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Articles 1 - 30 of 7203

Full-Text Articles in Microbiology

Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser Feb 2020

Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a widely used forage grass which shares a symbiosis with the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala. The endophyte produces an alkaloid toxin that provides herbivory, heat and drought resistance to the grass, but can cause fescue toxicosis in grazing livestock. Fescue toxicosis can lead to reduced weight gain and milk yields resulting in significant losses to the livestock industry. In this trial, 149 Angus cows across two farms were continuously exposed to toxic, endophyte-infected, fescue for a total of 13 weeks. Of those 149 cows, 40 were classified into either high (HT) or low (LT) tolerance ...


Utilization Of Mechanocatalytic Oligosaccharides By Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli As A Model Microbial Cell Factory, Tao Jin, Mats Käldström, Adriana Benavides, Marcelo D. Kaufman Rechulski, Laura R. Jarboe Feb 2020

Utilization Of Mechanocatalytic Oligosaccharides By Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli As A Model Microbial Cell Factory, Tao Jin, Mats Käldström, Adriana Benavides, Marcelo D. Kaufman Rechulski, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mechanocatalysis is a promising method for depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass. Microbial utilization of the resulting oligosaccharides is one potential route of adding value to the depolymerized biomass. However, it is unclear how readily these oligosaccharides are utilized by standard cell factories. Here, we investigate utilization of cellulose subjected to mechanocatalytic depolymerization, using ethanologenic Escherichia coli as a model fermentation organism. The mechanocatalytic oligosaccharides supported ethanol titers similar to those observed when glucose was provided at comparable concentrations. Tracking of the various oligomers, using maltose (alpha-1,4) and cellobiose (beta-1,4) oligomers as representative standards of the orientation, but not linkage ...


Isolated Antibiotic Producing Bacteria In Local Soil Samples Determined To Be Bacillus, Cassidy Potter, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2020

Isolated Antibiotic Producing Bacteria In Local Soil Samples Determined To Be Bacillus, Cassidy Potter, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

Nosocomial pathogens are multi-drug resistant to antibiotics that fight bacterial infections posing danger to the public health, the most dangerous of them being the ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.). This project is a collabortaion with the TIny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on studentsourcing antibiotic discovery from the soil. TEPI allows student-led research on local soil samples from Bettendorf, IA to discover potential novel antibiotic producing bacteria that could potentially treat ESKAPE pathogens and reduce public health risk. Two soil isolates ...


Identification Of Uncommon Antibiotic-Producing Illinois Soil Isolates, Lesly Muniz, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2020

Identification Of Uncommon Antibiotic-Producing Illinois Soil Isolates, Lesly Muniz, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

This project is a collaboration with the Tiny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on student sourcing antibiotic discovery from the soil. We researched tester strains B. subtilis and E. coli from the soil isolates obtained. We further verified if the isolates were common antibiotic bacteria. Unfortunately, this project heavily relied on biochemical tests, colony morphology, and Gram stains to reject or fail to reject our hypothesis. Our goal was to discover new antibiotic-producing bacteria that could be beneficial in combating ESKAPE strains. A proper PCR and DNA extraction would be required ...


Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. Duchene Jan 2020

Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. Duchene

International Journal of Speleology

Barite (BaSO4) speleothems have been reported from caves around the globe and interpreted to have chiefly formed in phreatic, hypogene, hydrothermal settings. Here we report two contrasting types of barite speleothems (bluish tabular crystals in a shallow pool and actively dripping greenish stalactites), which today form at lower temperatures in the non-hydrothermal and vadose environment of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, USA. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, along with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, WDS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD), characterize the habit and chemical composition as barite. Fractionation of the minor element calcium is related to growth along ...


Pseudomonas And Bacillus Soil Isolates Produce Antibiotics, Chelsea Brandt, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2020

Pseudomonas And Bacillus Soil Isolates Produce Antibiotics, Chelsea Brandt, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

The recent emergence of antibiotic resistance bacterial strains presents a significant challenge and threat to human healthcare. While new methods of treatment such as bacteriophage therapy and combinations of existing antibiotics are being researched, the human population is in dire need of new antibiotics to replace those that are ineffective. This research addresses this need by identifying antibiotic producing bacteria in a soil sample from Davenport, IA. This project is a collaboration with the Tiny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on studentsourcing antibiotic discovery from soil. Microbiology lab techniques and 16S ...


