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Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Commons

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Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. de Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria de Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo de Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano 2020 Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Background: The impact of extreme changes in weather patterns in the economy and humanity welfare are some of the biggest challenges that our civilization is facing. From the anthropogenic activities that contribute to climate change, reducing the impact of farming activities is a priority, since its responsible for up to 18% of greenhouse gases linked to such activities. To this end, we tested if the ruminal and fecal microbiomes components of 52 Brazilian Nelore bulls, belonging to two experimental groups based on the feed intervention, conventional (A) and byproducts based diet (B), could be used as biomarkers for methane (CH ...


Isolation, Enumeration And Antibiotic Profiling Of Vibrio Vulnificus And V. Parahaemolyticus From Coastal Virginia, Stanley Peyton 2020 James Madison University

Isolation, Enumeration And Antibiotic Profiling Of Vibrio Vulnificus And V. Parahaemolyticus From Coastal Virginia, Stanley Peyton

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are gram-negative, halophilic bacteria that reside in estuarine waters and are associated with infections in humans. These bacteria can cause gastroenteritis through their presence in raw fish and shellfish consumed by humans. V. vulnificus can also produce wound infections leading to severe septicemia, and in some cases, death if not treated promptly. With increasing incidence of infections due to these two organisms, research efforts have focused on potential reservoirs and environmental conditions that can increase human exposure to, and infection, with these species of bacteria. This study was conducted in order to examine the role ...


Investigating Evolutionary Innovation In Yeast Heat Shock Protein 90, Pamela Cote-Hammarlof 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating Evolutionary Innovation In Yeast Heat Shock Protein 90, Pamela Cote-Hammarlof

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential and highly conserved chaperone that facilitates the maturation of a wide array of client proteins, including many kinases. These clients in turn regulate a wide array of cellular processes, such as signal transduction, and transcriptional reprogramming. As a result, the activity of Hsp90 has the potential to influence physiology, which in turn may influence the ability to adapt to new environments. Previous studies using a deep mutational scanning approach, (EMPIRIC) identified multiple substitutions within a 9 amino acid substrate-binding loop of yeast Hsp90 that provides a growth advantage for yeast under ...


Preliminary Assessment Of Microbial Community Structure Of Wind-Tidal Flats In The Laguna Madre, Texas, Usa, I-Shuo Huang, Lee J. Pinnell, Jeffrey W. Turner, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Preliminary Assessment Of Microbial Community Structure Of Wind-Tidal Flats In The Laguna Madre, Texas, Usa, I-Shuo Huang, Lee J. Pinnell, Jeffrey W. Turner, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Aside from two samples collected nearly 50 years ago, little is known about the microbial composition of wind tidal flats in the hypersaline Laguna Madre, Texas. These mats account for ~42% of the lagoon’s area. These microbial communities were sampled at four locations that historically had mats in the Laguna Madre, including Laguna Madre Field Station (LMFS), Nighthawk Bay (NH), and two locations in Kenedy Ranch (KRN and KRS). Amplicon sequencing of 16S genes determined the presence of 51 prokaryotic phyla dominated by Bacteroidota, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Desulfobacteria, Firmicutes, Halobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The microbial community structure of NH and KR ...


Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer

LSU Master's Theses

This research assessed plankton dynamics in two urban, subtropical lakes (University Lake and City Park Lake) shortly before a proposed and approved lake restoration project. Plankton dynamics were determined in University Lake by the dilution method to attempt to quantify growth rates of phytoplankton and grazing rates of zooplankton. Landry and Hassett’s (1982) dilution method has been widely used in marine systems to estimate rates of growth and grazing. In many marine systems, nutrients must be added to prevent nutrient limitation. However, it is assumed, due to the hypereutrophic conditions, that nutrients would not be a limitation in University ...


