Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Virology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,121 Full-Text Articles 3,269 Authors 160,615 Downloads 73 Institutions

All Articles in Virology

Faceted Search

1,121 full-text articles. Page 1 of 37.

Characterizing The Role Of N Terminus Of Influenza A Nucleoprotein For Location And Viral Rnp Activity, Jared Lin 2018 California State University - San Bernardino

Characterizing The Role Of N Terminus Of Influenza A Nucleoprotein For Location And Viral Rnp Activity, Jared Lin

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The influenza viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs) are responsible for viral RNA synthesis. Each vRNP is comprised of one vRNA segment, the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase complex (RdRP), and multiple copies of nucleoprotein (NP). NP serves as scaffold in formation of vRNPs, but also regulates vRNP activity. The N-terminus of NP contains a nonconventional nuclear localization signal (NLS1) essential for initial vRNP nuclear import, but also interacts with host RNA helicases to enhance viral RNA replication in the nucleus. NP contains at least one additional NLS sequence, with bioinformatics revealing a third NLS in some NP proteins.

Published yeast-two hybrid ...


An Evaluation Of Host Factors As Novel Therapeutic Targets During Influenza Infection Using Rna Technologies, Michael Ryan Haden Thompson 2018 California State University - San Bernardino

An Evaluation Of Host Factors As Novel Therapeutic Targets During Influenza Infection Using Rna Technologies, Michael Ryan Haden Thompson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Influenza A is a single-stranded, multi-segmented, negative sense RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae and is the causative agent of seasonal Influenza. Influenza viruses cause significant impacts on a global scale regarding public health and economics. Annual influenza virus infections in the United States account for over 200,000 hospitalizations, up to 49,000 deaths, and an $87.1 billion economic burden. Influenza A virus has caused several pandemics since the turn of the 20th century. The effects of Influenza on public health and economics, compounded with low efficacy of the annual vaccine and emerging antiviral resistance, brings to light ...


Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu 2018 George Washington University

Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu

Medicine Faculty Publications

In HIV infected macrophages, a large population of viral genomes persists as the unintegrated form (uDNA) that is transcriptionally active. However, how this transcriptional activity is controlled remains unclear. In this report, we investigated whether Tat, the viral transactivator of transcription, is involved in uDNA transcription. We demonstrate that de novo Tat activity is generated from uDNA, and this uDNA-derived Tat (uTat) transactivates the uDNA LTR. In addition, uTat is required for the transcriptional persistence of uDNA that is assembled into repressive episomal minichromatin. In the absence of uTat, uDNA minichromatin is gradually silenced, but remains highly inducible by HDAC ...


Investigation Into The Causes And Severity Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic, Alex T. Freedenberg 2018 St. John Fisher College

Investigation Into The Causes And Severity Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic, Alex T. Freedenberg

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

The 1918 Influenza outbreak is regarded as one of the worst pandemics in human history due to its widespread effects across the globe and its high death rate. This death rate was unusual among influenza infections as most strains do not cause the amount of death that is seen in this outbreak, with 20 million dead as a conservative estimate and 100 million by other estimations. This pandemic was not very well contained for a plethora of reasons. Two main reasons are that it came at a time when understanding viral mechanics still escaped medical professionals, and due to the ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen 2018 Western Kentucky University

Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

RNA polymerase is the central enzyme in all gene expression. The rpoCY75N mutation in the zinc-binding domain of the β’ subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase blocks a unique RNA-based mechanism of transcription antitermination utilized by bacteriophage HK022 and its relatives. Here, we describe the characterization of mutant phage, orc0368, which overcomes the rpoCY75N mutation. The orc0368 genome varies from the wild type phage genome by 4 single base pair mutations. Three of these mutations were not characterized because they occur in intergenic regions but the fourth was chosen for study because of its location between a series ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, these individuals have chronic inflammation associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular pathology. HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Though the majority of proviruses that persist during antiviral therapy are defective for production of infectious virions, many are expressed, raising the possibility that the HIV-1 provirus or its transcripts contribute to ongoing inflammation. Here we found that the HIV-1 provirus activated innate immune ...


