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Mutation Of Aspergillus Sp. Using Ultraviolet Light And Nitrous Acid For Amylase Production From Banana Peels, Cyprian Erumiseli Oshoma, Johnson Oche Akor, Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Marcel James Ikenebomeh 2022 Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin City 300213, Nigeria

Mutation Of Aspergillus Sp. Using Ultraviolet Light And Nitrous Acid For Amylase Production From Banana Peels, Cyprian Erumiseli Oshoma, Johnson Oche Akor, Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Marcel James Ikenebomeh

Makara Journal of Science

Strain improvement through mutagenesis is important in the commercial development of microbial fermentation. This study aimed to produce amylase from banana (Musa sapientum) peels by using mutant Aspergillus sp. strains obtained via ultraviolet (UV) radiation and nitrous acid-based mutagenesis. Results revealed that banana peels pretreated with 0.8 N HCl had a biomass yield of 3.02 g/L and amylase activity of 2.81 U/L. Of the UV mutants, strain AUV1 had the highest biomass and amylase activity of 4.50 ± 0.21 g/L and 3.46 ± 0.14 U/L, respectively. Subsequently, HNO2 mutants showed that strain ANA6 had 30.64% and …


Ridinilazole: A Novel, Narrow-Spectrum Antimicrobial Agent Targeting Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley 2022 Edith Cowan University

Ridinilazole: A Novel, Narrow-Spectrum Antimicrobial Agent Targeting Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile infection (CDI) remains an urgent threat to patients in health systems worldwide. Recurrent CDI occurs in up to 30% of cases due to sustained dysbiosis of the gut microbiota which normally protects against CDI. Associated costs of initial and recurrent episodes of CDI impose heavy financial burdens on health systems. Vancomycin and metronidazole have been the mainstay of therapy for CDI for many years; however, these agents continue to cause significant disruption to the gut microbiota and thus carry a high risk of recurrence for CDI patients. Treatment regimens are now turning towards novel narrow spectrum antimicrobial …


Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. McMurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang 2022 Emory University, United States of America

Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Children in low-resource settings carry enteric pathogens asymptomatically and are frequently treated with antibiotics, resulting in opportunities for pathogens to be exposed to antibiotics when not the target of treatment (i.e., bystander exposure). We quantified the frequency of bystander antibiotic exposures for enteric pathogens and estimated associations with resistance among children in eight low-resource settings. We analyzed 15,697 antibiotic courses from 1,715 children aged 0 to 2 y from the MAL-ED birth cohort. We calculated the incidence of bystander exposures and attributed exposures to respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. We associated bystander exposure with phenotypic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in …


The Cryptococcus Neoformans Flc1 Homologue Controls Calcium Homeostasis And Confers Fungal Pathogenicity In The Infected Hosts, Piotr R. Stempinski, Kristie D. Goughenour, Lukas M. du Plooy, J. Andrew Alspaugh, Michal A. Olszewski, Lukasz Kozubowski 2022 Clemson University

The Cryptococcus Neoformans Flc1 Homologue Controls Calcium Homeostasis And Confers Fungal Pathogenicity In The Infected Hosts, Piotr R. Stempinski, Kristie D. Goughenour, Lukas M. Du Plooy, J. Andrew Alspaugh, Michal A. Olszewski, Lukasz Kozubowski

Open Access Publishing Fund

Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic yeast pathogen, relies on a complex network of stress response pathways that allow for proliferation in the host. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stress responses are regulated by integral membrane proteins containing a transient receptor potential (TRP) domain, including the flavin carrier protein 1 (Flc1), which regulates calcium homeostasis and flavin transport. Here, we report that deletion of C. neoformans FLC1 results in cytosolic calcium elevation and increased nuclear content of calcineurin-dependent transcription factor Crz1, which is associated with an aberrant cell wall chitin overaccumulation observed in the flc1Δ mutant. Absence of Flc1 or inhibition …


Esculin Hydrolysis Negative And Tcda-Only Producing Strains Of Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile From The Environment In Western Australia, Nirajmohan Shivaperumal, Daniel R. Knight, Korakrit Imwattana, Grace O. Androga, Barbara J. Chang, Thomas V. Riley 2022 Edith Cowan University