Meeting Report Of The Third Annual Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium Symposium, J Philip Karl, Robyn A. Barbato, Laurel A. Doherty, Aarti Gautam, Sarah M. Glaven, Robert J. Kokoska, Dagmar Leary, Rebecca Mickol, Matthew A. Perisin, Andrew J. Hoisington, Edward J. Van Opstal, Vanessa Varaljay, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Camilla A. Mauzy, Michael S. Goodson, Jason W. Soares 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Meeting Report Of The Third Annual Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium Symposium, J Philip Karl, Robyn A. Barbato, Laurel A. Doherty, Aarti Gautam, Sarah M. Glaven, Robert J. Kokoska, Dagmar Leary, Rebecca Mickol, Matthew A. Perisin, Andrew J. Hoisington, Edward J. Van Opstal, Vanessa Varaljay, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Camilla A. Mauzy, Michael S. Goodson, Jason W. Soares

Faculty Publications

The Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium (TSMC) was founded to enhance collaboration, coordination, and communication of microbiome research among U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) organizations and to facilitate resource, material and information sharing among consortium members. The 2019 annual symposium was held 22–24 October 2019 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH. Presentations and discussions centered on microbiome-related topics within five broad thematic areas: 1) human microbiomes; 2) transitioning products into Warfighter solutions; 3) environmental microbiomes; 4) engineering microbiomes; and 5) microbiome simulation and characterization. Collectively, the symposium provided an update on the scope of current DoD microbiome research ...


Using Soil Geospatial Properties And Environments To Explore Microbial Diversity, Sharon Faye Smith 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Soil Geospatial Properties And Environments To Explore Microbial Diversity, Sharon Faye Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Soil microorganisms help maintain nutrient cycling, control carbon sequestration, impact plant productivity, and influence several soil chemical and physical properties; yet, the processes that control the microbial composition of soil and how environmental changes may affect the composition and activity of these organisms at different scales remains a difficult and intriguing puzzle for soil scientists, ecologists, and modelers. Wetlands are endangered and important ecosystems that provide several services, which are directly linked to soil function. However, few wetland assessments consider the soil environment and microbial ecology. Linking soil microbial community composition and distribution patterns to soil physio-chemical properties would provide ...


Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D 2020 Eastern Washington University

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Gliding Motility And Its Regulation In Myxococcus Xanthus, Yirui Chen 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mathematical Modeling Of Gliding Motility And Its Regulation In Myxococcus Xanthus, Yirui Chen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Trichoplusia Ni Gut Microbiome And Its Derivation From The Phyllosphere Of Its Food Plants, Josemaria Garcia, Marisol Escanuela, Swapna Bhat, Evan Lampert 2020 University of North Georgia

The Trichoplusia Ni Gut Microbiome And Its Derivation From The Phyllosphere Of Its Food Plants, Josemaria Garcia, Marisol Escanuela, Swapna Bhat, Evan Lampert

Georgia Journal of Science

Insects are the most abundant and diverse animals on planet Earth and rely on their diverse microbiomes to be so. The insect gut microbiome is vital in the growth and development of many insect species. Trichoplusia ni, the cabbage looper, is a generalist herbivore, but little is known about its microbiome. In this study, a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples was used to determine the effect of diet on the microbiome of T. ni larvae. Larvae were reared on six plant species, the microbiome was sampled from fecal material, and the phyllosphere was sampled from leaves the larvae ate. Bacteria ...


Effects Of Warming On Decomposition Of Submerged Plant Litter And Associated Microorganisms In Streamside Channels, Kaity Ackerman 2020 Coastal Carolina University

Effects Of Warming On Decomposition Of Submerged Plant Litter And Associated Microorganisms In Streamside Channels, Kaity Ackerman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Surface air temperatures are predicted to increase in the near future, which will likely affect microbial activity and carbon flow in stream ecosystems. I performed an experiment in streamside channels at Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, NC to assess responses of litter-associated microorganisms to moderate increases in water temperature (5 levels, ambient to +4°C). The objectives of the experiment were to determine: (1) if there are differences in the magnitude of responses to temperature among various microbial parameters and (2) whether microbial responses to temperature vary among plant litter of different carbon quality. Thus, I measured litter decomposition rate, fungal biomass ...


