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Articles 1 - 30 of 7549

Full-Text Articles in Microbiology

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano Sep 2020

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Background: The impact of extreme changes in weather patterns in the economy and humanity welfare are some of the biggest challenges that our civilization is facing. From the anthropogenic activities that contribute to climate change, reducing the impact of farming activities is a priority, since its responsible for up to 18% of greenhouse gases linked to such activities. To this end, we tested if the ruminal and fecal microbiomes components of 52 Brazilian Nelore bulls, belonging to two experimental groups based on the feed intervention, conventional (A) and byproducts based diet (B), could be used as biomarkers for methane (CH ...


Did You Wash Your Caving Suit? Cavers’ Role In The Potential Spread Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, The Causative Agent Of White-Nose Disease, Violeta Zhelyazkova, Antonia Hubancheva, Georgi Radoslavov, Nia Toshkova, Sebastien J. Puechmaille Sep 2020

Did You Wash Your Caving Suit? Cavers’ Role In The Potential Spread Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, The Causative Agent Of White-Nose Disease, Violeta Zhelyazkova, Antonia Hubancheva, Georgi Radoslavov, Nia Toshkova, Sebastien J. Puechmaille

International Journal of Speleology

White-Nose Disease (WND) has killed millions of hibernating bats in the US and Canada. Its causative agent, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans was introduced to North America, but is native to Europe and Asia, where it is not associated with mass mortality. Although it is nearly impossible to eradicate an emerging wildlife disease, research on P. destructans spread mechanisms can aid in prevention of new introductions and development of better environmental management strategies. It is of particular importance to quantify the potential role of people visiting caves (cavers, tourists, bat researchers, etc.) whom inadvertently move P. destructans spores between sites, and ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In The Boston Area Highlights The Role Of Recurrent Importation And Superspreading Events, Jacob Lemieux, Katherine J. Siddle, Jeremy Luban, Glen R. Gallagher, Lawrence C. Madoff, Sandra Smole, Virginia M. Pierce, Eric Rosenberg, Pardis C. Sabeti, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. Macinnis Aug 2020

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In The Boston Area Highlights The Role Of Recurrent Importation And Superspreading Events, Jacob Lemieux, Katherine J. Siddle, Jeremy Luban, Glen R. Gallagher, Lawrence C. Madoff, Sandra Smole, Virginia M. Pierce, Eric Rosenberg, Pardis C. Sabeti, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. Macinnis

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a severe, ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 in Massachusetts with 111,070 confirmed cases and 8,433 deaths as of August 1, 2020. To investigate the introduction, spread, and epidemiology of COVID-19 in the Boston area, we sequenced and analyzed 772 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the region, including nearly all confirmed cases within the first week of the epidemic and hundreds of cases from major outbreaks at a conference, a nursing facility, and among homeless shelter guests and staff. The data reveal over 80 introductions into the Boston area, predominantly from elsewhere in the United States and Europe ...


Host Immunity Increases Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reliance On Cytochrome Bd Oxidase, Yi Cai, Eleni Jaecklein, Jared Mackenzie, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Michigan State University, Xinchun Chen, Africa Health Research Institute, Christopher M. Sassetti Aug 2020

Host Immunity Increases Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reliance On Cytochrome Bd Oxidase, Yi Cai, Eleni Jaecklein, Jared Mackenzie, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Michigan State University, Xinchun Chen, Africa Health Research Institute, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In order to sustain a persistent infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must adapt to a changing environment that is shaped by the developing immune response. This necessity to adapt is evident in the flexibility of many aspects of Mtb metabolism, including a respiratory chain that consists of two distinct terminal cytochrome oxidase complexes. Under the conditions tested thus far, the bc1/aa3 complex appears to play a dominant role, while the alternative bd oxidase is largely redundant. However, presence of two terminal oxidases in this obligate pathogen implies that respiratory requirements might change during infection. We report that the ...