Esculin Hydrolysis Negative And Tcda-Only Producing Strains Of Clostridium (Clostridioides) Difficile From The Environment In Western Australia, Nirajmohan Shivaperumal, Daniel R. Knight, Korakrit Imwattana, Grace O. Androga, Barbara J. Chang, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background and Aims: Clostridium (Clostridiodes) difficile clade 3 ribotype (RT) 023 strains that fail to produce black colonies on bioMérieux ChromID agar have been reported, as well as variant strains of C. difficile that produce only toxin A. We have recently isolated strains of C. difficile from the environment in Western Australia (WA) with similar characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterize these strains. It was hypothesized that a putative β-glucosidase gene was lacking in these strains of C. difficile, including RT 023, leading to white colonies. Methods and Results: A total of 17 environmental isolates of C. …


Listeria Monocytogenes Is A Solvent Tolerant Organism Secreting A Solvent Stable Lipase: Potential Biotechnological Applications, Priyanka Priyanka Dr, Gemma K. Kinsella, Gary T. Henehan Prof, Barry J. Ryan Dr 2022 Technological University Dublin

Listeria Monocytogenes Is A Solvent Tolerant Organism Secreting A Solvent Stable Lipase: Potential Biotechnological Applications, Priyanka Priyanka Dr, Gemma K. Kinsella, Gary T. Henehan Prof, Barry J. Ryan Dr

Articles

Purpose The emerging biobased economy will require robust, adaptable, organisms for the production and processing of biomaterials as well as for bioremediation. Recently, the search for solvent tolerant organisms and solvent tolerant enzymes has intensifed. Resilient organisms secreting solvent stable lipases are of particular interest for biotechnological applications.

Methods Screening of soil samples for lipase-producing organisms was carried out on Rhodamine B plates. The most productive lipase-producing organisms were further screened for their resistance to solvents commonly used in biotechnological applications.

Results In the course of screening, one of the isolated organisms that exhibited extracellular lipaseactivity, was identifed as the …


Igg Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 In Asymptomatic Blood Donors At Two Time Points In Karachi, Muhammad Hasan, Bushra Moiz, Shama Qaiser, Kiran I. Masood, Zara Ghous, Areeba Hussain, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Syed Hani Abidi, Kulsoom Ghias, Erum Khan, Zahra Hasan 2022 Aga Khan University

Igg Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 In Asymptomatic Blood Donors At Two Time Points In Karachi, Muhammad Hasan, Bushra Moiz, Shama Qaiser, Kiran I. Masood, Zara Ghous, Areeba Hussain, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Syed Hani Abidi, Kulsoom Ghias, Erum Khan, Zahra Hasan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Introduction: An estimated 1.5 million cases were reported in Pakistan until 23 March, 2022. However, SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing capacity has been limited and the incidence of COVID-19 infections is unknown. Volunteer healthy blood donors can be a control population for assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in the population. We determined COVID-19 seroprevalence during the second pandemic wave in Karachi in donors without known infections or symptoms in 4 weeks prior to enrollment.
Materials and methods: We enrolled 558 healthy blood donors at the Aga Khan University Hospital between December 2020 and February 2021. ABO blood groups were determined. Serum IgG reactivity …


Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advancements in sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological sciences and led to the emergence of a number of fields of research. One such field of research is metagenomics, which is the study of the genomic content of complex communities of bacteria. The goal of this thesis was to contribute computational methodology that can maximize the data generated in these studies and to apply these protocols human and environmental metagenomic samples.

Standard metagenomic analyses include a step for binning of assembled contigs, which has previously been shown to exclude mobile genetic elements, and I demonstrated that this phenomenon extends to all conjugative …


Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr. 2022 Western University

Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr.

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The microbiota is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The nasal milieu secretes immune molecules that can be influenced by diverse bacteria. Hence commensals that enhance anti-viral responses may confer resistance to respiratory viral infection.

Our collaborators have identified 7 microbial state types (CST) defined by indicator species in the nose and recently, through analyses of nasal immune molecules, we have categorized the nasal immune profile types into 8 groups (IPT). Although the IPTs correlated with certain CSTs, the influence of the nasal microbiome on susceptibility to respiratory pathogens is still unknown.

