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Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Commons

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Nutritional Regulation Of Sulfonamide Antibiotic Biodegradation By Microbacterium Sp. Strain C448, Tonya Malcolm 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Nutritional Regulation Of Sulfonamide Antibiotic Biodegradation By Microbacterium Sp. Strain C448, Tonya Malcolm

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sulfonamide antibiotics are frequently released into the environment due to their widespread use in livestock production, imposing a potential selection pressure for the development and dissemination of sulfonamide resistance. Recently, a sulfonamide-degrading bacterium Microbacterium sp. Strain C448 was discovered, whose activity has the potential to be used as a sulfonamide removal strategy from agricultural soils. This research gains insight into the sulfonamide biodegradation pathway by 1) evaluating the nutritional regulation of sulfamethazine biodegradation and 2) undertaking a comparative proteomic analysis of cells grown in the presence and in the absence of sulfamethazine. The nutritional analyses revealed that increasing amounts of ...


Quantatative Analysis Of Microbial Abundance Within Arctic Fjord Sediments Assessed Through Direct Counting, Alex Taylor Swystun 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Quantatative Analysis Of Microbial Abundance Within Arctic Fjord Sediments Assessed Through Direct Counting, Alex Taylor Swystun

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Microbes found in the marine sediments are responsible for the production of nearly half of the carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere (Arrigo, 2005). The fjords of Svalbard (79°N) are not considered typical marine sediments because high iron content influences unique subsurface redox chemistry. Radiotracer studies have shown that these sediments contain active bacterial sulfate-reducing communities (Finke et al., 2016). In addition to bacteria, archaeal cells within these sediments have been in aggregates encompassed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Ravenschlag et al., 2001). These anaerobic organisms participate in mediating environmental biogeochemical cycles, including the oxidation of methane (Ravenschlag et al., 2001 ...


Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Through their transformation of naturally occurring organic matter, coastal marine bacteria play an essential role in carbon cycling. A phenomenon termed the priming effect (PE) occurs when microbial communities remineralize recalcitrant organic matter faster in the presence of labile organic matter and may be prevalent in coastal systems. To understand how microbial community members interact to induce PE, it is essential to first understand the mechanisms underlying PE in single strains and simplified bacterial communities. The effect to which different concentrations and sources of labile carbon stimulated the production of bacterial biomass from riverine organic matter by two marine bacteria ...


Anaerobic Oxidation Of Ethane, Propane, And Butane By Marine Microbes: A Mini Review, Rajesh Singh, Michael S. Guzman, Arpita Bose 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Anaerobic Oxidation Of Ethane, Propane, And Butane By Marine Microbes: A Mini Review, Rajesh Singh, Michael S. Guzman, Arpita Bose

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The deep ocean and its sediments are a continuous source of non-methane short-chain alkanes (SCAs) including ethane, propane, and butane. Their high global warming potential, and contribution to local carbon and sulfur budgets has drawn significant scientific attention. Importantly, microbes can use gaseous alkanes and oxidize them to CO2, thus acting as effective biofilters. A relative decrease of these gases with a concomitant 13C enrichment of propane and n-butane in interstitial waters vs. the source suggests microbial anaerobic oxidation. The reported uncoupling of sulfate-reduction (SR) from anaerobic methane oxidation supports their microbial consumption. To date, strain BuS5 ...


Functional Characteristics And Genomic Sequencing Of Antarctic Environmental Isolates, Amanda Kemper, Christina Aigner, Michelle Tigges, Sara Anderson 2017 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Functional Characteristics And Genomic Sequencing Of Antarctic Environmental Isolates, Amanda Kemper, Christina Aigner, Michelle Tigges, Sara Anderson

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Soil Microbiome Across A Prairie Quality Gradient: Early Assessment Of Restoration Sites, Kristen O. Anderson, Joe C. Cleys, Whitney Shegrud, Jossette Velazquez, Elias P. Holte, Sara Anderson 2017 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Soil Microbiome Across A Prairie Quality Gradient: Early Assessment Of Restoration Sites, Kristen O. Anderson, Joe C. Cleys, Whitney Shegrud, Jossette Velazquez, Elias P. Holte, Sara Anderson

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Urea As An Effective Nitrogen Source For Cyanobacteria, Kevin J. Erratt 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Urea As An Effective Nitrogen Source For Cyanobacteria, Kevin J. Erratt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Urea use has grown substantially in the past half-century, with urea now accounting for > 50% of nitrogen fertilizer applications worldwide. The shift from inorganic nitrogen fertilizers to urea-based sources has coincided with the reappearance of cyanobacteria blooms in freshwaters. Here, we examined urea as a nitrogen source for three bloom-forming cyanobacteria species. We found that (1) urea was consumed more rapidly relative to inorganic nitrogen substrates, suggesting that cyanobacteria exhibit a preference for urea; (2) urea was consumed in excess of cellular requirements; and (3) urea may offer cyanobacteria a competitive edge over eukaryotic algae by enhancing light absorption capabilities ...


