Unusual Polymorphisms In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Associated With Nonprogressive Infection, 2016 Harvard Medical School
Unusual Polymorphisms In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Associated With Nonprogressive Infection, Louis Alexander, Emma Weiskopf, Thomas C. Greenough, Nathan C. Gaddis, Marcy C. Auerbach, Michael H. Malim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Bruce D. Walker, John L. Sullivan, Ronald C. Desrosiers
Factors accounting for long-term nonprogression may include infection with an attenuated strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), genetic polymorphisms in the host, and virus-specific immune responses. In this study, we examined eight individuals with nonprogressing or slowly progressing HIV-1 infection, none of whom were homozygous for host-specific polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF-1-3'A) which have been associated with slower disease progression. HIV-1 was recovered from seven of the eight, and recovered virus was used for sequencing the full-length HIV-1 genome; full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from the eighth were determined following amplification of viral sequences directly from peripheral blood ...
Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick; Colorado State University - Fort Collins
Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species ...
Phylogenetic Associations Of Human And Simian T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphotropic Virus Type I Strains: Evidence For Interspecies Transmission, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Bethesda
Phylogenetic Associations Of Human And Simian T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphotropic Virus Type I Strains: Evidence For Interspecies Transmission, Igor J. Koralnik, Enzo Boeri, W. Carl Saxinger, Anita Lo Monico, Jake Fullen, Antoine Gessain, Hong-Guang Guo, Robert C. Gallo, Phillip Markham, Vaniambadi Kalyanaraman, Vanessa Hirsch, Jonathan Allan, Krishna Murthy, Patricia Alford, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Stephen J. O'Brien, Genoveffa Ranchini
Homologous env sequences from 17 human T-leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) strains from throughout the world and from 25 simian T-leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-I) strains from 12 simian species in Asia and Africa were analyzed in a phylogenetic context as an approach to resolving the natural history of these related retroviruses. STLV-I exhibited greater overall sequence variation between strains (1 to 18% compared with 0 to 9% for HTLV-I), supporting the simian origin of the modern viruses in all species. Three HTLV-I phylogenetic clusters or clades (cosmopolitan, Zaire, and Melanesia) were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood ...
Mannose Binding Lectin Genotypes Influence Recovery From Hepatitis B Virus Infection, 2016 Johns Hopkins University
Mannose Binding Lectin Genotypes Influence Recovery From Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Chloe L. Thio, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Jacquie Astemborski, Spencer Greer, Gregory D. Kirk, Stephen J. O'Brien, David L. Thomas
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a central component of the innate immune response and thus may be important for determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence. Since single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding MBL (mbl2) alter the level of functional MBL, we hypothesized that mbl2 genotypes are a determinant of HBV persistence or recovery from viral infection. We tested this hypothesis by using a nested case control design with 189 persons with HBV persistence matched to 338 individuals who had naturally recovered from HBV infection. We determined genotypes of two promoter and three exon 1 SNPs in mbl2 and grouped ...
Insertional Polymorphisms Of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Insertional Polymorphisms Of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses, Alfred L. Roca, William G. Nash, Joan C. Menninger, William J. Murphy, Stephen J. O'Brien
The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one ...
Influence Of The Ccr2-V64i Polymorphism On Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptor Activity And On Chemokine Receptor Function Of Ccr2b, Ccr3, Ccr5, And Cxcr4, Benhur Lee, Benjamin J. Doranz, Shalini Rana, Yanji Yi, Mario Mellado, Jose M. R. Frade, Carlos Martinez-A., Stephen J. O'Brien, Michael Dean, Ronald G. Collman, Robert W. Doms
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells. In addition, some virus strains can use alternative chemokine receptors, including CCR2b and CCR3, for infection. A polymorphism in CCR2 (CCR2-V64I) is associated with a 2- to 4-year delay in the progression to AIDS. To investigate the mechanism of this protective effect, we studied the expression of CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I, their chemokine and HIV-1 coreceptor activities, and their effects on the expression and receptor activities of the major HIV-1 coreceptors. CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I were expressed at similar levels ...
