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Sars-Cov-2, Jeremy Luban 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sars-Cov-2, Jeremy Luban

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

This presentation about the biology of Coronaviruses was presented virtually to the RNA Biology Journal Club at the University of Massachusetts Medical School on April 7, 2020.


Validation Of A Lysis Buffer Containing 4 M Guanidinium Thiocyanate (Gitc)/ Triton X-100 For Extraction Of Sars-Cov-2 Rna For Covid-19 Testing: Comparison Of Formulated Lysis Buffers Containing 4 To 6 M Gitc, Roche External Lysis Buffer And Qiagen Rtl Lysis Buffer, Martina F. Scallan, Catherine Dempsey, John McSharry, Isabelle O'Callaghan, Paula M. O'Connor, Conor P. Horgan, Edel Durack, Paul D. Cotter, Sarah Hudson, Humphrey A. Moynihan, Brigid Lucey 2020 School of Microbiology, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland

Validation Of A Lysis Buffer Containing 4 M Guanidinium Thiocyanate (Gitc)/ Triton X-100 For Extraction Of Sars-Cov-2 Rna For Covid-19 Testing: Comparison Of Formulated Lysis Buffers Containing 4 To 6 M Gitc, Roche External Lysis Buffer And Qiagen Rtl Lysis Buffer, Martina F. Scallan, Catherine Dempsey, John Mcsharry, Isabelle O'Callaghan, Paula M. O'Connor, Conor P. Horgan, Edel Durack, Paul D. Cotter, Sarah Hudson, Humphrey A. Moynihan, Brigid Lucey

Dept. of Biological Sciences Preprints

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased need for diagnostic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-PCR). An exponential increase in demand has resulted in a shortage of numerous reagents in particular those associated with the lysis buffer required to extract the viral RNA. Herein, we describe a rapid collective effort by hospital laboratory scientists, academic researchers and the biopharma industry to generate a validated lysis buffer. We have formulated a 4M Guanidinium thiocyanate (GITC)/ Triton X-100 Lysis buffer which provides comparable results with the recommended reagents. This buffer will ease the burden on hospital labs in their heroic efforts ...


Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil

UCARE Research Products

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...


Anthrax Event Detection Using Twitter: Analysis Of Unigram And Bigrams For Relevant Vs Non-Relevant Tweets, Michele Miller, William L. Romine 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Anthrax Event Detection Using Twitter: Analysis Of Unigram And Bigrams For Relevant Vs Non-Relevant Tweets, Michele Miller, William L. Romine

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Due to the lack of anthrax attacks in recent times, researchers have used naturally occurring events to assess their anthrax detection models, but these provide little information on how the models will perform in the context of an unannounced, intentional release of a bioterrorism agent, like anthrax. Therefore, it is important to develop a detection model using data surrounding real anthrax scares and events.We develop a methodology to detect an anthrax-related event on Twitter. We describe a process to separate the tweets concerning anthrax-related events from those not related so experts can address misconceptions and fears in real-time.Most ...


Enhanced Expression Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mer (Mertk) On Socs3-Treated Polarized Raw 264.7 Anti-Inflammatory M2c Macrophages, Sankhadip Bhadra 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Enhanced Expression Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mer (Mertk) On Socs3-Treated Polarized Raw 264.7 Anti-Inflammatory M2c Macrophages, Sankhadip Bhadra

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Macrophages are phagocytic cells located in tissues, organs and even circulated within our body as white blood cells. Based on the local cytokine milieu in tissue sites, macrophages may be polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Receptor tyrosine kinase Mer (MERTK) helps in clearing dead neutrophils and other apoptotic cells from damaged tissue sites preventing chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders. MERTK aids in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) present on the surface of apoptotic cells release “eat me” signals which are recognized by the two “bridging ligands” of MERTK receptor, Gas6 and ProS ...


Functional Sites Within The Ihnv Nonvirion Protein That Regulate Host Cellular Responses, Jeff Ringiesn, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Douglas W. Leaman 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Functional Sites Within The Ihnv Nonvirion Protein That Regulate Host Cellular Responses, Jeff Ringiesn, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Douglas W. Leaman

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Fish Rhabdoviruses are responsible for causing fatal epizootics within commercial and wild populations of various fish species around the world. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), also known as the Salmonid novirhabdovirus, is enzootic along the Pacific Coast of North America and is comprised of five genogroups, each of which is endemic to a specific geographical location. Once the virus enters the host through the fin epithelia, IHNV infection causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid species. The disease is highly fatal and presents with signs such as abdominal distension, bulging of the eyes, anemia, and necrosis of vital organs such as ...


Development Of An Attenuated Zika Virus By Editing The 5’ Untranslated Region, E. Ashley Thompson 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of An Attenuated Zika Virus By Editing The 5’ Untranslated Region, E. Ashley Thompson

Master's Theses

Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that usually causes no symptoms to mild febrile in humans, and it has been regarded as an insignificant pathogen to public health. However, recent outbreaks of ZIKV infection have revealed that ZIKV can cause severe neurological effects in adults, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), and in infants whose mothers acquired the virus during pregnancy, causing Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Currently, no approved vaccine is available and there is a critical need to develop an effective and safe vaccine. While most vaccine developmental strategies target the viral prM-E protein of ZIKV, we aimed to ...


Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Potential Drivers In The Aquatic Environments, Shuo Shen 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Potential Drivers In The Aquatic Environments, Shuo Shen

Dissertations

As antibiotic resistance genes in aquatic environment have been increasing across the world, affecting water quality and public health, many studies documented concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and some studies discussed their potential drivers. However, systematic and quantitative reviews that link antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to anthropogenic and environmental factors are limited. Nevertheless, this information will be important for developing regulation policy on controlling antibiotic use and therefore reducing potential risks to antibiotic resistance. I conducted meta-analysis of ARGs concentration at a global scale using Bayesian inference to explore climatic and socio-economic factors as drivers. I found local-scale climatic variables ...


Genome Sequencing Analysis Of Laboratory Isolate Of Francisella Noatunensis Subs. Orientalis, Joseph Paquette 2020 University of Rhode Island

Genome Sequencing Analysis Of Laboratory Isolate Of Francisella Noatunensis Subs. Orientalis, Joseph Paquette

Senior Honors Projects

Francisella noatunensis subs. orientalis is a known fish pathogen that has been most notably isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Costa Rica. The genome of this Francisella species pathogen has been sequenced using Next-Generation Sequencing and been made available for the scientific community. Dr. Kathryn Ramsey’s research laboratory in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Rhode Island works with several Francisella species pathogens and is interested in identifying the differences, if any, between the known genome sequence of Francisella noatunensis and that of a laboratory isolate of the same species. With the use of ...


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho ...


Mitochondria As A Potential Antifungal Target For Isocyanide Compounds, Nancy Nguyen, Virendra Tiwari, Medhanjali DasGupta, David Berkowitz, Mark A. Wilson, Wayne R. Riekhof 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mitochondria As A Potential Antifungal Target For Isocyanide Compounds, Nancy Nguyen, Virendra Tiwari, Medhanjali Dasgupta, David Berkowitz, Mark A. Wilson, Wayne R. Riekhof

UCARE Research Products

The discovery of antibiotics and antifungals greatly impacted medicine and human health, allowing the effective treatment of infections that were previously deadly. However, due to routine and sometimes excessive usage of these compounds, the development of antimicrobial resistance has created a need for new antibiotic and antifungal compounds. Isocyanide compounds have been shown to have antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-cancer properties, but very little is known about their biochemical effects. Our research aims to understand the mechanism of action of isocyanide compounds. We have conducted a genetic screen of a Saccharomyces gene-deletion (“knockout”) collection on media containing an easily synthesized model ...


Assembly And Identification Of Novel Viruses In The Aquatic Invertebrate Daphnia Magna, Freddy L. Gonzalez, Reilly O. Cooper, Clayton E. Cressler 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assembly And Identification Of Novel Viruses In The Aquatic Invertebrate Daphnia Magna, Freddy L. Gonzalez, Reilly O. Cooper, Clayton E. Cressler

UCARE Research Products

Microbiome studies have been critical to understanding host health and life history. Many studies primarily focus on understanding the impacts of bacteria on the host, while fewer examine the impacts of viruses on host fitness or the interaction between viruses and bacteria within a host. Here, we utilized shotgun sequencing to identify whether viruses were present in the model organism Daphnia magna. VIBRANT, a bioinformatic tool that utilizes hybrid machine learning and protein similarity to identify lytic genomes and other novel viruses, was used on sequencing data from four samples of adult and juvenile Daphnia. We found a complete, novel ...


Creation Of An Influenza B Epigraph Vaccine, Leigh Jahnke, Kristine Hoagstrom, Eric A. Weaver 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Creation Of An Influenza B Epigraph Vaccine, Leigh Jahnke, Kristine Hoagstrom, Eric A. Weaver

UCARE Research Products

The CDC struggles to predict the upcoming influenza viruses resulting in an ineffective influenza vaccine. The 2019 – 2020 influenza vaccine provides an example of vaccine mismatch where the vaccine poorly matches the circulating influenza strains. We have created Influenza B Epigraph hemagglutinin (HA) immunogens that are computationally designed to select the greatest coverage of B and T cell epitopes in the natural population. Our preliminary data shows Epigraph immunogens induce superior cross-reactive antibody responses, overall T cell immunity, breadth of T cell epitopes, and protection against influenza virus. The primary goal of this study is to clone the influenza B ...


Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan 2020 Michigan State University

Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan

Virology Papers

Intracellular iron concentration is tightly regulated to maintain cell viability. Iron plays important roles in electron transport, nucleic acid synthesis, and oxidative stress. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific genomic island carries a putative metal transport operon that includes MAP3773c, which encodes a Fur-like protein. Although well characterized as a global regulator of iron homeostasis in multiple bacteria, the function of Fur (ferric uptake regulator) in MAP is unknown as this organism also carries IdeR (iron dependent regulator), a native iron regulatory protein specific to mycobacteria. Computational analysis using PRODORIC identified 23 different pathways involved in respiration, metabolism, and ...


