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College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, March 2021, College Of Natural Sciences 2021 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, March 2021, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 2. Issue 3

Contents:

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2-3 Awards and Recognition
Page 4 Student Club Spotlight: MICROBIOLOGY CLUB
Page 5 Research Spotlight: Dr. Chakravarty
Page 6 Open PRAIRIE Data; Grants Awarded in CNS; Research Collquia
Page 7 A Busy Month in Review; Media Coverage of the College


The International Scientific Association For Probiotics And Prebiotics (Isapp) Consensus Statement On Fermented Foods, Maria L. Marco, Mary Ellen Sanders, Michael Gänzle, Marie Claire Arrieta, Paul D. Cotter, Luc De Vuyst, Colin Hill, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Sarah Lebeer, Dan Merenstein, Gregor Reid, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Robert Hutkins 2021 University of California, Davis

The International Scientific Association For Probiotics And Prebiotics (Isapp) Consensus Statement On Fermented Foods, Maria L. Marco, Mary Ellen Sanders, Michael Gänzle, Marie Claire Arrieta, Paul D. Cotter, Luc De Vuyst, Colin Hill, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Sarah Lebeer, Dan Merenstein, Gregor Reid, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Robert Hutkins

Microbiology & Immunology Publications

An expert panel was convened in September 2019 by The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to develop a definition for fermented foods and to describe their role in the human diet. Although these foods have been consumed for thousands of years, they are receiving increased attention among biologists, nutritionists, technologists, clinicians and consumers. Despite this interest, inconsistencies related to the use of the term ‘fermented’ led the panel to define fermented foods and beverages as “foods made through desired microbial growth and enzymatic conversions of food components”. This definition, encompassing the many varieties of fermented foods, is ...


Female Genital Tuberculosis In Pakistan - A Retrospective Review Of 10-Year Laboratory Data And Analysis Of 32 Cases, Tazeen Fatima, Rumina Hasan, Faisal Malik, Imran Ahmed, Linda Alice Bartlett, Michael G. Gravett, Sadia Shakoor 2021 Aga Khan University

Female Genital Tuberculosis In Pakistan - A Retrospective Review Of 10-Year Laboratory Data And Analysis Of 32 Cases, Tazeen Fatima, Rumina Hasan, Faisal Malik, Imran Ahmed, Linda Alice Bartlett, Michael G. Gravett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an underobserved clinical entity owing to diagnostic challenges stemming from difficulty of obtaining diagnostic specimens and paucibacillary nature of the disease. Yet, FGTB is a cause of infertility, pelvic pain, or menstrual irregularities in high-burden countries. To assess laboratory and microbiology diagnostic utilization for FGTB in Pakistan, we have collected data from 2007 to 2016 to inform the need for improved laboratory diagnostics. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of FGTB as culture-confirmed extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and to describe the characteristics of women with culture-confirmed FGTB in a nationwide laboratory ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute Of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canonical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences containing these potential GQ sequences suggested the existence of ...


Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela de Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves 2021 University of Minho

Ifnγ And Inos-Mediated Alterations In The Bone Marrow And Thymus And Its Impact On Mycobacterium Avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy [Preprint], Palmira Barreira-Silva, Rita Melo-Miranda, Claudia Nobrega, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Margarida Borges, Daniela De Sá Calçada, Samuel M. Behar, Rui Appelberg, Margarida Correia-Neves

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Disseminated infection with the high virulence strain of Mycobacterium avium 25291 lead to progressive thymic atrophy. We previously uncovered that M. avium-induced thymic atrophy is due to increased levels of glucocorticoids synergizing with nitric oxide (NO) produced by interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated macrophages. Where and how these mediators are playing, was yet to be understood. We hypothesized that IFNγ and NO might be affecting bone marrow (BM) T cell precursors and/or T cell differentiation in the thymus. We show that M. avium infection causes a reduction on the percentage of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPP) and common lymphoid progenitors ...


Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cd4 T Cell Help Prevents Cd8 T Cell Exhaustion And Promotes Control Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection [Preprint], Yu-Jung Lu, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Kelly Cavallo, Samuel M. Behar

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CD4 T cells are essential for immunity to tuberculosis because they produce cytokines including interferon-γ. Whether CD4 T cells act as “helper” cells to promote optimal CD8 T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unknown. Using two independent models, we show that CD4 T cell help enhances CD8 effector functions and prevents CD8 T cell exhaustion. We demonstrate synergy between CD4 and CD8 T cells in promoting the survival of infected mice. Purified helped, but not helpless, CD8 T cells efficiently restrict intracellular bacterial growth in vitro. Thus, CD4 T cell help plays an essential role in generating protective CD8 ...