Glycogen Accumulation By Wild Type And Bald Mutant Strains Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a During Growth On 3-Hydroxybutyrate, MacKenzie Francis 2020 Bridgewater College

Glycogen Accumulation By Wild Type And Bald Mutant Strains Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a During Growth On 3-Hydroxybutyrate, Mackenzie Francis

Honors Projects

Previous research has shown that Streptomyces sp. SFB5A produces PHA depolymerase and forms aerial hyphae, while the bld4 mutant of this species forms aerial hyphae very poorly and does not produce PHA depolymerase. This effect may be due to the mutant’s inability to sense starvation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the bld4 may also be deficient in formation of glycogen and spores, which are both associated with starvation. To test this hypothesis, we grew the wild type (WT) Streptomyces sp. SFB5A and bld4 in broth cultures containing 3HB. We compared 3HB consumption, glycogen accumulation, PHA depolymerase synthesis, protein accumulation, and ...


Possible Role Of N-Acetylglucosamine For Induction Of Polyhydroxybutyrate Depolymerase In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Morgan Todd 2020 Bridgewater College

Possible Role Of N-Acetylglucosamine For Induction Of Polyhydroxybutyrate Depolymerase In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Morgan Todd

Honors Projects

Streptomyces sp. SFB5A is a filamentous, Gram-positive bacterium that makes a polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase to degrade PHB for energy usage. Its life cycle begins as spores germinate to form vegetative mycelia. Starvation prompts formation of aerial mycelia and ultimately spores after 5-7 days. During starvation, Streptomyces may use peptidoglycan hydrolases to degrade its own cell walls, releasing N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG). PHA depolymerase activity is detected during growth of strain SFB5A on NAG as the sole carbon source, suggesting that NAG induces PHA depolymerase synthesis. To test this hypothesis, strain SFB5A was grown for 4 days on PHB, and a colorimetric assay ...


The Release, Transport, And Utilization Of Phosphorus From Bed-Sediments: A Study Of A Eutrophic Littoral Cove On Beaver Lake In Northwest Arkansas, James A. McCarty 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Release, Transport, And Utilization Of Phosphorus From Bed-Sediments: A Study Of A Eutrophic Littoral Cove On Beaver Lake In Northwest Arkansas, James A. Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations

Eutrophication of surface waters not only impacts the environment but also water treatment processes, the most significant of which is from the effects of algae. During peak algal growth in many southern U.S. reservoirs, inflows that bring nutrients are at an annual minimum, and phosphorus released from bed-sediments is trapped in the hypolimnion. Littoral areas, described as the most productive zone of the lake, may be a possible source of phosphorus that fuels algal growth in the reservoir. I studied an isolated shallow cove in the War Eagle Creek arm of Beaver Lake in Northwest Arkansas to measure, quantify ...


Effects Of Light, Nutrients, And Salts On Microbial Biofilm Productivity And Detrital Processing In Aquatic Mesocosms, Bethanie Brooke Howard-Parker 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Light, Nutrients, And Salts On Microbial Biofilm Productivity And Detrital Processing In Aquatic Mesocosms, Bethanie Brooke Howard-Parker

Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic activities associated with urbanization, agriculture, and resource extraction continue to increase to support increasing needs of the growing population. These activities increase the amounts of pollutants entering freshwater streams and put aquatic ecosystems at structural and functional risk. Aquatic microbes play an important role in detrital processing in streams as a key linkage in moving carbon from detrital stocks into aquatic food webs. My research investigates the effects of light, nutrients, and salts on detrital microbes and decomposition in freshwaters using a mesocosm approach. In chapter one, I modified a current priming effect (PE) hypothesis model to include light ...


