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Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Commons

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Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Most animal–microbe symbiotic interactions must be advantageous to the host and provide nutritional benefits to the endosymbiont. When the host provides nutrients, it can gain the capacity to control the interaction, promote self-growth, and increase its fitness. Chlorella-like green algae engage in symbiotic relationships with certain protozoans, a partnership that significantly impacts the physiology of both organisms. Consequently, it is often challenging to grow axenic Chlorella cultures after isolation from the host because they are nutrient fastidious and often susceptible to virus infection. We hypothesize that the establishment of a symbiotic relationship resulted in natural selection for nutritional and ...


Microbial Biodiversity Associated With The Walnut Juglans Regia L. In South Tyrol (Italy), Ruth Pardatscher, Wolfgang Schweigkofler 2016 Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Laimburg

Microbial Biodiversity Associated With The Walnut Juglans Regia L. In South Tyrol (Italy), Ruth Pardatscher, Wolfgang Schweigkofler

Wolfgang Schweigkofler

The endophytic and epiphytic microflora from walnut trees in South Tyrol (Northern Italy) was analyzed. A total of 16 trees from 8 sites were sampled at three dates during the warm season (May, July and September) in 2005, using plant material from three different tissue types (leaves, fruit and lignified twigs). Samples were either transferred directly onto nutrient medium or surface sterilized prior to plating to distinguish between epiphytic and endophytic growth. A total of 3,880 culturable isolates were obtained, the vast majority of the isolates (3,742) belonging to fungi (96.4%); only 138 (3.6%) were bacteria ...


Lignocellulose As Carbon Source Promotes Bacterial Synergism And Reduces Antagonism, Yijie Deng 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Lignocellulose As Carbon Source Promotes Bacterial Synergism And Reduces Antagonism, Yijie Deng

Dissertations

Lignocellulose decomposes slowly in nature because it consists of complex polymers resistant to enzymatic degradation by most organisms. Some bacteria are capable of producing cellulolytic enzymes but the way in which bacteria interact within a community to enhance degradation of the recalcitrant substrate is poorly understood. A better understanding of how bacterial interactions affect lignocellulose degradation would provide potential approaches to improve the efficiency of lignocellulose degradation for biofuel production.

To study whether bacterial interactions enhance lignocellulose degradation, I grew environmental bacterial isolates in mixed cultures and pure cultures. I found that bacterial synergism in mixed cultures was common in ...


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


Handwashing: A Study Of The History, Methods, And Psychology Surrounding Hand Hygiene, Daniel J. Remillard 2016 Liberty University

Handwashing: A Study Of The History, Methods, And Psychology Surrounding Hand Hygiene, Daniel J. Remillard

Senior Honors Theses

This paper covers three different areas concerning handwashing. First a review of the history of handwashing is done, going from ancient times to its introduction into modern medicine via Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis. This section gives a sobering reminder not to instantly reject data that comes in conflict with prevalent thought.

Then current medical knowledge about handwashing is examined, and the conclusion reached states that handwashing is best done with non-antibacterial soap.

Finally, a review of the psychology of handwashing shows that medical professionals often tend toward neglect if unwatched and unmotivated by an outside source. However, those suffering from obsessive ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Microbial Communities From Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Sheridan S. Brewer 6284984 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Isolation And Characterization Of Microbial Communities From Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Sheridan S. Brewer 6284984

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Global Worming: A Quantitative Study About Greenhouse Gas Flux In Surface Soils Facilitated By The Anecic Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris, Under Rising Global Temperature, Rachel Briden Frei, Jose A. Amador 2016 University of Rhode Island

Global Worming: A Quantitative Study About Greenhouse Gas Flux In Surface Soils Facilitated By The Anecic Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris, Under Rising Global Temperature, Rachel Briden Frei, Jose A. Amador

Senior Honors Projects

Climate change is the long-term alteration in the Earth’s average weather conditions believed to be driven by greenhouse gases (GHG): carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These alterations are expected to cause more extreme weather events, gradually warmer global temperatures and greater amounts of precipitation. Roughly 20% of the Earth’s CO2, one-third of CH4 and two-thirds of N2O emissions, originate from soils, and earthworms are known to accelerate GHG. As climate change proceeds, there is expected to be an increase in global temperature of 2-6ºC. Temperature is ...