A Cross-Reactive Human Iga Monoclonal Antibody Blocks Sars-Cov-2 Spike-Ace2 Interaction, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Shurong Hou, Zachary Schiller, Aaron Wallace, Alla Amcheslavsky, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan Schneider, Anudeep S. Ramchetty, Chandrashekar Ganesa, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Celia A. Schiffer, Yan Wang Aug 2020

A Cross-Reactive Human Iga Monoclonal Antibody Blocks Sars-Cov-2 Spike-Ace2 Interaction, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Shurong Hou, Zachary Schiller, Aaron Wallace, Alla Amcheslavsky, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan Schneider, Anudeep S. Ramchetty, Chandrashekar Ganesa, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Celia A. Schiffer, Yan Wang

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic requiring the development of interventions for the prevention or treatment to curtail mortality and morbidity. No vaccine to boost mucosal immunity, or as a therapeutic, has yet been developed to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we discover and characterize a cross-reactive human IgA monoclonal antibody, MAb362. MAb362 binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and competitively blocks ACE2 receptor binding, by overlapping the ACE2 structural binding epitope. Furthermore, MAb362 IgA neutralizes both pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in 293 cells expressing ACE2. When converted to secretory IgA, MAb326 also neutralizes authentic SARS-CoV-2 ...


Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Strains Isolated From The Rhizosphere Of Wheat Grown In Cadmium-Contaminated Soil, Vira Hovorukha, Ankita Bhattacharyya, Olga Iungin, Hanna Tashyreva, Victoria Romanovska, Olesia Havyrliuk, Olena Bielikova, Claire Blackwell, Brian Burks, Cara Cothern, Jakia Elliott, Jonathan Hoover, Alexis Jones, Christian Leise, Linda Lowmiller, Ahmed Mohamed, Tiffany Mullen, Ethan Nettleton, Karshanda Polk, Benny Tran, Teresa Tran, Manuel Vega, Landon Ware, Emily Welch, Leandra Williams, Madison Woodward, Kaylin Young, Olga Mavrodi, Oleksandr Tashyrev, Dmitri Mavrodi Aug 2020

Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Strains Isolated From The Rhizosphere Of Wheat Grown In Cadmium-Contaminated Soil, Vira Hovorukha, Ankita Bhattacharyya, Olga Iungin, Hanna Tashyreva, Victoria Romanovska, Olesia Havyrliuk, Olena Bielikova, Claire Blackwell, Brian Burks, Cara Cothern, Jakia Elliott, Jonathan Hoover, Alexis Jones, Christian Leise, Linda Lowmiller, Ahmed Mohamed, Tiffany Mullen, Ethan Nettleton, Karshanda Polk, Benny Tran, Teresa Tran, Manuel Vega, Landon Ware, Emily Welch, Leandra Williams, Madison Woodward, Kaylin Young, Olga Mavrodi, Oleksandr Tashyrev, Dmitri Mavrodi

Faculty Publications

This study presents high-quality draft genome assemblies of six bacterial strains isolated from the roots of wheat grown in soil contaminated with cadmium. The results of this study will help to elucidate at the molecular level how heavy metals affect interactions between beneficial rhizobacteria and crop plants.


Isolation, Enumeration And Antibiotic Profiling Of Vibrio Vulnificus And V. Parahaemolyticus From Coastal Virginia, Stanley Peyton Aug 2020

Isolation, Enumeration And Antibiotic Profiling Of Vibrio Vulnificus And V. Parahaemolyticus From Coastal Virginia, Stanley Peyton

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are gram-negative, halophilic bacteria that reside in estuarine waters and are associated with infections in humans. These bacteria can cause gastroenteritis through their presence in raw fish and shellfish consumed by humans. V. vulnificus can also produce wound infections leading to severe septicemia, and in some cases, death if not treated promptly. With increasing incidence of infections due to these two organisms, research efforts have focused on potential reservoirs and environmental conditions that can increase human exposure to, and infection, with these species of bacteria. This study was conducted in order to examine the role ...