Identification Of Antibiotic Producing Soil Bacteria Against Bacillus Subtilis, Morgan Brockhouse, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2020

Identification Of Antibiotic Producing Soil Bacteria Against Bacillus Subtilis, Morgan Brockhouse, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

This project is a collaboration with the Tiny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on student-sourcing antibiotic discovery from soil. Individual strains of soil bacteria were isolated and produced antibiotic against Bacillus subtilis. Two of these samples were sequenced using the 16S rRNA gene to reveal they are very closely related to the genus Pseudomonas.


Survey Of Histoplasma Capsulatum In Bat Guano And Status Of Histoplasmosis In Slovenia, Central Europe, Janez Mulec, Saša Simčič, Tadeja Kotar, Romina Kofol, Sanja Stopinšek Jan 2020

Survey Of Histoplasma Capsulatum In Bat Guano And Status Of Histoplasmosis In Slovenia, Central Europe, Janez Mulec, Saša Simčič, Tadeja Kotar, Romina Kofol, Sanja Stopinšek

International Journal of Speleology

There have been increasing reports on the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum in some European countries. The study investigated the presence of Histoplasma in bat guanos, speleologists with records of visiting Histoplasma-endemic regions and patients with histoplasmosis. A commercial ALPHA Histoplasma Antigen enzyme immunoassay was tested as an alternative methodology to detect Histoplasma in environment and compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The presence of Histoplasma antigen in bat guanos was not confirmed by PCR. Among 14 healthy speleologists, two were indicated as having the Histoplasma antigen in urine, but expressed negative PCR-specific results for the Histoplasma antigen. Five ...


Long Non-Coding Rna Lincrna-Eps Inhibits Host Defense Against Listeria Monocytogenes Infection, Federica Agliano, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Anthony T. Vella, Vijay A. Rathinam, Andrei E. Medvedev Jan 2020

Long Non-Coding Rna Lincrna-Eps Inhibits Host Defense Against Listeria Monocytogenes Infection, Federica Agliano, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Anthony T. Vella, Vijay A. Rathinam, Andrei E. Medvedev

Open Access Articles

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in several biological systems. The long intergenic RNA-erythroid pro-survival (lincRNA-EPS) has been shown to play a critical role in restraining inflammatory gene expression. However, the function of lincRNA-EPS during bacterial infections remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that following infection with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, both mouse macrophages and dendritic cells lacking lincRNA-EPS exhibit an enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes, as well as an increased expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos) and nitric oxide (NO) production. Importantly, we found that lincRNA-EPS(-/-) mice intraperitoneally infected with ...


Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse Mcclure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson Jan 2020

Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse Mcclure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson

Open Access Articles

The prevalence of tickborne diseases worldwide is increasing virtually unchecked due to the lack of effective control strategies. The transmission dynamics of tickborne pathogens are influenced by the tick microbiome, tick co-infection with other pathogens, and environmental features. Understanding this complex system could lead to new strategies for pathogen control, but will require large-scale, high-resolution data. Here, we introduce Project Acari, a citizen science-based project to assay, at single-tick resolution, species, pathogen infection status, microbiome profile, and environmental conditions of tens of thousands of ticks collected from numerous sites across the United States. In the first phase of the project ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta Jan 2020

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Structure Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Protein In Complex With Its Phosphoprotein Cofactor, Simon Jenni, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Bo Liang, Sean P.J. Whelan, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C. Harrison Jan 2020

Structure Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Protein In Complex With Its Phosphoprotein Cofactor, Simon Jenni, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Bo Liang, Sean P.J. Whelan, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C. Harrison

Open Access Articles

The large (L) proteins of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses are multifunctional enzymes that produce capped, methylated, and polyadenylated mRNA and replicate the viral genome. A phosphoprotein (P), required for efficient RNA-dependent RNA polymerization from the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) template, regulates the function and conformation of the L protein. We report the structure of vesicular stomatitis virus L in complex with its P cofactor determined by electron cryomicroscopy at 3.0 A resolution, enabling us to visualize bound segments of P. The contacts of three P segments with multiple L domains show how P induces a closed, compact, initiation-competent conformation. Binding ...