Identification And Analysis Of Feather Degrading Bacteria: A Search For Keratinase Genes, Nehal Navali 2020 University of Connecticut

Identification And Analysis Of Feather Degrading Bacteria: A Search For Keratinase Genes, Nehal Navali

Honors Scholar Theses

Over two million tons of feather waste is generated annually by the poultry industry, the majority of which goes into landfills due to the difficulty of degrading its major component keratin. Although a portion of feather waste is eliminated via incineration or chemical treatment, the use of Feather Degrading Bacteria (FDB) has been proposed as a cheap and eco-friendly alternative. FDBs have been consistently isolated from the feather microbiome of birds and contain genes coding for the specialized protein keratinase which is able to degrade feathers. By doing so, feather waste, which is rich in nutrients, can be repurposed as ...


Contraction Analysis Of Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra Systems: Understanding Competition Between Modified Bacteria And Plasmodium Within Mosquitoes., Nickolas Goncharenko 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Contraction Analysis Of Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra Systems: Understanding Competition Between Modified Bacteria And Plasmodium Within Mosquitoes., Nickolas Goncharenko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We propose and analyze an extension to the classic Competitive Lotka-Volterra (CLV) model. The goal is to model competition between species, with a response from the environment. This response is a function of the population of all species and can represent numerous physical phenomena including resource limitation and immune response of a host due to infection. We name this new system a Functional Competitive Lotka-Volterra (FCLV) model. We mainly use the construction of contraction metrics, to determine global properties of the model. We use this result to analyze the competition between Plasmodium sp. and genetically engineered bacteria within the midgut ...


Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates And Susceptibility To Clostridioides Difficile Infection, Keegan Schuchart, Jennifer Auchtung, Thomas Auchtung 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates And Susceptibility To Clostridioides Difficile Infection, Keegan Schuchart, Jennifer Auchtung, Thomas Auchtung

UCARE Research Products

This experiment looked into the effects of dietary microbiota accessible carbohydrates (MACs)on the composition of human GI microbe colonies and their susceptibility to pathogen infection. Three different concentrations of MAC ingrained media were tested in mini bioreactor arrays, treated with antibiotics, infected with Clostridioides difficile, then allowed to recover. Microbe community was examined for strain composition and diversity before and after the antibiotic treatment and Clostridioides difficile infection. After the initial mini bioreactor run, individual isolates were investigated in their ability to respond to specific MACs Arabinoglactina, Inulin, and Soluble starch at experimental concentrations.


Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Potential Drivers In The Aquatic Environments, Shuo Shen 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Potential Drivers In The Aquatic Environments, Shuo Shen

Dissertations

As antibiotic resistance genes in aquatic environment have been increasing across the world, affecting water quality and public health, many studies documented concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and some studies discussed their potential drivers. However, systematic and quantitative reviews that link antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to anthropogenic and environmental factors are limited. Nevertheless, this information will be important for developing regulation policy on controlling antibiotic use and therefore reducing potential risks to antibiotic resistance. I conducted meta-analysis of ARGs concentration at a global scale using Bayesian inference to explore climatic and socio-economic factors as drivers. I found local-scale climatic variables ...


The Cancer Microbiome: Distinguishing Direct And Indirect Effects Requires A Systemic View, Joao B. Xavier, Amir Mitchell 2020 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

The Cancer Microbiome: Distinguishing Direct And Indirect Effects Requires A Systemic View, Joao B. Xavier, Amir Mitchell

Open Access Articles

The collection of microbes that live in and on the human body - the human microbiome - can impact on cancer initiation, progression, and response to therapy, including cancer immunotherapy. The mechanisms by which microbiomes impact on cancers can yield new diagnostics and treatments, but much remains unknown. The interactions between microbes, diet, host factors, drugs, and cell-cell interactions within the cancer itself likely involve intricate feedbacks, and no single component can explain all the behavior of the system. Understanding the role of host-associated microbial communities in cancer systems will require a multidisciplinary approach combining microbial ecology, immunology, cancer cell biology, and ...


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