Environmentally Driven Orchestration Of Metabolisms By Prochlorococcus Spp., Martin James Szul 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Environmentally Driven Orchestration Of Metabolisms By Prochlorococcus Spp., Martin James Szul

Doctoral Dissertations

In the oligotrophic waters of the world’s open oceans physical factors such as pH, salinity, and temperature are generally stable. The nutrient limited conditions as well as the low environmental variability endemic to these ecosystems select for specialists that gain fitness advantages through minimalism, efficiency, and thrift. These physical characteristics are thought to reduce nutrient demand while allowing for constant metabolic activity and growth, but the mechanisms that promote these fitness advantages are currently unknown. To better understand how these physiologies improve selective fitness for the dominant phytoplankton, we observed metabolic parameters under environmental conditions typical to these waters ...


Can The Presence And Proportion Of Bacterial Communities Be Used To Estimate Post-Mortem Interval? A Critical Analysis, Alexa L. Golemo 2016 Iowa State University

Can The Presence And Proportion Of Bacterial Communities Be Used To Estimate Post-Mortem Interval? A Critical Analysis, Alexa L. Golemo

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

The use of bacterial communities to estimate post-mortem interval is a relatively new concept in the field of forensic anthropology, but one that shows great promise. Research has shown a correlation between the presence and proportion of bacterial communities within the microbiome of a deceased vertebrate and the post-mortem interval of that individual. Methodologies include analyzing and comparing relative abundance of different taxa during decomposition, as well as comparing the microbiome of the decomposing vertebrate to the surrounding soil during different phases of decomposition in skeletonized remains. However, this method of estimating time since death must undergo much more in-depth ...


Nutrient Limitation In Three Lowland Tropical Forests In Southern China Receiving High Nitrogen Deposition: Insights From Fine Root Responses To Nutrient Additions, Feifei Zhu, Muneoki Yoh, Frank S. Gilliam, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo 2016 Marshall University

Nutrient Limitation In Three Lowland Tropical Forests In Southern China Receiving High Nitrogen Deposition: Insights From Fine Root Responses To Nutrient Additions, Feifei Zhu, Muneoki Yoh, Frank S. Gilliam, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo

Frank S. Gilliam

Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition to tropical forests may accelerate ecosystem phosphorus (P) limitation. This study examined responses of fine root biomass, nutrient concentrations, and acid phosphatase activity (APA) of bulk soil to five years of N and P additions in one old-growth and two younger lowland tropical forests in southern China. The old-growth forest had higher N capital than the two younger forests from long-term N accumulation. From February 2007 to July 2012, four experimental treatments were established at the following levels: Control, N-addition (150 kg N ha–1 yr–1), P-addition (150 kg P ha–1 yr–1) and ...


Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li 2016 Marshall University

Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li

Frank S. Gilliam

Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C ...


Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li 2016 Marshall University

Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li

Frank S. Gilliam

Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C ...


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller 2016 Murray State University

The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller

Scholars Week

The cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, is a keystone species in cave ecosystems within Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP). Within MCNP, many cricket cadavers have been found

with a thick, white fungus growing on them; this fungus has previously been identified to be Beauveria bassiana. However, new molecular data suggests that this may actually be the species B. amorpha. Cricket cadavers with Beauveria sp. were collected from MCNP and cultured on potato dextrose agar. Cultures will be sent to the USDA for a genetic analysis and identification of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to examine if the relationship ...