Amino Acid Sensing Ability By The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin In Oligodendrocytes, Emma England 2020 Trinity College

Amino Acid Sensing Ability By The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin In Oligodendrocytes, Emma England

Senior Theses and Projects

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that require substantial nutrients such as lipids and amino acids to create the extensive, metabolically expensive myelin sheath surrounding the axons of neurons. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulatory kinase that is necessary for the maturation of progenitor OLs through their distinct oligo-lineage phases. Amino acids are vital for the functioning of cells. The focus of this study was to determine if mTOR activity is dependent on the availability of leucine, methionine, and alanine. This was assessed by examining the phosphorylation level of the ...


Avoiding Drug Resistance By Substrate Envelope-Guided Design: Toward Potent And Robust Hcv Ns3/4a Protease Inhibitors, Ashley N. Matthew, Jacqueto Zephyr, Nageswara Rao Desaboini, Mina Henes, Wasih Kamran, Klajdi Kosovrasti, Adam Hedger, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Jennifer Timm, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Avoiding Drug Resistance By Substrate Envelope-Guided Design: Toward Potent And Robust Hcv Ns3/4a Protease Inhibitors, Ashley N. Matthew, Jacqueto Zephyr, Nageswara Rao Desaboini, Mina Henes, Wasih Kamran, Klajdi Kosovrasti, Adam Hedger, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Jennifer Timm, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects millions of people worldwide, causing chronic liver disease that can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplant. In the last several years, the advent of direct-acting antivirals, including NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), has remarkably improved treatment outcomes of HCV-infected patients. However, selection of resistance-associated substitutions and polymorphisms among genotypes can lead to drug resistance and in some cases treatment failure. A proactive strategy to combat resistance is to constrain PIs within evolutionarily conserved regions in the protease active site. Designing PIs using the substrate envelope is a rational strategy to decrease the susceptibility ...


Effect Of Homofermentative Inoculant On Fermentation Characteristics And Nutritive Values Of Corn Silage, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif, Iffat Tahira, Nighat Sultana, Mujahid Hasan 2020 Agripak Labs, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Effect Of Homofermentative Inoculant On Fermentation Characteristics And Nutritive Values Of Corn Silage, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif, Iffat Tahira, Nighat Sultana, Mujahid Hasan

Journal of Bioresource Management

An in vitro study was planned to assess the effects of a homofermentative microbial inoculant on the fermentation parameters and nutritive value of corn silage. The inoculant was applied at concentrations of 5x104cfu/g of forage (T1), 1x105cfu/g of forage (T2) 1.5x105cfu/g of forage (T3) and a negative control group (T0) without bacterial inoculant in three replicates each. At day 3, 7, 45 and 90 of the experiment individual buckets were opened to characterize the material, quick acidification, dry matter recovery, and aerobic stability of silage respectively. The temperature of the ...


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson 2020 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is ...


Comparison Of Five Methods For Detection Of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases In Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria, Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso, Subhi H. Khalaf 2020 Biophysics Dept., College of Science, University of Mosul

Comparison Of Five Methods For Detection Of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases In Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria, Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso, Subhi H. Khalaf

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in 55 isolates of Gram negative enteric bacteria isolated from lower respiratory tract infections, was investigated by using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI method which showed that 41.8% of the isolates produced this type of β-lactamases, and that Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were the most producing species with a production rate of 61.1%, followed by Escherichia coli isolates 43.75%. Five confirmatory methods were used to detect these enzymes: ceftazidime agar method, double-disk synergy method, combination disk method, modified 3D extract method and enzymatic disks method. The study indicated that ceftazidime agar method ...


Comparisons Of Antibody Populations In Different Pre-Fusion F Vlp-Immunized Cotton Rat Dams And Their Offspring, Lori McGinnes Cullen, Marina S. Boukhvalova, Jorge C. G. Blanco, Trudy G. Morrison 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Comparisons Of Antibody Populations In Different Pre-Fusion F Vlp-Immunized Cotton Rat Dams And Their Offspring, Lori Mcginnes Cullen, Marina S. Boukhvalova, Jorge C. G. Blanco, Trudy G. Morrison

Open Access Articles

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection poses a significant risk for infants. Since the direct vaccination of infants is problematic, maternal vaccination may provide a safer, more effective approach to their protection. In the cotton rat (CR) model, we have compared the immunization of pregnant CR dams with virus-like particles assembled with the prototype mutation stabilized pre-fusion F protein, DS-Cav1, as well two alternative mutation stabilized pre-fusion proteins (UC-2 F, UC-3 F) and showed that the alternative pre-fusion F VLPs protected the offspring of immunized dams significantly better than DS-Cav1 F VLPs (Blanco, et al. J. Virol. 93: e00914). Here, we ...


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