Evaluation Of Humic Fertilizers Applied At Full And Reduced Nitrogen Rates On Kentucky Bluegrass Quality And Soil Health, Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Marshall D. McDaniel, Nick E. Christians 2021 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Humic Fertilizers Applied At Full And Reduced Nitrogen Rates On Kentucky Bluegrass Quality And Soil Health, Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Nick E. Christians

Agronomy Publications

Soil health and sustainable management practices have garnered much interest within the turfgrass industry. Among the many practices that enhance soil health and sustainability are applying soil additives to enhance soil biological activity and reducing nitrogen (N) inputs—complimentary practices. A two-year study was conducted to investigate if reduced N fertilizer rates applied with humic substances could provide comparable turfgrass quality as full N rates, and whether humic fertilizers would increase biological aspects of soil health (i.e., microbial biomass and activity). Treatments included synthetic fertilizer with black gypsum (SFBG), poly-coated humic-coated urea (PCHCU; two rates), urea + humic dispersing granules ...


Recombinant Paraprobiotics As A New Paradigm For Treating Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasites Of Humans, Hanchen Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Recombinant Paraprobiotics As A New Paradigm For Treating Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasites Of Humans, Hanchen Li, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of humans, e.g., hookworms, negatively impact childhood growth, cognition, nutrition, educational attainment, income, productivity, and pregnancy. Hundreds of millions of people are targeted with mass drug administration (MDA) of donated benzimidazole anthelmintics. However, benzimidazole efficacy against GINs is suboptimal, and reduced/low efficacy has been seen. Developing an anthelmintic for human MDA is daunting: it must be safe, effective, inexpensive, stable without a cold chain, and massively scalable. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein 5B (Cry5B) has anthelmintic properties that could fill this void. Here, we developed an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) containing B. thuringiensis Cry5B compatible with ...


Host Tropism Determination By Convergent Evolution Of Immunological Evasion In The Lyme Disease System [Preprint], Thomas M. Hart, Alan P. Dupuis, II, Danielle M. Tufts, Anna M. Blom, Simon Starkey, Ryan O. M. Rego, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Laura D. Kramer, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Yi-Pin Lin 2021 SUNY Albany

Host Tropism Determination By Convergent Evolution Of Immunological Evasion In The Lyme Disease System [Preprint], Thomas M. Hart, Alan P. Dupuis, Ii, Danielle M. Tufts, Anna M. Blom, Simon Starkey, Ryan O. M. Rego, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Laura D. Kramer, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Yi-Pin Lin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Microparasites selectively adapt in some hosts, known as host tropism. Transmitted through ticks and carried mainly by mammals and birds, the Lyme disease (LD) bacterium is a well-suited model to study such tropism. LD bacteria species vary in host ranges through mechanisms eluding characterization. By feeding ticks infected with different LD bacteria species, utilizing feeding chambers and live mice and quail, we found species-level differences of bacterial transmission. These differences localize on the tick blood meal, and complement, a defense in vertebrate blood, and a bacterial polymorphic protein, CspA, which inactivates complement by binding to a host complement inhibitor, FH ...


A Novel Dna And Protein Combination Covid-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection Against Sars-Cov-2 In Rhesus Macaques, Yuzhong Li, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Qihan Li, Shan Lu, Wei Cun 2021 Peking Union Medical College

A Novel Dna And Protein Combination Covid-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection Against Sars-Cov-2 In Rhesus Macaques, Yuzhong Li, Guangnan Hu, Shixia Wang, Qihan Li, Shan Lu, Wei Cun

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The current study aims to develop a safe and highly immunogenic COVID-19 vaccine. The novel combination of a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant S1 protein vaccine induced high level neutralizing antibody and T cell immune responses in both small and large animal models. More significantly, the co-delivery of DNA and protein components at the same time elicited full protection against intratracheal challenge of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in immunized rhesus macaques. As both DNA and protein vaccines have been proven safe in previous human studies, and DNA vaccines are capable of eliciting germinal center ...


Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson 2021 Iowa State University

Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson

Animal Science Publications

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne disease and consumption of contaminated poultry products, including turkey, is one source of exposure. Minimizing Salmonella colonization of commercial turkeys could decrease the incidence of Salmonella-associated human foodborne illness. Understanding host responses to these bacteria is critical in developing strategies to minimize colonization and reduce food safety risk. In this study, we evaluated bacterial load and blood leukocyte transcriptomic responses of 3-week-old turkeys challenged with the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) UK1 strain. Turkeys (n = 8/dose) were inoculated by oral gavage with 108 or 1010 ...


The C. Neoformans Cell Wall: A Scaffold For Virulence, Christine Chrissian 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The C. Neoformans Cell Wall: A Scaffold For Virulence, Christine Chrissian

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cryptococcus neoformans is a globally distributed opportunistic fungal pathogen and the causative agent of life threatening cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, resulting in ~180,000 deaths each year worldwide. A primary virulence-associated trait of this organism is the production of melanin. Melanins are a class of diverse pigments produced via the oxidation and polymerization of aromatic ring compounds that have a characteristically complex, heterogenous, and amorphous structure. They are synthesized by representatives of all biological kingdoms and share a multitude of remarkable properties such as the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light and protect against ionizing radiation. Melanin production in ...


Mining Selected Metagenomes/Metatranscriptomes For Biosynthetic Gene Clusters And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Ahmed Yamany 2021 American University in Cairo

Mining Selected Metagenomes/Metatranscriptomes For Biosynthetic Gene Clusters And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Ahmed Yamany

Theses and Dissertations

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the serious global challenges in the current century. The fact that resistance genes transfer between bacteria, coupled with the fact that the world is connected through complex dynamics. Studying microbial behavior and understanding the different factors coffering microbial resistance to a broad spectrum of the available drug classes, parallel with a comprehensive analysis of the natural microbial products as the primary source of the novel antibiotics, might shed some light on solutions for this problem. Microbial environments harbor a wide range of secondary metabolites (SM) with different functional groups. SMs are not directly involved in ...


Mfd Affects Global Transcription And The Physiology Of Stressed Bacillus Subtilis Cells, Holly Anne Martin, Anitha Sundararajan, Tatiana S. Ermi, Robert Heron, Jason Gonzales, Kaiden Lee, Diana Anguiano-Mendez, Faye Schilkey, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Eduardo A. Robleto 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Mfd Affects Global Transcription And The Physiology Of Stressed Bacillus Subtilis Cells, Holly Anne Martin, Anitha Sundararajan, Tatiana S. Ermi, Robert Heron, Jason Gonzales, Kaiden Lee, Diana Anguiano-Mendez, Faye Schilkey, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Eduardo A. Robleto

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

© Copyright © 2021 Martin, Sundararajan, Ermi, Heron, Gonzales, Lee, Anguiano-Mendez, Schilkey, Pedraza-Reyes and Robleto. For several decades, Mfd has been studied as the bacterial transcription-coupled repair factor. However, recent observations indicate that this factor influences cell functions beyond DNA repair. Our lab recently described a role for Mfd in disulfide stress that was independent of its function in nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair. Because reports showed that Mfd influenced transcription of single genes, we investigated the global differences in transcription in wild-type and mfd mutant growth-limited cells in the presence and absence of diamide. Surprisingly, we found 1,997 ...


Single-Cell Rna-Seq Reveals Transcriptomic Heterogeneity Mediated By Host-Pathogen Dynamics In Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines, Elliott D. SoRelle, Joanne Dai, Emmanuela N. Bonglack, Emma M. Heckenberg, Jeffrey Y. Zhou, Stephanie N. Giamberardino, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Simon G. Gregory, Cliburn Chan, Micah A. Luftig 2021 Duke University

Single-Cell Rna-Seq Reveals Transcriptomic Heterogeneity Mediated By Host-Pathogen Dynamics In Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines, Elliott D. Sorelle, Joanne Dai, Emmanuela N. Bonglack, Emma M. Heckenberg, Jeffrey Y. Zhou, Stephanie N. Giamberardino, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Simon G. Gregory, Cliburn Chan, Micah A. Luftig

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are generated by transforming primary B cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and are used extensively as model systems in viral oncology, immunology, and human genetics research. In this study, we characterized single-cell transcriptomic profiles of five LCLs and present a simple discrete-time simulation to explore the influence of stochasticity on LCL clonal evolution. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) revealed substantial phenotypic heterogeneity within and across LCLs with respect to immunoglobulin isotype; virus-modulated host pathways involved in survival, activation, and differentiation; viral replication state; and oxidative stress. This heterogeneity is likely attributable to intrinsic variance in primary B ...


Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco 2021 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting conserved influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes can provide valuable information for accelerating universal vaccine designs. Here, we report structural details for heterosubtypic recognition of HA from circulating and emerging IAVs by the human antibody 3I14. Somatic hypermutations play a critical role in shaping the HCDR3, which alone and uniquely among VH3-30 derived antibodies, forms contacts with five sub-pockets within the HA-stem hydrophobic groove. 3I14 light-chain interactions are also key for binding HA and contribute a large buried surface area spanning two HA protomers. Comparison of 3I14 to bnAbs from several defined ...


Crystal Structure Of Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease In Complex With The Non-Covalent Inhibitor Ml188, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Archie C. Reyes, Jeong Min Lee, Ronak Tilvawala, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Paul R. Thompson, Celia A. Schiffer 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crystal Structure Of Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease In Complex With The Non-Covalent Inhibitor Ml188, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Archie C. Reyes, Jeong Min Lee, Ronak Tilvawala, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Paul R. Thompson, Celia A. Schiffer

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Viral proteases are critical enzymes for the maturation of many human pathogenic viruses and thus are key targets for direct acting antivirals (DAAs). The current viral pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is in dire need of DAAs. The Main protease (M(pro)) is the focus of extensive structure-based drug design efforts which are mostly covalent inhibitors targeting the catalytic cysteine. ML188 is a non-covalent inhibitor designed to target SARS-CoV-1 M(pro), and provides an initial scaffold for the creation of effective pan-coronavirus inhibitors. In the current study, we found that ML188 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 M(pro) at 2.5 microM, which is ...


Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki 2021 University of California - San Diego

Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Surface expression of the common vertebrate sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by commensal and pathogenic microbes appears structurally to represent "molecular mimicry" of host sialoglycans, facilitating multiple mechanisms of host immune evasion. In contrast, ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (Kdn) is a more ancestral Sia also present in prokaryotic glycoconjugates that are structurally quite distinct from vertebrate sialoglycans. We detected human antibodies against Kdn-terminated glycans, and sialoglycan microarray studies found these anti-Kdn antibodies to be directed against Kdn-sialoglycans structurally similar to those on human cell surface Neu5Ac-sialoglycans. Anti-Kdn-glycan antibodies appear during infancy in a pattern similar to those generated following incorporation of ...


Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, MGH COVID-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Lymphoid Cells And Disease Tolerance In Sars-Cov-2 Infection [Preprint], Noah J. Silverstein, Yetao Wang, Zachary Manickas-Hill, Claudia C. Carbone, Ann Dauphin, Mgh Covid-19 Collection & Processing Team, Jonathan Z. Li, Bruce D. Walker, Xu G. Yu, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases with age, is greater in males, and is associated with decreased numbers of blood lymphoid cells. Though the reasons for these robust associations are unclear, effects of age and sex on innate and adaptive lymphoid subsets, including on homeostatic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) implicated in disease tolerance, may underlie the effects of age and sex on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to quantitate subsets of blood lymphoid cells from people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comparing those hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (n=40 ...


Metabolomics-Based Analysis Of Miniature Flask Contents Identifies Tobacco Mixture Use Among The Ancient Maya, Mario Zimmermann, Korey J. Brownstein, Luis Pantoja Díaz, Iliana Ancona Aragón, Scott R. Hutson, Barry Kidder, Shannon Tushingham, David R. Gang 2021 Washington State University

Metabolomics-Based Analysis Of Miniature Flask Contents Identifies Tobacco Mixture Use Among The Ancient Maya, Mario Zimmermann, Korey J. Brownstein, Luis Pantoja Díaz, Iliana Ancona Aragón, Scott R. Hutson, Barry Kidder, Shannon Tushingham, David R. Gang

Anthropology Faculty Publications

A particular type of miniature ceramic vessel locally known as “veneneras” is occasionally found during archaeological excavations in the Maya Area. To date, only one study of a collection of such containers successfully identified organic residues through coupled chromatography–mass spectrometry methods. That study identified traces of nicotine likely associated with tobacco. Here we present a more complete picture by analyzing a suite of possible complementary ingredients in tobacco mixtures across a collection of 14 miniature vessels. The collection includes four different vessel forms and allows for the comparison of specimens which had previously formed part of museum exhibitions with ...


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