Bacteriophages Isolated From Lake Michigan Demonstrate Broad Host-Range Across Several Bacterial Phyla, Kema Malki, Alex Kula, Katherine Bruder, Emily Sible, Thomas Hatzopoulos, Stephanie Steidel, Siobhan C. Watkins, Catherine Putonti 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Bacteriophages Isolated From Lake Michigan Demonstrate Broad Host-Range Across Several Bacterial Phyla, Kema Malki, Alex Kula, Katherine Bruder, Emily Sible, Thomas Hatzopoulos, Stephanie Steidel, Siobhan C. Watkins, Catherine Putonti

Catherine Putonti

BACKGROUND: The study of bacteriophages continues to generate key information about microbial interactions in the environment. Many phenotypic characteristics of bacteriophages cannot be examined by sequencing alone, further highlighting the necessity for isolation and examination of phages from environmental samples. While much of our current knowledge base has been generated by the study of marine phages, freshwater viruses are understudied in comparison. Our group has previously conducted metagenomics-based studies samples collected from Lake Michigan - the data presented in this study relate to four phages that were extracted from the same samples. FINDINGS: Four phages were extracted from Lake Michigan on ...


18s Rdna Dataset Profiling Microeukaryotic Populations Within Chicago Area Nearshore Waters, Daniel Searle, Emily Sible, Alexandria Cooper, Catherine Putonti 2017 The Woodhall School

18s Rdna Dataset Profiling Microeukaryotic Populations Within Chicago Area Nearshore Waters, Daniel Searle, Emily Sible, Alexandria Cooper, Catherine Putonti

Catherine Putonti

Despite their critical role in the aquatic food web and nutrient cycling, microeukaryotes within freshwater environments are under-studied. Herein we present the first high-throughput molecular survey of microeukaryotes within Lake Michigan. Every two weeks from May 13 to August 5, 2014, we collected surface water samples from the nearshore waters of four Chicago area beaches: Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach. Four biological replicates were collected for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Eighty-nine of these samples were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V7 and V8 regions of the 18S rDNA gene ...


Spatial And Temporal Heterogeneity Of Microbial Life In Artificial Landscapes, Roopkamal Kaur, Aditi Sengupta, Peter A. Troch 2017 University of Southern California

Spatial And Temporal Heterogeneity Of Microbial Life In Artificial Landscapes, Roopkamal Kaur, Aditi Sengupta, Peter A. Troch

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project at Biosphere 2 consists of three replicated artificial landscapes which are sealed within a climate-controlled glass house. LEO is composed of basaltic soil material with low organic matter, nutrients, and microbes. The landscapes are built to resemble zero-order basins and enables researchers to observe hydrological, biological, and geochemical evolution of landscapes in a controlled environment. This study is focused on capturing microbial community dynamics in LEO soil, pre- and post-controlled rainfall episodes. Soil samples were collected from six different positions and at five depths in each of the three slopes followed by DNA extraction ...


Bacterial Diversity Impacts As A Result Of Combined Sewer Overflow In A Polluted Waterway, Olga Calderón, Holly Porter-Morgan, Joby Jacob, Willis Elkins 2017 CUNY LaGuardia Community College

Bacterial Diversity Impacts As A Result Of Combined Sewer Overflow In A Polluted Waterway, Olga Calderón, Holly Porter-Morgan, Joby Jacob, Willis Elkins

Publications and Research

Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive ...


Screening Of Antifungal Susceptibility In Cave-Dwelling Aspergilli And Report Of An Amphotericin B-Resistant Aspergillus Flavus, Erika L.S. Taylor, Gabriella F. Ferreira, Gustavo J.C. Freitas, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Daniel de Assis Santos, Maria A. de Resende-Stoianoff 2017 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Screening Of Antifungal Susceptibility In Cave-Dwelling Aspergilli And Report Of An Amphotericin B-Resistant Aspergillus Flavus, Erika L.S. Taylor, Gabriella F. Ferreira, Gustavo J.C. Freitas, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Daniel De Assis Santos, Maria A. De Resende-Stoianoff

International Journal of Speleology

Caves are stable environments that favour the development of several microorganisms. The aspergilli represent a large number of species isolated from caves including strains capable of causing serious invasive opportunistic infections in humans. Considering that caves may harbour resistant strains to many antibiotics, investigation on the response of opportunistic aspergilli, isolated from pristine and tourist caves to antifungal agents and the mechanisms involved in resistance might be clinically relevant. A total of 32 strains of the species Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. tamarii, and A. terreus were isolated from caves in the iron quadrangle in Brazil ...