Genetic Protection Against Hepatitis B Virus Conferred By Ccr5Δ32: Evidence That Ccr5 Contributes To Viral Persistence, 2016 Johns Hopkins University
Genetic Protection Against Hepatitis B Virus Conferred By Ccr5Δ32: Evidence That Ccr5 Contributes To Viral Persistence, Chloe L. Thio, Jacquie Astemborski, Arman A. Bashirova, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Spencer Greer, Mallory D. Witt, James J. Goedert, Margaret Hilgartner, Audrey Majesk, Stephen J. O'Brien, David L. Thomas, Mary Carrington
Recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires a broad, vigorous T-cell response, which is enhanced in mice when chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is missing. To test the hypothesis that production of a nonfunctional CCR5 (CCR5Δ32 [a functionally null allele containing a 32-bp deletion]) increases the likelihood of recovery from hepatitis B in humans, we studied 526 persons from three cohorts in which one person with HBV persistence was matched to two persons who recovered from an HBV infection. Recovery or persistence was determined prior to availability of lamivudine. We determined genotypes forCCR5Δ32 and for polymorphisms in the CCR5 ...
Evidence For The Horizontal Acquisition Of Murine Akr Virogenes By Recent Horizontal Infection Of The Germ Line, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Evidence For The Horizontal Acquisition Of Murine Akr Virogenes By Recent Horizontal Infection Of The Germ Line, Stephen J. O'Brien, Janet L. Moore, Malcolm A. Martin, James E. Womack
Several recent reports have established the biological and molecular genetic similarity between the endogenous AKV virus of strain AKR, and an N-ecotropic endogenous virus found in the genome of feral Japanese mice, Mus musculus molossinus. The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. The virogenes of AKR mice may have been acquired by either: (a) common descent of AKR (and other AKV+ strains) from a common ancestor of AKR and molossinus animals, or (b) horizontal germ line infection of the AKR strains by ...
Emerging Viruses In The Felidae: Shifting Paradigms, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Emerging Viruses In The Felidae: Shifting Paradigms, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jennifer L. Troyer, Meredith Brown, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery
The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate ...
Canine And Feline Parvoviruses Can Use Human Or Feline Transferrin Receptors To Bind, Enter, And Infect Cells, John S. L. Parker, William J. Murphy, Dai Wang, Stephen J. O'Brien, Colin R. Parrish
Canine parvovirus (CPV) enters and infects cells by a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, and viral capsids colocalize with transferrin in perinuclear vesicles of cells shortly after entry (J. S. L. Parker and C. R. Parrish, J. Virol. 74:1919–1930, 2000). Here we report that CPV and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a closely related parvovirus, bind to the human and feline transferrin receptors (TfRs) and use these receptors to enter and infect cells. Capsids did not detectably bind or enter quail QT35 cells or a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-derived cell line that lacks any TfR (TRVb cells). However, capsids ...
Bvr-1, A Restriction Locus Of A Type C Rna Virus In The Feline Cellular Genome: Pleiotropic Restriction Of Endogenous Balb Virus In Cat X Mouse Somatic Cell Hybrids, 2016 National Cancer Institute, Bethesda
Bvr-1, A Restriction Locus Of A Type C Rna Virus In The Feline Cellular Genome: Pleiotropic Restriction Of Endogenous Balb Virus In Cat X Mouse Somatic Cell Hybrids, Stephen J. O'Brien, Janice M. Simonson
Bvr-1 is a dominant X-linked feline gene which restricts the replication of B-tropic murineleukemia virus (B-MuLV) in somatic cell hybrids between murine BALB/c-RAG cells and FL-74 feline cells. Since the hybrids were originally derived by the hypoxanthine aminopterin thymidine selection scheme, counter selection experiments on 6-thioguanine result in preferential survival of hybrid cells which have spontaneously lost the feline X-chromosome on which is located the structural gene for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (IMP: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyl transferase, E.C. 184.108.40.206) and Bvr-1. Back selected Bvr-1- cells express high parental levels of B-MuLV. Bvr-1- effectively restricts the IdU-mediated ...