Hiv Suppresses Cervical Neutrophil Infiltration In Women With Normal Or Abnormal Pap Smears, Mika Caplan, Peter C. Angeletti, Duan Loy, Kandali Samwel, Daniela Gonzalez, Crispin Chisanga, Julius Mwaiselage, Asafu Munema, Brenda Bashekera, Kessy Goodwin, John Dustin Loy, John T. West, Charles Wood 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Hiv Suppresses Cervical Neutrophil Infiltration In Women With Normal Or Abnormal Pap Smears, Mika Caplan, Peter C. Angeletti, Duan Loy, Kandali Samwel, Daniela Gonzalez, Crispin Chisanga, Julius Mwaiselage, Asafu Munema, Brenda Bashekera, Kessy Goodwin, John Dustin Loy, John T. West, Charles Wood

UCARE Research Products

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of CD4+ T cells results in a weakened immune system due to decreased white blood cells, particularly multi-lobed neutrophils (neutropenia) and other granulocytes.1 The purpose of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between HPV/HIV status and presence of neutrophils. To test this, we used a computer software program (QuPath) to analyze neutrophil infiltration seen in pap smears of both HIV+ and HIV- patients from samples collected in Tanzania from three different sites: Bagamoyo, Chalinze, and Dar es Salaam. The software was used to quantify neutrophils per image based on the ...


Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an obligate intracellular parasite, human adenovirus (HAdV) must utilize host factors for survival and replication. Early during infection, its multifunctional E1A protein interacts with an impressive range of cellular target proteins to exert control over the cellular environment. Through these virus-host interactions, E1A massively reprograms both viral and cellular transcription to activate the other HAdV genes, downregulate the host’s immune response, and induce the cell cycle. Consequently, E1A converts the infected cell into a compliant state more amenable for HAdV replication, resulting from its numerous protein-protein interactions. I sought to examine E1A’s interaction with cellular protein kinase ...


Use Of Elispot Assay To Study Hbs-Specific B Cell Responses In Vaccinated And Hbv Infected Humans, Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu 2018 Nanjing University

Use Of Elispot Assay To Study Hbs-Specific B Cell Responses In Vaccinated And Hbv Infected Humans, Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu

Open Access Articles

Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) plays a critical role in protecting against infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and were extensively studied in literature. At the same time, the status of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs)-specific B cells in both vaccinated and HBV infected people received limited attention. In the current study, we adopted a highly specific B-cell Enzyme Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISpot) assay to analyze HBs-specific B cells in various clinical settings: healthy individuals with the history of HBV vaccination before and after receiving an extra HBV vaccine boost, people chronically infected with HBV (CHB) in various clinical stages ...


The Three-Fold Axis Of The Hiv-1 Capsid Lattice Is The Species-Specific Binding Interface For Trim5alpha, Damien Morger, Franziska Zosel, Martin Buhlmann, Sara Zuger, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Benjamin Schuler, Jeremy Luban, Markus G. Grutter 2018 University of Zurich

The Three-Fold Axis Of The Hiv-1 Capsid Lattice Is The Species-Specific Binding Interface For Trim5alpha, Damien Morger, Franziska Zosel, Martin Buhlmann, Sara Zuger, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Benjamin Schuler, Jeremy Luban, Markus G. Grutter

Open Access Articles

Rhesus TRIM5alpha (rhTRIM5alpha) potently restricts replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Restriction is mediated through direct binding of the C-terminal B30.2 domain of TRIM5alpha to the assembled HIV-1 capsid core. This host-pathogen interaction involves multiple capsid molecules within the hexagonal HIV-1 capsid lattice. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the precise site at which the B30.2 domain binds remain largely unknown. The human orthologue of TRIM5alpha (hsTRIM5alpha) fails to block infection by HIV-1 both in vivo and in vitro This is thought to be due to differences in binding to the capsid lattice. To ...


On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen 2018 Arizona State University

On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen

Open Access Articles

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the beta -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can result in serious neurological sequelae. Recent work has revealed much about the demographic and selective forces shaping the evolution of congenitally transmitted HCMV both on the level of hosts and within host compartments, providing insight into the dynamics of congenital infection, reinfection, and evolution of HCMV with important implications for the development of effective treatments and vaccines.


A Long Cytoplasmic Loop Governs The Sensitivity Of The Anti-Viral Host Protein Serinc5 To Hiv-1 Nef, Weiwei Dai, Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu, Heinrich G. Gottlinger 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Long Cytoplasmic Loop Governs The Sensitivity Of The Anti-Viral Host Protein Serinc5 To Hiv-1 Nef, Weiwei Dai, Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu, Heinrich G. Gottlinger

Open Access Articles

We recently identified the multipass transmembrane protein SERINC5 as an antiviral protein that can potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity and is counteracted by HIV-1 Nef. We now report that the anti-HIV-1 activity, but not the sensitivity to Nef, is conserved among vertebrate SERINC5 proteins. However, a Nef-resistant SERINC5 became Nef sensitive when its intracellular loop 4 (ICL4) was replaced by that of Nef-sensitive human SERINC5. Conversely, human SERINC5 became resistant to Nef when its ICL4 was replaced by that of a Nef-resistant SERINC5. In general, ICL4 regions from SERINCs that exhibited resistance to a given Nef conferred resistance to the same ...