Investigation Of Influenza B Virus Replication Potential In Swine Primary Respiratory Epithelial Cells And Phylodynamic Analysis Of Equine Influenza A H3n8 Viruses, Sunayana Shyam Jandhyala Jan 2020

Investigation Of Influenza B Virus Replication Potential In Swine Primary Respiratory Epithelial Cells And Phylodynamic Analysis Of Equine Influenza A H3n8 Viruses, Sunayana Shyam Jandhyala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that cause significant mortality worldwide. The subtype of influenza A virus currently affecting worldwide equine populations is H3N8, leading to epidemics and transboundary pandemics. The individual gene segments of an isolate named A/equine/Montana/9564-1/2015 were phylogenetically characterized. BLASTn search revealed that the polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), polymerase acidic (PA), hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix (M) segments of this H3N8 isolate shared the highest percentage identity to A/equine/Tennessee/29A/2014 (H3N8) and the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), neuraminidase (NA), and non-structural protein (NS) segments to A/equine/Malaysia ...


Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram Jan 2020

Microcystins And Liver Disease Mortality, Insights From An Ecological Study, Rajesh Tirpaul Melaram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Microcystins (MCs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Algal bloom subsidence can stimulate MC release, which can impair liver function if orally exposed to in large doses. The purpose of this retrospective, U.S. ecological study was to determine if MC exposure represented an environmental risk factor for liver disease mortality using a socioecological approach. A longitudinal ecological substudy investigated the association between average total MCs in Lake Washington and Lake Manatee and age-adjusted chronic liver disease (CLD)/cirrhosis death rates in Brevard County and Manatee County, Florida (FL). A prediction model of total MCs was deduced by ...


Pertussis Resurgence In Europe: Incidence And Epidemiologic Cycles In Immunization Required And Non-Required Countries, Sheryl Ann Duquet Jan 2020

Pertussis Resurgence In Europe: Incidence And Epidemiologic Cycles In Immunization Required And Non-Required Countries, Sheryl Ann Duquet

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although pertussis vaccines have been available for over 7 decades, countries are experiencing a pertussis resurgence. This study sought to establish a relationship between the European pertussis immunization schedule designs (with and without the inclusion of adolescent boosters) and the immunization requirement (recommended or required), which potentially influences immunity waning, and thus the incidence rate and epidemiologic cycles of pertussis. The theoretical foundation for this study was the theory of herd immunity. A quantitative research method was used, supported by a secondary data source. The statistical analysis included the use of linear regression to evaluate the relationship between the requirement ...


Hiv-1 Subtypes And Drug Resistance Mutations Among Female Sex Workers Varied In Different Cities And Regions Of The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Eun Hee Kwon, Godefroid M. A. Musema, Jessica Boelter, Sydney Townsend, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Patrick K. Kayembe, John T. West, Charles Wood Jan 2020

Hiv-1 Subtypes And Drug Resistance Mutations Among Female Sex Workers Varied In Different Cities And Regions Of The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Eun Hee Kwon, Godefroid M. A. Musema, Jessica Boelter, Sydney Townsend, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Patrick K. Kayembe, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background Complex mosaic structures of HIV-1 were found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, there is limited information on the circulating HIV-1 strains, the distribution of these strains and antiretroviral (ART) resistant viruses in different regions of the country, and the HIV-1 strains harbored by the high-risk groups like female sex workers (FSW) reported to be the source of recombinant and ART resistant viruses.

Methods Dried Blood Spots (DBS), collected from 325 infected FSWs in ten cities from 2012 DRC HIV/STI Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey, were tested for HIV-1 genotypes and antiretroviral resistance mutations. Regional ...


How The Cervical Microbiota Contributes To Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwalselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti Jan 2020

How The Cervical Microbiota Contributes To Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwalselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Despite ongoing efforts, sub-Saharan Africa faces a higher cervical cancer burden than anywhere else in the world. Besides HPV infection, definitive factors of cervical cancer are still unclear. Particular states of the cervicovaginal microbiota and viral infections are associated with increased cervical cancer risk. Notably, HIV infection, which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, greatly increases risk of cervicovaginal dysbiosis and cervical cancer. To better understand and address cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, a better knowledge of the regional cervicovaginal microbiome is required This review establishes current knowledge of HPV, HIV, cervicovaginal infections, and the cervicovaginal microbiota in sub-Saharan Africa. Because ...