Microbial Community Richness Distinguishes Shark Species Microbiomes In South Florida, Rachael Cassandra Karns 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Microbial Community Richness Distinguishes Shark Species Microbiomes In South Florida, Rachael Cassandra Karns

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

The microbiome (microbial community) of individuals is crucial when characterizing and understanding processes that are required for organism function and survival. Microbial organisms, which make up an individual’s microbiome, can be linked to disease or function of the host organism. In humans, individuals differ substantially in their microbiome compositions in various areas of the body. The cause of much of the composition diversity is yet unexplained, however, it is speculated that habitat, diet, and early exposure to microbes could be altering the microbiomes of individuals (Human Microbiome Project Consortium, 2012b, 2012a). To date, only one study has reported on ...


Disturbance And The Community Composition Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Ontario Tallgrass Prairies, Sarah N. Allan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Disturbance And The Community Composition Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Ontario Tallgrass Prairies, Sarah N. Allan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota) form beneficial symbiotic relationships with the majority of land plants, especially in grasslands. Tallgrass prairies in Ontario are an endangered plant community currently being restored on former agricultural land. The objectives of my study were to determine if there were differences in the communities of Glomeromycota between disturbed and undisturbed tallgrass prairies in Ontario and if there were any potential indicator taxa for the ends of the disturbance spectrum. A molecular approach using DNA derived from soil samples was used to compare species composition between disturbed and undisturbed tallgrass prairies. A total of 177 operational taxonomic ...


Differences In Soil Biological Activity By Terrain Types At The Sub-Field Scale In Central Iowa Us, Amy L. Kaleita, Linda R. Schott, Sarah K. Hargreaves, Kirsten S. Hofmockel 2017 Iowa State University

Differences In Soil Biological Activity By Terrain Types At The Sub-Field Scale In Central Iowa Us, Amy L. Kaleita, Linda R. Schott, Sarah K. Hargreaves, Kirsten S. Hofmockel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Soil microbial communities are structured by biogeochemical processes that occur at many different spatial scales, which makes soil sampling difficult. Because soil microbial communities are important in nutrient cycling and soil fertility, it is important to understand how microbial communities function within the heterogeneous soil landscape. In this study, a self-organizing map was used to determine whether landscape data can be used to characterize the distribution of microbial biomass and activity in order to provide an improved understanding of soil microbial community function. Points within a row crop field in south-central Iowa were clustered via a self-organizing map using six ...


Xzlamalraab_Clorg (2017).Pdf, Jaime Zlamal, Ted K. Raab, Robert A. Edwards, Mark Little, David A. Lipson 2017 San Diego State University

Xzlamalraab_Clorg (2017).Pdf, Jaime Zlamal, Ted K. Raab, Robert A. Edwards, Mark Little, David A. Lipson

Ted K. Raab

This   study   explores   biological  chlorine cycling in coastal Arctic wet tundra soils. While many previous chlorine-cycling studies have focused on contaminated environments, it is now recognized that chlorine can cycle naturally between inorganic and organic forms in soils. However, these pathways have not previously been
described for an Arctic ecosystem. We measured soil organic and inorganic Cl pools, characterized soils and plant tissues with chlorine K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (Cl- XANES), measured dechlorination rates in laboratory incubations, and analyzed metagenomes and 16S rRNA genes along a chronosequence of revegetated drained lake basins. Concentrations of soil organic chlorinated compounds (Cl ...


Suppl Methods For Biogeochemistry Paper, Jaime Zlamal, Ted K. Raab, Robert A. Edwards, Mark Little, David A. Lipson 2017 San Diego State University

Suppl Methods For Biogeochemistry Paper, Jaime Zlamal, Ted K. Raab, Robert A. Edwards, Mark Little, David A. Lipson

Ted K. Raab

Supplemental Material for Zlamal Raab et al. (2017) Biogeochemistry paper.


Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li 2017 Marshall University

Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li

Qun Wang

Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C ...


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


Phenomenological And Molecular Basis Of The Cnidarian Immune System, Tanya Brown 2017 Florida International University

Phenomenological And Molecular Basis Of The Cnidarian Immune System, Tanya Brown

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coral reefs are one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet due partially to the habitat structure provided by corals. Corals are long lived organisms that can live for hundreds of years and as a result growth of many species is very slow. As a result of this, recovery of corals from disease outbreaks is very slow and difficult and therefore the ecosystem is deteriorating rapidly. Due to this increase in disease and its detrimental effect on coral reefs, it has become imperative to study how corals respond to disease outbreaks. The response of the coral to pathogens is ...


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