrogen Pollution, Stephanie L. Devries
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Following a comprehensive review of the occurrence and impacts of antibiotics and related pharmaceutical compounds on the terrestrial N-cycle, three experiments were performed to explore the topic of biogeochemistry as a source or a sink for N-pollution. The first of these experiments addresses the question of whether environmentally relevant concentrations of antibiotics (µg·kg-1) have a significant effect on denitrification or N2O production, a question that has not been well addressed in previous studies. Having determined that there is a significant shift, the second study aims to comprehensively follow changes to soil N pools and N2 ...