The Structure Of The Endogenous Esx-3 Secretion System, Nicole Poweleit, Nadine Czudnochowski, Rachel Nakagawa, Donovan Trinidad, Kenan C. Murphy, Christopher M. Sassetti, Oren S. Rosenberg Dec 2019

The Structure Of The Endogenous Esx-3 Secretion System, Nicole Poweleit, Nadine Czudnochowski, Rachel Nakagawa, Donovan Trinidad, Kenan C. Murphy, Christopher M. Sassetti, Oren S. Rosenberg

Open Access Articles

The ESX (or Type VII) secretion systems are protein export systems in mycobacteria and many Gram-positive bacteria that mediate a broad range of functions including virulence, conjugation, and metabolic regulation. These systems translocate folded dimers of WXG100-superfamily protein substrates across the cytoplasmic membrane. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of an ESX-3 system, purified using an epitope tag inserted with recombineering into the chromosome of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. The structure reveals a stacked architecture that extends above and below the inner membrane of the bacterium. The ESX-3 protomer complex is assembled from a single copy of the EccB3 ...


Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan Dec 2019

Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are large dsDNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain chlorella-like green algae; the algae are normally mutualistic endosymbionts of protists and metazoans and are often referred to as zoochlorellae. The viruses are ubiquitous in inland aqueous environments throughout the world and occasionally single types reach titers of thousands of plaque-forming units per ml of native water. The viruses are icosahedral in shape with a spike structure located at one of the vertices. They contain an internal membrane that is required for infectivity. The viral genomes are 290 to 370 kb in size, which encode up to 16 tRNAs and 330 ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi Dec 2019

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quintessential phenomenon occurring during prokaryotic development is accurate segregation of the replicated genomes into the daughter cells. Key energy-dependent processes like chromosome condensation and subcellular partitioning of the genomes are driven by conserved proteins like SMC, ParB, FtsK. During its complex developmental cycle, Streptomyces coelicolor segregates its genomes into chains of unicellular spores when its multigenomic syncytial aerial hyphae undergo division.

A novel ftsK-like gene, hfkA (Homolog of FtsK protein A), was examined for function and localization during development-associated chromosome segregation. Individual deletions did not affect segregation, but a ΔhfkA ΔftsK mutant exhibited 8% anucleate spores ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga Dec 2019

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela Dec 2019

Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela

Open Access Articles

Bifidobacterium longum colonizes mammalian gastrointestinal tracts where it could metabolize host-indigestible oligosaccharides. Although B. longum strains are currently segregated into three subspecies that reflect common metabolic capacities and genetic similarity, heterogeneity within subspecies suggests that these taxonomic boundaries may not be completely resolved. To address this, the B. longum pangenome was analyzed from representative strains isolated from a diverse set of sources. As a result, the B. longum pangenome is open and contains almost 17,000 genes, with over 85% of genes found in < /=28 of 191 strains. B. longum genomes share a small core gene set of only ~500 genes, or ~3% of the total pangenome. Although the individual B. longum subspecies pangenomes share similar relative abundances of clusters of orthologous groups, strains show inter- and intrasubspecies differences with respect to carbohydrate utilization gene content and growth phenotypes.


The Aminoalkylindole Bml-190 Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Cyclic Amp/Protein Kinase A1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge Dec 2019

The Aminoalkylindole Bml-190 Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Cyclic Amp/Protein Kinase A1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

Open Access Articles

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immunocompromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease; therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall and is required for survival in the mammalian host and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis. To ...


Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo Dec 2019

Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The discovery of fossil fuels facilitated a new era in human history and allowed many firsts, such as the mass production of goods, the ability to travel and communicate long distances, the formation of population dense cities, and unprecedented improvements in quality of life. Alternative sources of energy and chemicals are needed, however, as hydrocarbon reserves continue to deplete and the effects of burning fossils on the planet become better understood. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material in the world and a viable alternative to petroleum-derived products. The pre-treatment of lignocellulose (e.g., thermocatalytic depolymerization, enzymatic hydrolysis, pyrolysis ...


Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić Dec 2019

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

The current work extends the phenotypic characterization of a bacterial culture collection obtained from white, yellow, grey or pink microbial cave wall colonies that are common in the caves of Slovenian Karst. We have determined antibiotic resistance to 22 natural and synthetic antibiotics in 69 isolates from the microbial mats. Thirty-eight isolates (52%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics; another 27 isolates (37%) were resistant to 6-10 antibiotics; and 7 isolates (0.1%) were resistant to 11-17 antibiotics. We screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by growing cave isolates on five different media and overlaying individual cultures with ten Gram-positive and ...


