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Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud 2017 George Washington University

Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel De Mulder, Devi Sengupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection.

Results

We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant “15mer” HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity. We identified a total of eight potential HERV-K (HML-2) Gag immunogenic domains: two on ...


Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. LaCount 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia

Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could ...


Secreted Ns1 Aids In Dengue Virus Entry By Binding Heparan Sulfate, Morgan E. Schafer, Michael Dibiasio-White, Richard J. Kuhn 2017 Purdue University

Secreted Ns1 Aids In Dengue Virus Entry By Binding Heparan Sulfate, Morgan E. Schafer, Michael Dibiasio-White, Richard J. Kuhn

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A large portion of the world’s population lives in an area where they are at risk of contracting Dengue Virus (DENV). While infection with DENV can result in a wide range of clinical manifestations, from flu-like symptoms to hemorrhagic shock, vascular leakage, and even death, no treatments currently exist. Previous studies have shown that higher levels of viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in the blood of infected patients correlate with more severe disease. NS1 has been shown to play many roles in the viral lifecycle, but the mechanisms by which NS1 executes these functions are unknown. Preliminary data from ...


Persistence Of Enteric Viruses On Surfaces Under Varying Environmental Conditions, Nicole L. Turnage 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Persistence Of Enteric Viruses On Surfaces Under Varying Environmental Conditions, Nicole L. Turnage

Theses and Dissertations

Human enteric viruses such as human norovirus (hNoV) and Aichivirus A (AiV) are common foodborne viruses with hNoVs being identified as the leading causative agent of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. Moreover, hNoVs have been identified as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in the U.S. and worldwide. Fomite surface contamination is a major transmission route for enteric viruses. The application of an optimized virus recovery method from fomites is essential for better understanding of virus persistence under varying environmental conditions (EC). This study aimed to optimize a surface sampling method for virus recovery from nonporous food ...


Advances In Developing Therapies To Combat Zika Virus: Current Knowledge And Future Perspectives, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kuldeep Dharma, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal S. Malik, Deepak Kumar, Raj K. Singh, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Sunil K. Joshi 2017 Old Dominion University

Advances In Developing Therapies To Combat Zika Virus: Current Knowledge And Future Perspectives, Ashok Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Kuldeep Dharma, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal S. Malik, Deepak Kumar, Raj K. Singh, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Sunil K. Joshi

Bioelectrics Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) remained largely quiescent for nearly six decades after its first appearance in 1947. ZIKV reappeared after 2007, resulting in a declaration of an international “public health emergency” in 2016 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Until this time, ZIKV was considered to induce only mild illness, but it has now been established as the cause of severe clinical manifestations, including fetal anomalies, neurological problems, and autoimmune disorders. Infection during pregnancy can cause congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological degeneration, and in other cases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, making infections with ZIKV a substantial public health concern. Genomic and ...


Differential Disease Susceptibilities In Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors And Ball Pythons, Mark D. Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E. Garcia, Marylee L. Layton, Laura L. Hoon-Hanks, Scott M. Boback, M. Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G. Hawkins, Joseph L. DeRisi 2017 Dickinson College

Differential Disease Susceptibilities In Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors And Ball Pythons, Mark D. Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E. Garcia, Marylee L. Layton, Laura L. Hoon-Hanks, Scott M. Boback, M. Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G. Hawkins, Joseph L. Derisi

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery. We therefore conducted a long-term challenge experiment to test the hypothesis that reptarenaviruses cause IBD. We infected boa ...


Vorinostat Renders The Replication-Competent Latent Reservoir Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) Vulnerable To Clearance By Cd8 T Cells., Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis 2017 George Washington University

Vorinostat Renders The Replication-Competent Latent Reservoir Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) Vulnerable To Clearance By Cd8 T Cells., Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR) induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA). The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen. Here we show a reduction in the recovery of replication-competent virus ...


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch 2017 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch

Wenjun Li

Previous studies have shown that DNA prime, Ad5 boost vaccines protect against neutralization-sensitive but not neutralization-resistant virus variants within the SIVsmE660 swarm. Here we show that Ad prime, Env protein boost vaccines protect against neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants. We perform two studies in rhesus monkeys with Ad35/Ad26 vectors expressing SIVmac239 Gag/Pol/Env with or without an AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H gp140 protein boost. In a repetitive, low-dose challenge study, we observe robust protection against acquisition of infection by both Ad Alone and Ad/Env vaccines. In a single, high-dose challenge study, only the Ad/Env vaccine affords significant protection against acquisition ...


Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Maturation of DENV particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing of 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease. With no available direct-acting antiviral targeting DENV, NS2/NS3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. Current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the DENV protease active site, resulting in highly hydrophilic and nonspecific scaffolds. However, the prime side also significantly modulates DENV protease binding affinity, as revealed by engineering the binding loop of aprotinin, a ...


Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader 2017 Portland State University

Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Geothermal and hypersaline environments are rich in viral particles, among which spindle-shaped morphologies predominate. Currently, viruses with spindle- or lemon-shaped virions are unique to Archaea and belong to two distinct viral families. The larger of the two families, the Fuselloviridae, encompasses spindle-shaped viruses with very short tails, which infect Sulfolobus solfataricus and close relatives. Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) is the best-known member of the family and was one of the first hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses to be isolated. However, our knowledge of fuselloviral life cycles and the relationships between these viruses and their hosts is still limited. As a result ...