Association Of Dc-Sign Promoter Polymorphism With Increased Risk For Parenteral, But Not Mucosal, Acquisition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Association Of Dc-Sign Promoter Polymorphism With Increased Risk For Parenteral, But Not Mucosal, Acquisition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection, Maureen P. Martin, Michael M. Lederman, Holli B. Hutcheson, James J. Goedert, George W. Nelson, Yvette Van Kooyk, Roger Detels, Susan Buchbinder, Keith Hoots, David Vlahov, Stephen J. O'Brien, Mary Carrington
There is considerable debate about the fundamental mechanisms that underlie and restrict acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In light of recent studies demonstrating the ability of C type lectins to facilitate infection with HIV-1, we explored the potential relationship between polymorphisms in the DC-SIGN promoter and risk for acquisition of HIV-1 according to route of infection. Using samples obtained from 1,611 European-American participants at risk for parenteral (n = 713) or mucosal (n = 898) infection, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the DC-SIGN promoter using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Individuals at risk for parenterally acquired infection who had ...
Apobec3g Genetic Variants And Their Influence On The Progression To Aids, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Apobec3g Genetic Variants And Their Influence On The Progression To Aids, Ping An, Gabriela Bleiber, Priya Duggal, George Nelson, Margaret May, Bastien Mangeat, Irene Alobwede, Didier Trono, David Vlahov, Sharyne Donfield, James J. Goedert, John Phair, Susan Buchbinder, Stephen J. O'Brien, Amalio Telenti, Cheryl Winkler
The cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G, in the absence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory gene HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (vif), inhibits viral replication by introducing G→A hypermutation in the newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA negative strand. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of APOBEC3G may modify HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region (three), introns (two), and exons (two). Genotypes were determined for 3,073 study participants enrolled in six HIV-AIDS prospective cohorts. One codon-changing variant, H186R in exon 4, was polymorphic in African Americans (AA) (f < 37%) and rare in European Americans (f < 3%) or Europeans (f = 5 ...
A Lion Lentivirus Related To Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Epidemiologic And Phylogenetic Aspects, 2016 Program Resources, Inc./DynCorp
A Lion Lentivirus Related To Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Epidemiologic And Phylogenetic Aspects, Eric W. Brown, Naoya Yuhki, Craig Packer, Stephen J. O'Brien
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%o. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues ...
Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, 2016 Western Kentucky University
Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...
Investigating The Infection And Persistence Of Sindbis Virus In Host Neurons, 2016 STAR, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA
Investigating The Infection And Persistence Of Sindbis Virus In Host Neurons, Gavin Schroter, Sally Hall, Monica Borucki
STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations
Sindbis virus, an Alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, is an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Found mostly in parts of Africa, Australia, Egypt, Philippines, and Northern Europe – it is known to cause Ockelbo or Pogosta disease . This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, headache, and arthralgia; followed by arthritis, rash, fatigue, and muscle pain. The symptoms are gone within 14 days, though cases have shown joint pain to last from 12 months to 2 and a half years . Common to several other viruses, Sindbis is transmitted from birds (its reservoir) to humans via an arthropod ...
Retention Of Mothers And Infants In The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme Is Associated With Individual And Facility-Level Factors In Rwanda., 2016 George Washington University
Retention Of Mothers And Infants In The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme Is Associated With Individual And Facility-Level Factors In Rwanda., Godfrey B Woelk, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Sally Behan, Martha Mukaminega, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Heather J. Hoffman, Placidie Mugwaneza, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Anouk Amzel, B Ryan Phelps
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications
OBJECTIVES: Investigate levels of retention at specified time periods along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade among mother-infant pairs as well as individual- and facility-level factors associated with retention.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants attending five health centres from November 2010 to February 2012 in the Option B programme in Rwanda was established. Data were collected from several health registers and patient follow-up files. Additionally, informant interviews were conducted to ascertain health facility characteristics. Generalized estimating equation methods and modelling were utilized to estimate the number of mothers attending each antenatal care visit ...
Closing The Net On Retroviruses, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Closing The Net On Retroviruses, Jeremy Luban
Open Access Articles
Structural studies reveal how an antiviral factor forms a molecular net to restrict retroviruses including HIV-1.
Effects Of Piscine Reovirus Infection On Innate Immune Signalling In Salmon, 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Effects Of Piscine Reovirus Infection On Innate Immune Signalling In Salmon, Mark Polinski
2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology
No abstract provided.
The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass
Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.