Impact Of Th1 Cd4 Tfh Skewing On Antibody Responses To An Hiv-1 Vaccine In Rhesus Macaques, Anil Verma, Keith A. Reimann, David H. Foehl, Smita S. Iyer Dec 2019

Impact Of Th1 Cd4 Tfh Skewing On Antibody Responses To An Hiv-1 Vaccine In Rhesus Macaques, Anil Verma, Keith A. Reimann, David H. Foehl, Smita S. Iyer

Open Access Articles

Generating durable humoral immunity through vaccination depends upon effective interaction of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) with germinal center (GC) B cells. Th1 polarization of Tfh cells is an important process shaping the success of Tfh-GC B cell interactions by influencing co-stimulatory and cytokine-dependent Tfh help to B cells. However, the question remains whether adjuvant-dependent modulation of Tfh cells enhances HIV-1 vaccine-induced anti-Envelope (Env) antibody responses. We investigated whether an HIV-1 vaccine platform designed to increase the number of Th1-polarized Tfh cells enhances the magnitude and quality of anti-Env antibodies. Utilizing a novel interferon-induced protein (IP)-10-adjuvanted HIV-1 DNA prime ...


The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Accessory Genome Elements Influence Virulence Towards Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Zhenyu Cheng, Frederick M. Ausubel, Victor R. Ambros Dec 2019

The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Accessory Genome Elements Influence Virulence Towards Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Zhenyu Cheng, Frederick M. Ausubel, Victor R. Ambros

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Multicellular animals and bacteria frequently engage in predator-prey and host-pathogen interactions, such as the well-studied relationship between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study investigates the genomic and genetic basis of bacterial-driven variability in P. aeruginosa virulence towards C. elegans to provide evolutionary insights into host-pathogen relationships.

RESULTS: Natural isolates of P. aeruginosa that exhibit diverse genomes display a broad range of virulence towards C. elegans. Using gene association and genetic analysis, we identify accessory genome elements that correlate with virulence, including both known and novel virulence determinants. Among the novel genes, we find a viral-like mobile ...


A Dna-Guided Argonaute Protein Functions In Dna Replication In Thermus Thermophilus, Samson M. Jolly, Ildar Gainetdinov, Han Zhang, Lara Strittmatter, Gregory M. Hendricks, Avantika Dhabaria, Beatrix Ueberheide, Phillip D. Zamore Dec 2019

A Dna-Guided Argonaute Protein Functions In Dna Replication In Thermus Thermophilus, Samson M. Jolly, Ildar Gainetdinov, Han Zhang, Lara Strittmatter, Gregory M. Hendricks, Avantika Dhabaria, Beatrix Ueberheide, Phillip D. Zamore

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Argonaute proteins use nucleic acid guides to protect organisms against transposons and viruses. In the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus, the DNA-guided Argonaute TtAgo defends against transformation by DNA plasmids. Here, we report that TtAgo also participates in DNA replication. TtAgo binds small DNA guides derived from the chromosomal region where replication terminates and associates with proteins known to act in DNA replication. T. thermophilus deploys a single type II topoisomerase, gyrase. When gyrase is inhibited, T. thermophilus relies on TtAgo to complete replication of its circular genome; loss of both gyrase and TtAgo activity produces long filaments that fail to separate ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr. Dec 2019

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


Performance Study Of The Membrane Based Layered Double Hydroxides ‘Znal-Gh’ In The Purification Of Groundwater, Jaouad Zerhouni, Omar Qabaqous, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Mohammed Naciri Bennani, Najib Tijani Dec 2019

Performance Study Of The Membrane Based Layered Double Hydroxides ‘Znal-Gh’ In The Purification Of Groundwater, Jaouad Zerhouni, Omar Qabaqous, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Mohammed Naciri Bennani, Najib Tijani

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The objective of this work is focused on the preparation and characterization of plan microfiltration membrane Zn3Al-Gh and the study of their efficiency in the treatment of ground water. This membrane was carried by using the support of the clay such as Ghassoul ‘Gh’ prepared by using dry uniaxial compaction method. The layered double hydroxides (LDH) based on Zn3Al-CO3with molar ratio (Zn2+/Al3+=3) was deposited on support by direct co-precipitation method.

The characterizations of the membrane LDH-Gh ‘Zn3Al-Gh’ and deposited layer Zn3Al-CO3, was done by scanning ...