Novel Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Restore Glucose-Handling Abilities Of High-Fat Fed Mice, Gemma Kinsella, Darren Martin, Siobhan Leonard, Robert Devine, Clara Redondo, Conor Breen, Victoria McEneaney, Mary Rooney, Tim Munsey, Richard Porter, Asipu Sivaprasadarao, John Stephens, John Findlay 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Novel Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Restore Glucose-Handling Abilities Of High-Fat Fed Mice, Gemma Kinsella, Darren Martin, Siobhan Leonard, Robert Devine, Clara Redondo, Conor Breen, Victoria Mceneaney, Mary Rooney, Tim Munsey, Richard Porter, Asipu Sivaprasadarao, John Stephens, John Findlay

Articles

Metformin is the main drug of choice for treating type 2 diabetes, yet the therapeutic regimens and side effects of the compound are all undesirable and can lead to reduced compliance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of two novel compounds which improved glucose handling and weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. Wildtype C57Bl/6 male mice were fed on a high-fat diet and treated with novel, anti-diabetic compounds. Both compounds restored the glucose handling ability of these mice. At a cellular level, these compounds achieve this by inhibiting complex I activity ...


An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer

All College Thesis Program

Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers ...


Does Gut Flora Change In A Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorders On A Ketogenic Diet?, Shelby A. Labe 2016 Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut

Does Gut Flora Change In A Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorders On A Ketogenic Diet?, Shelby A. Labe

Senior Theses and Projects

The normal bacterial flora of an organism includes the non-disease causing bacteria that inhabit the human body under normal conditions. These bacteria are important for numerous reasons; for example, they excrete vitamins and prevent colonization by pathogens. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by social challenges, repetitive behaviors, and communication deficits. Comorbid conditions including gastrointestinal (GI) issues, depression, and anxiety are common. One popular way to attempt to alleviate the behavioral symptoms of ASDs is maintaining a ketogenic diet, which is seventy-five percent fat. Such a diet induces ketosis, a metabolic state when ketone bodies, not ...


The Role Of Household Antimicrobials In The Proliferation Of Antibiotic Resistance During Anaerobic Digestion, Daniel Elliott Carey 2016 Marquette University

The Role Of Household Antimicrobials In The Proliferation Of Antibiotic Resistance During Anaerobic Digestion, Daniel Elliott Carey

Dissertations (2009 -)

Antimicrobial chemicals in consumer personal care products have been found to increase antibiotic resistance in pure culture studies. Although many studies focus on antibiotic resistance development pertinent to medical scenarios, resistance developed in natural and engineered environments might be significant and has become an emerging concern for human health. This dissertation focuses on the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan and triclocarban. These compounds are distinctly different from antibiotics and are used in products like soaps that are labelled as “antibacterial”. Municipal wastewater treatment plants receive triclocarban and triclosan loads higher than most contaminants of emerging concern because they are frequently used in ...


A Study On The Dissolution Of Autunite Minerals By Facultative Bacteria In Bicarbonate Media, Sandra C. Herrera Landaez 2016 Florida International University

A Study On The Dissolution Of Autunite Minerals By Facultative Bacteria In Bicarbonate Media, Sandra C. Herrera Landaez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Uranium (U) is a key contaminant at the Hanford site. The formation of uranyl-phosphate bearing minerals such as autunite as a result of tripoliphosphate injections has been used as a U immobilization strategy. Bacteria are known as key factors governing the fate and transport of soil contaminants. This research evaluated the interaction of facultative bacteria Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 with autunite mineral in bicarbonate-amended media solutions. The concentration of several elements such as U, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) released as a result of autunite mineral biodissolution were determined as a function of time; changes in cell density and protein assay ...


Controls On Benthic Microbial Community Structure And Assembly In A Karstic Coastal Wetland, Nicholas O. Schulte 2016 Florida International University

Controls On Benthic Microbial Community Structure And Assembly In A Karstic Coastal Wetland, Nicholas O. Schulte

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The assembly mechanisms underlying microbial community abundance, biotic interactions, and diversity over space and time are unresolved, particularly in benthic microbial mats distributed along environmental gradients. Experimental enrichment of nutrient-limited microbial mats from the Florida Everglades along a nutrient subsidy-salinity stress gradient stimulated autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism, growth, and diversity independent of autotroph-heterotroph interactions across treatments and space. These results suggest spatial segregation of autotrophic and heterotrophic components within mats. Considering only the diatom component of Everglades mats over space and time, the subsidy-stress gradient controlled diatom compositional turnover at broad spatial scales while environmental and dispersal-based processes structured diatom ...


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