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Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr. 2022 Western University

Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr.

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The microbiota is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The nasal milieu secretes immune molecules that can be influenced by diverse bacteria. Hence commensals that enhance anti-viral responses may confer resistance to respiratory viral infection.

Our collaborators have identified 7 microbial state types (CST) defined by indicator species in the nose and recently, through analyses of nasal immune molecules, we have categorized the nasal immune profile types into 8 groups (IPT). Although the IPTs correlated with certain CSTs, the influence of the nasal microbiome on susceptibility to respiratory pathogens is still unknown.

Defining this complex relationship requires a ...


Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mycobacteriophages are a group of phages that infect members of the genus Mycobacteria. Previous studies have conducted extensive comparisons of the mycobacteriophage genomes and amino acid sequences to establish different phage families. MooMoo is a singleton mycobacteriophage that has been characterized due to its lack of appreciable homology to other phages. Some of its unique properties include its structure and the isolation of a mutant that causes clear plaque phenotypes. The experiments described in this thesis identified three MooMoo phage (gp87, gp90, and gp91) encoded proteins that are toxic to the bacterial host, Mycobacterium smegmatis.Through the use of a ...


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly

Honors Theses

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an emerging problem for humans. Clinical misuse, overuse in agricultural and food settings, and limited numbers of new antibiotics have accelerated the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To confront this threat, scientists must develop new therapeutics that kill these antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we used Escherichia coli to analyze antibiotic and bacteriophage susceptibility. E. coli is a common, mostly benign, enteric, gram-negative bacteria. We isolated three E. coli strains from the Hans Groot Kill, a stream that runs through Union College’s campus. We sought to assess various E. coli strains’ antibiotic resistance ...


The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family which causes both seasonal epidemics and pandemics. IAV preferentially infects epithelial cells in the upper and lower respiratory tract, resulting in a range of disease severity from mild upper respiratory infections to potentially-lethal pneumonia. Ultimately, the severity of symptoms and complications from IAV infection depends on control of virus replication in the lungs, the inflammatory nature of the immune response, and the effectiveness of post-infection lung repair to regain pulmonary function. An arsenal of secreted proteins in the lung regulates these antiviral, inflammatory, and regenerative activities during infection ...


The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph 2022 Georgia College

The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph

Biology Theses

Adenovirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that contains a 36 Kbp genome. The E4 ORF3 region of its genome consists of an E4 11k protein that can reorganize host cell components by relocalizing cellular proteins. One such cellular component is the cytoplasmic processing body, which consists of proteins involved in translational repression of mRNA and mRNA degradation. During an adenovirus infection, processing body proteins Ddx6 and Pat1b have been shown to colocalize and form aggresomes. Aggresomes induced by E4 11k are specific to the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad 5). In this study, cytoplasmic Pat1b foci were observed and quantified ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In recent years, there is a growing interest in the investigation of using potassium to treat virus infections. In the region of infection, there is a biological observation of extracel- lular potassium level being typically very low whereas the intracellular potassium levels are much higher. There are numerous biological studies showing that elevated potassium levels in the extracellular membrane tends to block virus infections. A recent effort in this direction is a collaborative research conducted by mathematicians and biologists from the University of Texas at El Paso, New Mexico State University, and the University of New Mexico, where we develop ...


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 ...


Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl 2022 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Structural and functional studies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins have recently determined distinct functional states of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 spike variants, providing a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms that link the effect of mutations with the enhanced virus infectivity and transmissibility. A detailed dynamic and energetic analysis of these variants was undertaken in the present work to quantify the effects of different mutations on functional conformational changes and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We employed the efficient and accurate coarse-grained (CG) simulations of multiple functional states of the D614G mutant, B.1 ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown 2022 Western Kentucky University

The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Microbacteriophage Hasitha is a virus that infects Microbacterium foliorum, a bacterium associated with grasses that was first discovered in Germany. Hasitha was isolated from an enriched compost sample and is of particular interest due to its unusual growth pattern. Most bacteriophages require actively growing host cells to produce new phage progeny. However, Hasitha can infect and kill stationary (non-replicating) bacterial cells. We discovered this unusual characteristic through a fortuitous observation of infected lawns that were allowed to incubate in the lab workspace for approximately one month. During this time, a noticeable “halo” grew around the initial site of infection and ...


Expanding Mouse-Adapted Yamagata-Like Influenza B Viruses In Eggs Enhances In Vivo Lethality In Balb/C Mice, Matthew J. Pekarek, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Adam Rubrum, Richard J. Webby, Eric A. Weaver 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Expanding Mouse-Adapted Yamagata-Like Influenza B Viruses In Eggs Enhances In Vivo Lethality In Balb/C Mice, Matthew J. Pekarek, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Adam Rubrum, Richard J. Webby, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Despite the yearly global impact of influenza B viruses (IBVs), limited host range has been a hurdle to developing a readily accessible small animal disease model for vaccine studies. Mouseadapting IBV can produce highly pathogenic viruses through serial lung passaging in mice. Previous studies have highlighted amino acid changes throughout the viral genome correlating with increased pathogenicity, but no consensus mutations have been determined. We aimed to show that growth system can play a role in mouse-adapted IBV lethality. Two Yamagata-lineage IBVs were serially passaged 10 times in mouse lungs before expansion in embryonated eggs or Madin–Darby canine kidney ...


Adenoviral-Vectored Centralized Consensus Hemagglutinin Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against H2 Influenza A Virus, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Brianna L. Bullard, Matthew J. Pekarek, Eric A. Weaver 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adenoviral-Vectored Centralized Consensus Hemagglutinin Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against H2 Influenza A Virus, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Brianna L. Bullard, Matthew J. Pekarek, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

Several influenza pandemics have occurred in the past century, one of which emerged in 1957 from a zoonotic transmission of H2N2 from an avian reservoir into humans. This pandemic caused 2–4 million deaths and circulated until 1968. Since the disappearance of H2N2 from human populations, there has been waning immunity against H2, and this subtype is not currently incorporated into seasonal vaccines. However, H2 influenza remains a pandemic threat due to consistent circulation in avian reservoirs. Here, we describe a method of pandemic preparedness by creating an adenoviral-vectored centralized consensus vaccine design against human H2 influenza. We also assessed ...


The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz

Virology Papers

The use of skin virome offers a unique approach for human identification purposes in instances where a viable and statistically relevant human DNA profile is unavailable. The skin virome may act as an alternative DNA profile and/or an additional form of probative genetic material. To date, no study has attempted to investigate the human virome over a time series across various physical locations of the body to identify its diagnostic potential as a tool for human identification. For this study, we set out to evaluate the stability, diversity, and individualization of the human skin virome. An additional goal was ...


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