The Dhodh Inhibitor Ptc299 Arrests Sars-Cov-2 Replication And Suppresses Induction Of Inflammatory Cytokines, Jeremy Luban, Caterina Strambio De Castilla, Yetao Wang, Allan Jacobson, Stuart Peltz Aug 2020

The Dhodh Inhibitor Ptc299 Arrests Sars-Cov-2 Replication And Suppresses Induction Of Inflammatory Cytokines, Jeremy Luban, Caterina Strambio De Castilla, Yetao Wang, Allan Jacobson, Stuart Peltz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally available compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS CoV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0 to 31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known ...


Investigation Of An Elevational Gradient Reveals Strong Differences Between Bacterial And Eukaryotic Communities Coinhabiting Nepenthes Phytotelmata, Kadeem J. Gilbert, Leonora S. Bittleston, Mark Arcebal K. Naive, Anthony E. Kiszewski, Perry Archival C. Buenavente, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce Aug 2020

Investigation Of An Elevational Gradient Reveals Strong Differences Between Bacterial And Eukaryotic Communities Coinhabiting Nepenthes Phytotelmata, Kadeem J. Gilbert, Leonora S. Bittleston, Mark Arcebal K. Naive, Anthony E. Kiszewski, Perry Archival C. Buenavente, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Elevation is an important determinant of ecological community composition. It integrates several abiotic features and leads to strong, repeatable patterns of community structure, including changes in the abundance and richness of numerous taxa. However, the influence of elevational gradients on microbes is understudied relative to plants and animals. To compare the influence of elevation on multiple taxa simultaneously, we sampled phytotelm communities within a tropical pitcher plant (Nepenthes mindanaoensis) along a gradient from 400 to 1200 m a.s.l. We use a combination of metabarcoding and physical counts to assess diversity and richness of bacteria, micro-eukaryotes, and arthropods, and ...


Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (Hab) Network In Casco Bay, Maine, Zachary B. Gordon Aug 2020

Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (Hab) Network In Casco Bay, Maine, Zachary B. Gordon

All Theses And Dissertations

Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) related to marine biotoxins have considerable impacts on coastal communities and have been increasing in size and frequency globally. Maine is recognized as a leader in biotoxin management as it relates to bivalve shellfish, but it has been unclear how current management practices effect the growth of shellfish aquaculture and how they will adapt to future conditions. This research uses a collaborative approach to analyze the current state of biotoxin management in Maine. First, the current management practices in Maine were compared and contrasted with five other states dealing with similar issues. Then, the perspectives of ...


Connections Between Hydrothermal System Geochemistry And Microbiology: Traversing Tectonic Boundaries In The South-Central Peruvian Andes, Heather Upin Aug 2020

Connections Between Hydrothermal System Geochemistry And Microbiology: Traversing Tectonic Boundaries In The South-Central Peruvian Andes, Heather Upin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Geochemistry and microbiology are inherently tied in the natural world. The study of geomicrobiology has historically taken place in extreme systems, like hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and deep-sea hydrothermal vents, because the organisms that exist there have deep lineages on the tree of life and provide insight into early life on Earth. These microbes use chemical energy from nutrients available in their environment rather than relying on photosynthesis, energy obtained from the sun, to support their metabolism. The goal of this study is to improve our understanding of geological controls (for example the tectonic setting) on hot spring ...


Investigating Evolutionary Innovation In Yeast Heat Shock Protein 90, Pamela Cote-Hammarlof Jul 2020

Investigating Evolutionary Innovation In Yeast Heat Shock Protein 90, Pamela Cote-Hammarlof

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential and highly conserved chaperone that facilitates the maturation of a wide array of client proteins, including many kinases. These clients in turn regulate a wide array of cellular processes, such as signal transduction, and transcriptional reprogramming. As a result, the activity of Hsp90 has the potential to influence physiology, which in turn may influence the ability to adapt to new environments. Previous studies using a deep mutational scanning approach, (EMPIRIC) identified multiple substitutions within a 9 amino acid substrate-binding loop of yeast Hsp90 that provides a growth advantage for yeast under ...


Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Evasion Of Guanylate Binding Protein-Mediated Host Defense In Mice Requires The Esx1 Secretion System, Andrew J. Olive, Clare M. Smith, Christina E. Baer, Jörn Coers, Christopher M. Sassetti Jul 2020

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Evasion Of Guanylate Binding Protein-Mediated Host Defense In Mice Requires The Esx1 Secretion System, Andrew J. Olive, Clare M. Smith, Christina E. Baer, Jörn Coers, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cell-intrinsic immune mechanisms control intracellular pathogens that infect eukaryotes. The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) evolved to withstand cell-autonomous immunity to cause persistent infections and disease. A potent inducer of cell-autonomous immunity is the lymphocyte-derived cytokine IFNγ. While the production of IFNγ by T cells is essential to protect against Mtb, it is not capable of fully eradicating Mtb infection. This suggests that Mtb evades a subset of IFNγ-mediated antimicrobial responses, yet what mechanisms Mtb resists remains unclear. The IFNγ-inducible Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are key host defense proteins able to control infections with intracellular pathogens. GBPs were previously shown ...


Deacetylation Of Hsd17b10 By Sirt3 Regulates Cell Growth And Cell Resistance Under Oxidative And Starvation Stresses., Lu Liu, Shuaiyi Chen, Miao Yu, Chenxu Ge, Mengmeng Ren, Boya Liu, Xin Yang, Thomas W Christian, Ya-Ming Hou, Junhua Zou, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jianyuan Luo Jul 2020

Deacetylation Of Hsd17b10 By Sirt3 Regulates Cell Growth And Cell Resistance Under Oxidative And Starvation Stresses., Lu Liu, Shuaiyi Chen, Miao Yu, Chenxu Ge, Mengmeng Ren, Boya Liu, Xin Yang, Thomas W Christian, Ya-Ming Hou, Junhua Zou, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jianyuan Luo

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 10 (HSD17B10) plays an important role in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and is also involved in mitochondrial tRNA maturation. HSD17B10 missense mutations cause HSD10 mitochondrial disease (HSD10MD). HSD17B10 with mutations identified from cases of HSD10MD show loss of function in dehydrogenase activity and mitochondrial tRNA maturation, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. It has also been implicated to play roles in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD) and tumorigenesis. Here, we found that HSD17B10 is a new substrate of NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). HSD17B10 is acetylated at lysine residues K79, K99 and K105 by the acetyltransferase CBP, and the ...


Preliminary Assessment Of Microbial Community Structure Of Wind-Tidal Flats In The Laguna Madre, Texas, Usa, I-Shuo Huang, Lee J. Pinnell, Jeffrey W. Turner, Et Al Jul 2020

Preliminary Assessment Of Microbial Community Structure Of Wind-Tidal Flats In The Laguna Madre, Texas, Usa, I-Shuo Huang, Lee J. Pinnell, Jeffrey W. Turner, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Aside from two samples collected nearly 50 years ago, little is known about the microbial composition of wind tidal flats in the hypersaline Laguna Madre, Texas. These mats account for ~42% of the lagoon’s area. These microbial communities were sampled at four locations that historically had mats in the Laguna Madre, including Laguna Madre Field Station (LMFS), Nighthawk Bay (NH), and two locations in Kenedy Ranch (KRN and KRS). Amplicon sequencing of 16S genes determined the presence of 51 prokaryotic phyla dominated by Bacteroidota, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Desulfobacteria, Firmicutes, Halobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The microbial community structure of NH and KR ...