Genetic Diversity Of Mycobacteriophages And The Unique Abilities Of Cluster K, Shea A. Morris 2017 Georgia College and State University

Genetic Diversity Of Mycobacteriophages And The Unique Abilities Of Cluster K, Shea A. Morris

The Corinthian

Mycobacteriophage are a diverse set of viruses that infect a broad host range of mycobacterium. Genome analysis of this phage group reveals its diversity and provides evidence that they have experienced substantial horizontal gene transfer Collectively they have a large range of host bacteria they can infect, although each viral type may have a limited host range. However, this range is easily expanded and constantly changing in nature by mutation within and between virus types. These phages can lytically destroy their host mycobacteria, and it is this viral ability that have many mycobacteriophage researchers excited about the potential that phage ...


Characterizing The Interaction Between Human Adenovirus E1a And The Transcriptional Repressor Bs69, Ali Zhang 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Interaction Between Human Adenovirus E1a And The Transcriptional Repressor Bs69, Ali Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Protein products of the Early Region 1A (E1A) gene in human adenovirus 5 (HAdV-5) are the first viral proteins expressed upon adenovirus infection. E1A disrupts many cellular physiological events by binding to and regulating an impressive number of host factors. Of particular interest is BS69, a repressor of E1A transactivation. Due to the strong interaction observed between E1A and BS69, I hypothesize that these two proteins function together to disrupt gene expression within an infected cell.

Using in silico modelling and a series of yeast two-hybrid assays, I determined that residues 112-119 of HAdV-5 E1A is the minimal interacting region ...


Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi 2017 Fudan University

Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi

Virology Papers

Background: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia.

Methods: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 ...


The Role Of Rna Interference In The Control Of Leishmania Rna Virus 1 Infection, Erin Acino Brettmann 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Rna Interference In The Control Of Leishmania Rna Virus 1 Infection, Erin Acino Brettmann

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The presence of Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) in parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus increases the virulence of the parasite in mouse models of leishmaniasis and is correlated with treatment failure, relapse, and the development of mucocutaneous disease in humans. LRV1 is not shed or infectious; rather, the infection is persistent, and as yet it is unknown how the parasite controls virus levels. Many eukaryotic organisms use RNA interference (RNAi) to limit virus replication, and Leishmania (Viannia) parasites have an active RNAi pathway. To determine whether Leishmania are capable of using RNAi to control LRV1, we sequenced sRNAs from ...


Climatic Factors Limiting The Distribution Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Montana’S Rocky Mountain Region, Kyle Griffith 2017 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Climatic Factors Limiting The Distribution Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Montana’S Rocky Mountain Region, Kyle Griffith

Life & Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Rocky Mountain Wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, serves as the primary vector for the Colorado tick fever virus in Montana’s Rocky Mountain region. This disease presents symptoms such as fever, headaches, and myalgia; and generally lasts for approximately three weeks. Factors affecting the distribution of D. andersoni in Montana are not well known, limiting our ability to locate areas endemic to the CTF virus. To determine if various climatic factors influenced the distribution of D. andersoni Montana’s Rocky Mountain region, tick samples from Western Montana were collected and relative tick abundance was tested for association with six different ...


Inhibiting Infectivity Of The Spindle Shaped Virus Using Silver Nanoparticles, Diana S. Demchenko 2017 Portland State University

Inhibiting Infectivity Of The Spindle Shaped Virus Using Silver Nanoparticles, Diana S. Demchenko

Student Research Symposium

Exploring the inhibiting factors of silver nanoparticles could change the way we approach drug-resistant viruses. In previous research, silver nanoparticles have shown to physically block viruses, such as HIV-1, from infecting its host by theoretically binding to surface receptors on the virus. Since there is little research done in this area, we have decided to combine silver nanoparticles with a virus that thrives within an extreme environment: the Spindle Shaped virus. By combining these two factors, we could reveal the biological and chemical properties that block the virus from infecting its host, Sulfolobus. Currently, we have collected data that shows ...


Production Of Antibodies For Specific Detection Of Dengue Virus-2 By Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, E. Ashley Thompson 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Production Of Antibodies For Specific Detection Of Dengue Virus-2 By Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, E. Ashley Thompson

Honors Theses

Dengue Virus (DENV) is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes that are endemic in tropic and subtropic climates. It is the causative pathogen of Dengue Fever, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, and Dengue Shock Syndrome. Besides mosquito transmission, DENV can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Due to the high expense and expertise needed to run tests like ELISA and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based-assays for DENV detection, a rapid, sensitive and cost effective gold nanoparticles mediated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assay has been developed as an alternative assay to detect DENV. In this project, I successfully produced a monoclonal antibody that specifically ...


Elucidating The Role Of Interleukin-17a In West Nile Virus Infection, Dhiraj Acharya 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Role Of Interleukin-17a In West Nile Virus Infection, Dhiraj Acharya

Dissertations

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus of significant public health importance for which no therapeutics and vaccine are currently available. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is an inflammatory cytokine that regulates diverse immune functions, while its role is unclear in host’s immune response to WNV. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells are crucial components of immunity and play a vital role in recovery from WNV infection. Here, we report a previously unrecognized function of IL-17A in regulating CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity. We show that WNV induces the expression of IL-17A in both mouse splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in ...


Isolation Of A Mycobacterium Virus With The Infectivity Rate Tested At Various Temperatures, Katie Wegenast 2017 Bellarmine University

Isolation Of A Mycobacterium Virus With The Infectivity Rate Tested At Various Temperatures, Katie Wegenast

Undergraduate Theses

Isolation techniques developed by the HHMI and the SEA-PHAGES program were used to obtain a bacteriophage from a mixture of loamy clay soil. The sample was retrieved from a forest edge in central Kentucky. The isolate produced large lytic plaques on a lawn of the bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis. The bacteriophage was purified, amplified, and analyzed using restriction digest analysis with visualization by gel electrophoresis. Restriction digest analysis suggests the virus belongs to a group known as “A”. Mycobacteriophages are placed into distinct groups based on DNA sequences comparison. The next step in the procedure will be to document with an ...


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