Defining this complex relationship requires a …


Behavioural Support And Nicotine Replacement Therapy For Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: Protocol For A Pilot Randomised-Controlled Multi-Country Trial, Faraz Siddiqui, Linda Bauld, Ray Croucher, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Mona Kanaan, Subhash Pokhrel, Rumana Huque, Romaina Iqbal, Javaid Ahmed Khan 2022 University of York, United Kingdom

Behavioural Support And Nicotine Replacement Therapy For Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: Protocol For A Pilot Randomised-Controlled Multi-Country Trial, Faraz Siddiqui, Linda Bauld, Ray Croucher, Cath Jackson, Ian Kellar, Mona Kanaan, Subhash Pokhrel, Rumana Huque, Romaina Iqbal, Javaid Ahmed Khan

Community Health Sciences

Background: Smokeless tobacco (ST) is consumed globally by more than 350 million people, with approximately 85% of all users based in South and Southeast Asia. In this region, ST products are cheap and easily accessible. Evidence-based interventions to people quit ST use are lacking. This study aims to test the feasibility of conducting a future definitive trial of ST cessation, using a culturally adapted behavioural intervention, and/or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in three South Asian countries.
Methods: We will conduct a factorial design, randomised-controlled pilot trial in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Daily ST users will be recruited from primary health …


Consequences Of Biofilm Architecture On Vibrio Cholerae Ecology And Life History, Benjamin Ray Wucher 2022 Dartmouth College

Consequences Of Biofilm Architecture On Vibrio Cholerae Ecology And Life History, Benjamin Ray Wucher

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The diversity of microbes and the environments they inhabit are staggering. In many of these environments, bacteria have evolved to form sessile surface attached communities called biofilms. These biofilms have wide reaching impacts from importance in global carbon cycling, to persistent catheter infections, to biofouling and wastewater treatment. While many species of microbes form biofilms to survive in their environment, the architectures of these structures vary widely between organisms. Even though a great deal of work has been done to understand bacterial communities and their functions, little work has examined how the spatial aspects of biofilm architecture can affect the …


Functional Characterization Of A High-Throughput In Vitro Model To Predict Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (Fmt) Donor Success, Catherine M. Andary 2022 Western University

Functional Characterization Of A High-Throughput In Vitro Model To Predict Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (Fmt) Donor Success, Catherine M. Andary

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the administration of donor faecal matter to a diseased recipient with the goal of remodeling the host microbiome to provide health benefits. In recent years, FMT has emerged as a potential therapy for a variety of microbiome-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Trimethylamine (TMA) is an atherosclerosis-linked metabolite generated by the gut microbiota from dietary precursors which is then oxidized to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by the liver, contributing to increased gut permeability. It has been shown that FMT may alter or restore the gut microbiome of recipients to reduce plasma TMAO levels. Despite its potential, the …


Exploring The Use Of Covellite As A Proxy For Corrosion Of Native Copper By Sulphur Reducing Bacteria, Manan K. Joshi 2022 Western University

Exploring The Use Of Covellite As A Proxy For Corrosion Of Native Copper By Sulphur Reducing Bacteria, Manan K. Joshi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

We are analyzing the effect of sulphate reducing bacteria on native copper, and using that evidence to further support the initiative of having a deep geological repository to store nuclear material. Sulphate reducing bacteria are a concern for the deep geological repository as they cause the corrosion of regular copper. However native copper has gone billions of years without corrosion, which could either mean that it had not been exposed to sulphate reducing bacteria over the billions of years, or native copper is able to withstand corrosion despite the contact of sulphate reducing bacteria. We can find out by trying …


From The Headlines: A Textual Analysis Of Social Polarization And Discord In Times Of Pandemic Across A Century In The United States, Alexa DeMarco 2022 Brigham Young University

From The Headlines: A Textual Analysis Of Social Polarization And Discord In Times Of Pandemic Across A Century In The United States, Alexa Demarco

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the past century, three major pandemics have affected the United States – the Spanish Flu, AIDS, and COVID-19. Each of these pandemics has tested the capabilities of the public health sector and the social resilience of the population. Scientists have studied the viruses and implemented public health measures to limit viral transmission, but the social responses to these preventative measures proved to be difficult to predict and control. The dissonance and polarization between the public health initiatives and the response of the general public in the most recent pandemic was apparent. Was this a pattern in other pandemics? Was …


Novel Signal Sequences And Fusion Partners For Paratransgenesis In Asaia, Christina Grogan 2022 Duquesne University

Novel Signal Sequences And Fusion Partners For Paratransgenesis In Asaia, Christina Grogan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mosquitoes transmit many pathogens that cause human disease. One such disease, malaria, is caused by parasites in the genus Plasmodium, infecting over 200 million people and killing over 600,000 per year. Current strategies to control vector-transmitted diseases are increasingly undermined by mosquito and pathogen resistance. Research has turned to additional and novel methods of control, such as altering the microbiota of the vectors. In this method, called paratransgenesis, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified to affect the mosquito’s phenotype by engineering them to deliver antiplasmodial molecules into the midgut to kill parasites. These molecules must be released by the …


Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler 2022 Duquesne University

Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities contain densely packed cells where competition for space and resources are fierce. These communities are generally referred to as biofilms and provide advantages to individual cells against immunological and antimicrobial intervention, dehydration, and predation. High intracellular pools of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) cause cells to aggregate during biofilm formation through the production of diverse extracellular polymers. Genes that encode c-di-GMP catalytic enzymes are commonly mutated during chronic infections where opportunists display enhanced resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Our lab uses an emergent multicellular trait in the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to study the emergence of c-di-GMP mutations …


Effects Of Mass Death On Community Structure And Ecosystem Function, Abby Kimpton Jones 2022 Mississippi State University

Effects Of Mass Death On Community Structure And Ecosystem Function, Abby Kimpton Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Death and decomposition are natural processes that are generally well-understood. However, large events of death, such as mass mortality events (MMEs) are increasing in frequency and their impacts on the ecosystem are largely unknown. These events may have both bottom-up effects from increased nutrient input as well as top-down effects from loss of an ecological functional group by the affected population. Different functional MMEs may result in different top-down effects, creating cascading effects. In Chapter 1, I test the hypothesis that scavenger and herbivore simulated MMEs generate novel bottom-up and top-down effects. Results indicate that MMEs have a significant effect …


Qualitative Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophage Kaomega, Emilee Carr 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

Qualitative Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophage Kaomega, Emilee Carr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae that is a common nosocomial pathogen causing pneumonia, infections in the bloodstream, wound infections, and meningitis. It has developed natural resistance to multiple antibiotics, most notably carbapenems which are often seen as the last line of defense against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages are being investigated as a promising alternative treatment to antibiotics in fighting these resistant pathogens. KaOmega, a Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage, was isolated, sequenced, and annotated to characterize and understand its potential for use in a phage therapy. Characterization included Phyre2 analysis to predict putative protein functions based on structural homology, burst size …


The Sars-Cov-2 Differential Genomic Adaptation In Response To Varying Uvindex Reveals Potential Genomic Resources For Better Covid-19 Diagnosis And Prevention, Naveed Iqbal, Muhammad Rafiq, Masooma Ali, Sanaullah Tareen, Maqsood Ahmad, Faheem Nawaz, Sumair Khan, Rida Riaz, Ting Yang, Ambrin Fatima 2022 Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Pakistan

The Sars-Cov-2 Differential Genomic Adaptation In Response To Varying Uvindex Reveals Potential Genomic Resources For Better Covid-19 Diagnosis And Prevention, Naveed Iqbal, Muhammad Rafiq, Masooma Ali, Sanaullah Tareen, Maqsood Ahmad, Faheem Nawaz, Sumair Khan, Rida Riaz, Ting Yang, Ambrin Fatima

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic disease reported in almost every country and causes life-threatening, severe respiratory symptoms. Recent studies showed that various environmental selection pressures challenge the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infectivity and, in response, the virus engenders new mutations, leading to the emergence of more virulent strains of WHO concern. Advance prediction of the forthcoming virulent SARS-CoV-2 strains in response to the principal environmental selection pressures like temperature and solar UV radiation is indispensable to overcome COVID-19. To discover the UV-solar radiation-driven genomic adaption of SARS-CoV-2, a curated dataset of 2,500 full-grade genomes from …


Genome Sequence Of Sn1, A Bacteriophage That Infects Sphaerotilus Natans And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, K.M. Damitha Gunathilake, Denise M. Tremblay, Pier-Luc Plante, Ellen Jensen, Kenneth Nickerson, Sylvain Moineau 2022 Université Laval

Genome Sequence Of Sn1, A Bacteriophage That Infects Sphaerotilus Natans And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, K.M. Damitha Gunathilake, Denise M. Tremblay, Pier-Luc Plante, Ellen Jensen, Kenneth Nickerson, Sylvain Moineau

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Phage SN1 infects Sphaerotilus natans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Its genome consists of 61,858 bp (64.3% GC) and 89 genes, including 32 with predicted functions. SN1 genome is very similar to Pseudomonas phage M6, which contains hypermodified thymidines. Genome analyses revealed similar base-modifying genes as those found in M6.

Phage SN1 was isolated in 1979 from activated sludge samples obtained from a wastewater treatment plant (Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) using S. natans ATCC 13338 as the host (1, 2). An early study showed that the siphophage SN1 has unusual bases in its genome as confirmed by cellulose thin-layer chromatography (1). Its …


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