Covid-19: In The Absence Of Vaccination – ‘Mask-The-Nation’, Roy D. Sleator, Steven Darby, Alan Giltinan, Niall Smith Jul 2020

Covid-19: In The Absence Of Vaccination – ‘Mask-The-Nation’, Roy D. Sleator, Steven Darby, Alan Giltinan, Niall Smith

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

“In the absence of a vaccine, or effective antiviral, one of our only remaining strategies for controlling COVID-19 is to physically block the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community”


Dissecting Regulatory Mechanisms Of Quorum Sensing Pathways In Bacillus Subtilis, Patrick Hill Jul 2020

Dissecting Regulatory Mechanisms Of Quorum Sensing Pathways In Bacillus Subtilis, Patrick Hill

Doctoral Dissertations

Living organisms generally share a small number of characteristics, among which include maintaining homeostasis, growth, and responding to changing environments. Wherever we find life, we typically observe this life performing these tasks. Likely no environment is truly barren, so organisms must be able to continue living in crowded conditions. Humans use their senses to determine the quality of their local environment. Individuals use languages, written, spoken and digital to communicate these findings to their neighbors. Bacteria have evolved complex systems to sense these conditions, and to trigger appropriate developmental programs to help them survive, grow, and respond in changing environments ...


Host Immunity And The Colon Microbiota Of Mice Infected With Citrobacter Rodentium Are Beneficially Modulated By Lipid-Soluble Extract From Late-Cutting Alfalfa In The Early Stages Of Infection, Krysten Fries-Craft, Justin M. Anast, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth A. Bobeck Jul 2020

Host Immunity And The Colon Microbiota Of Mice Infected With Citrobacter Rodentium Are Beneficially Modulated By Lipid-Soluble Extract From Late-Cutting Alfalfa In The Early Stages Of Infection, Krysten Fries-Craft, Justin M. Anast, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Alfalfa is a forage legume commonly associated with ruminant livestock production that may be a potential source of health-promoting phytochemicals. Anecdotal evidence from producers suggests that later cuttings of alfalfa may be more beneficial to non-ruminants; however, published literature varies greatly in measured outcomes, supplement form, and cutting. The objective of this study was to measure body weight, average daily feed intake, host immunity, and the colon microbiota composition in mice fed hay, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of early (1st) and late (5th) cutting alfalfa before and after challenge with Citrobacter rodentium. Prior to inoculation, alfalfa supplementation did not have ...


Lmea, A Conserved Cell-Envelope Protein In Mycobacteria, Is Important For Antibiotic Resistance And Cell Envelope Permeability, Sarah Hassan Osman Jul 2020

Lmea, A Conserved Cell-Envelope Protein In Mycobacteria, Is Important For Antibiotic Resistance And Cell Envelope Permeability, Sarah Hassan Osman

Masters Theses

The cell envelope of mycobacteria is critical for the survival and virulence of pathogenic species during infection, and its biosynthesis has been a proven drug target. Therefore, finding new targets in the biosynthetic pathway of cell envelope components is of great interest. Mycobacterium smegmatis is a model organism for the study of the devastating pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previously, lipomannan elongation factor A (LmeA) has been identified as a cell envelope protein that is critical for the control of mannan chain length of lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), lipoglycan components of the cell envelope. The deletion mutant, ∆lmeA, accumulates abnormal LM ...


Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee Jul 2020

Anti-Crispr Proteins: Applications In Genome Engineering, Jooyoung Lee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) constitute a bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune system. The ongoing arms race between prokaryotic hosts and their invaders such as phages led to the emergence of anti-CRISPR proteins as countermeasures against the potent antiviral defense. Since the first examples of anti-CRISPRs were shown in a subset of CRISPR-Cas systems, we endeavored to uncover these naturally-occurring inhibitors that inactivate different types of CRISPR-Cas systems. In the first part of my thesis, we have identified and characterized Type II anti-CRISPR proteins that inactivate several Cas9 orthologs. We share mechanistic insights into anti-CRISPR ...


The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D Jul 2020

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious, emergent, acute, viral pneumonia that emanated sporadically in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 became pandemic in February 2020 leading to 4,942,687 confirmed cases, over 321,987 deaths and grounded several economies around the world as of May 2020. Although global researchers, epidemiologists and medical professionals rose steadily to contain the disease, indepth knowledge and concerted efforts are still evolving on the virus. This research sought to elucidate the biological Strengths, the Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to SARS-CoV-2, with a view to understanding and ...


Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer Jul 2020

Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer

LSU Master's Theses

This research assessed plankton dynamics in two urban, subtropical lakes (University Lake and City Park Lake) shortly before a proposed and approved lake restoration project. Plankton dynamics were determined in University Lake by the dilution method to attempt to quantify growth rates of phytoplankton and grazing rates of zooplankton. Landry and Hassett’s (1982) dilution method has been widely used in marine systems to estimate rates of growth and grazing. In many marine systems, nutrients must be added to prevent nutrient limitation. However, it is assumed, due to the hypereutrophic conditions, that nutrients would not be a limitation in University ...


Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Variant D614g Increases Infectivity And Retains Sensitivity To Antibodies That Target The Receptor Binding Domain., Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Thomas Nyalile, Yetao Wang, William E. Diehl, Ann Dauphin, Claudia Carbone, Kristen Veinotte, Shawn B. Egri, Pardis C. Sabeti, Christos Kyratsous, James B. Munro, Kuang Shen, Jeremy Luban Jul 2020

Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Variant D614g Increases Infectivity And Retains Sensitivity To Antibodies That Target The Receptor Binding Domain., Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Thomas Nyalile, Yetao Wang, William E. Diehl, Ann Dauphin, Claudia Carbone, Kristen Veinotte, Shawn B. Egri, Pardis C. Sabeti, Christos Kyratsous, James B. Munro, Kuang Shen, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Virus genome sequence variants that appear over the course of an outbreak can be exploited to map the trajectory of the virus from one susceptible host to another. While such variants are usually of no functional significance, in some cases they may allow the virus to transmit faster, change disease severity, or confer resistance to antiviral therapies. Since the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 as the cause of COVID-19, the virus has spread around the globe, and thousands of SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been sequenced. The rate of sequence variation among SARS-CoV-2 isolates is modest for an RNA virus but the enormous number ...


Acidic Ph Triggers Lipid Mixing Mediated By Lassa Virus Gp, Uriel Bulow, Ramesh Govindan, James B. Munro Jul 2020

Acidic Ph Triggers Lipid Mixing Mediated By Lassa Virus Gp, Uriel Bulow, Ramesh Govindan, James B. Munro

Open Access Articles

Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a lethal disease endemic to Western Africa. LASV entry is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP), a class I membrane fusogen and the sole viral surface antigen. Previous studies have identified components of the LASV entry pathway, including several cellular receptors and the requirement of endosomal acidification for infection. Here, we first demonstrate that incubation at a physiological temperature and pH consistent with the late endosome is sufficient to render pseudovirions, bearing LASV GP, non-infectious. Antibody binding indicates that this loss of infectivity is due to a conformational ...


Repression Of Tick Microrna-133 Induces Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide Expression Critical For Anaplasma Phagocytophilumsurvival In The Vector And Transmission To The Vertebrate Host, Ellango Ramasamy, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Jul 2020

Repression Of Tick Microrna-133 Induces Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide Expression Critical For Anaplasma Phagocytophilumsurvival In The Vector And Transmission To The Vertebrate Host, Ellango Ramasamy, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression. In this study, we provide evidence for the first time to show that rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection results in the down-regulation of tick microRNA-133 (miR-133), to induce Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide (isoatp4056) gene expression critical for this bacterial survival in the vector and for its transmission to the vertebrate host. Transfection studies with recombinant constructs containing transcriptional fusions confirmed binding of miR-133 to isoatp4056 mRNA. Treatment with miR-133 inhibitor resulted in increased bacterial burden and isoatp4056 expression in ticks and tick cells. In contrast, treatment with miR-133 mimic ...


Defective Early Innate Immune Response To Ectromelia Virus In The Draining Lymph Nodes Of Aged Mice Due To Impaired Dendritic Cell Accumulation., Colby Stotesbury, Eric B Wong, Lingjuan Tang, Brian Montoya, Cory J Knudson, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Luis J Sigal Jul 2020

Defective Early Innate Immune Response To Ectromelia Virus In The Draining Lymph Nodes Of Aged Mice Due To Impaired Dendritic Cell Accumulation., Colby Stotesbury, Eric B Wong, Lingjuan Tang, Brian Montoya, Cory J Knudson, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Luis J Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

It is known that aging decreases natural resistance to viral diseases due to dysfunctional innate and adaptive immune responses, but the nature of these dysfunctions, particularly in regard to innate immunity, is not well understood. We have previously shown that C57BL/6J (B6) mice lose their natural resistance to footpad infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV) due to impaired maturation and recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells to the draining popliteal lymph node (dLN). More recently, we have also shown that in young B6 mice infected with ECTV, the recruitment of NK cells is dependent on a complex cascade whereby migratory ...


Meeting Report Of The Third Annual Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium Symposium, J Philip Karl, Robyn A. Barbato, Laurel A. Doherty, Aarti Gautam, Sarah M. Glaven, Robert J. Kokoska, Dagmar Leary, Rebecca Mickol, Matthew A. Perisin, Andrew J. Hoisington, Edward J. Van Opstal, Vanessa Varaljay, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Camilla A. Mauzy, Michael S. Goodson, Jason W. Soares Jul 2020

Meeting Report Of The Third Annual Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium Symposium, J Philip Karl, Robyn A. Barbato, Laurel A. Doherty, Aarti Gautam, Sarah M. Glaven, Robert J. Kokoska, Dagmar Leary, Rebecca Mickol, Matthew A. Perisin, Andrew J. Hoisington, Edward J. Van Opstal, Vanessa Varaljay, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Camilla A. Mauzy, Michael S. Goodson, Jason W. Soares

Faculty Publications

The Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium (TSMC) was founded to enhance collaboration, coordination, and communication of microbiome research among U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) organizations and to facilitate resource, material and information sharing among consortium members. The 2019 annual symposium was held 22–24 October 2019 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH. Presentations and discussions centered on microbiome-related topics within five broad thematic areas: 1) human microbiomes; 2) transitioning products into Warfighter solutions; 3) environmental microbiomes; 4) engineering microbiomes; and 5) microbiome simulation and characterization. Collectively, the symposium provided an update on the scope of current DoD microbiome research ...


Using Soil Geospatial Properties And Environments To Explore Microbial Diversity, Sharon Faye Smith Jul 2020

Using Soil Geospatial Properties And Environments To Explore Microbial Diversity, Sharon Faye Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Soil microorganisms help maintain nutrient cycling, control carbon sequestration, impact plant productivity, and influence several soil chemical and physical properties; yet, the processes that control the microbial composition of soil and how environmental changes may affect the composition and activity of these organisms at different scales remains a difficult and intriguing puzzle for soil scientists, ecologists, and modelers. Wetlands are endangered and important ecosystems that provide several services, which are directly linked to soil function. However, few wetland assessments consider the soil environment and microbial ecology. Linking soil microbial community composition and distribution patterns to soil physio-chemical properties would provide ...


Improved Antimicrobial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles With Methylene Blue, Ermek Belekov Jul 2020

Improved Antimicrobial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles With Methylene Blue, Ermek Belekov

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Photosensitizing agents are the cornerstone of photodynamic therapy (PDT) that play essential role in deactivation process of multidrug resistant pathogens and tumor treatments. In this work we studied a photosensitizing agent made from mixture of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and methylene blue (MB) which possess improved important characteristics like high photostability and high singlet oxygen yield. Ag NPs were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation technique in different aqueous solutions like Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), citrate and Deionized (DI) water. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized in depth using with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UVVisible (UV-Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Ag NPs were ...


Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang Jul 2020

Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. EBV immortalizes primary B lymphocytes in vitro and causes excessive B lymphocyte proliferation in IM in vivo. In asymptomatic carriers, EBV-infected B lymphocytes still proliferate to certain degrees, the process of which is tightly controlled by the host immune systems. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimics key features of MS in humans and ...