Evaluation Of A Method To Measure Hhv-6b Infection In Vitro Based On Cell Size, Aniuska Becerra, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J. Stern 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of A Method To Measure Hhv-6b Infection In Vitro Based On Cell Size, Aniuska Becerra, Tessa Santoro, Lawrence J. Stern

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) infection of cell cultures can be measured by different methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or quantification of virus DNA by qPCR. These methods are reliable and sensitive but require long processing times and can be costly. Another method used in the field relies on the identification of enlarged cells in the culture; this method requires little sample processing and is relatively fast. However, visual inspection of cell cultures can be subjective and it can be difficult to establish clear criteria to decide if a cell is enlarged. To overcome these issues, we ...


Hiv-1 R5 Macrophage-Tropic Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Bind Cd4 With High Affinity, While The Cd4 Binding Site On Non-Macrophage-Tropic, T-Tropic R5 Envelopes Is Occluded, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Alexander Repik, Olivia O'Connell, Zhongming Mou, Matthew Koch, Mohan Somasundaran, Robin M. Brody, Katherine Luzuriaga, Aaron Wallace, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Sean M. McCauley, Jeremy Luban, Maria J. Duenas-Decamp, Maria Paz Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Paul R. Clapham 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hiv-1 R5 Macrophage-Tropic Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Bind Cd4 With High Affinity, While The Cd4 Binding Site On Non-Macrophage-Tropic, T-Tropic R5 Envelopes Is Occluded, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Alexander Repik, Olivia O'Connell, Zhongming Mou, Matthew Koch, Mohan Somasundaran, Robin M. Brody, Katherine Luzuriaga, Aaron Wallace, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Sean M. Mccauley, Jeremy Luban, Maria J. Duenas-Decamp, Maria Paz Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Paul R. Clapham

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1 R5 variants exploit CCR5 as a coreceptor to infect both T cells and macrophages. R5 viruses that are transmitted or derived from immune tissue and peripheral blood are mainly inefficient at mediating infection of macrophages. In contrast, highly macrophage-tropic (mac-tropic) R5 viruses predominate in brain tissue and can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid but are infrequent in immune tissue or blood even in late disease. These mac-tropic R5 variants carry envelope glycoproteins (Envs) adapted to exploit low levels of CD4 on macrophages to induce infection. However, it is unclear whether this adaptation is conferred by an increased affinity of ...


Surveillance Of South Dakota Mosquito Abundance, Infection Rate, And Insecticide Susceptibility, Geoffrey P. Vincent 2018 South Dakota State University

Surveillance Of South Dakota Mosquito Abundance, Infection Rate, And Insecticide Susceptibility, Geoffrey P. Vincent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation was to survey and evaluate the abundance, infection rate, and insecticide susceptibility of mosquito fauna present in South Dakota. Mosquito surveillance has been conducted across South Dakota to record and track potential West Nile virus (WNV) vectors from 2004 to 2017. The nuisance mosquito Aedes vexans was found to be the most abundant species overall in the state and most abundant in many of the regions. The WNV vector, Culex tarsalis, was found to be the second most abundant mosquito and the most abundant vector mosquito across the state. However, geospatial variation did exist between ...


Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li 2018 National Institute of Health

Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The HIV-1 pandemic is a consequence of the cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) to humans. Our previous study demonstrated SIVcpz strains that are closely related to the ancestral viruses of HIV-1 groups M (SIVcpzMB897) and N (SIVcpzEK505) and two SIVcpz lineages that are not associated with any known HIV-1 infections in humans (SIVcpzMT145 and SIVcpzBF1167), all can readily infect and robustly replicate in the humanized-BLT mouse model of humans. However, the comparative pathogenicity of different SIVcpz strains remains unknown. Herein, we compared the pathogenicity of the above four SIVcpz strains with HIV-1 using humanized-BLT mice ...


Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu 2018 Fudan University

Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu

Virology Papers

Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission.We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of ...


Influenza A Virus Genomic Reassortment And Packaging, Graham Devin Williams 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Influenza A Virus Genomic Reassortment And Packaging, Graham Devin Williams

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major human and environmental pathogen. IAV successfully infects a diverse host range and adaptation of new viral strains to humans may cause pandemic events with high morbidity and mortality. As a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, IAV inherently possesses a segmented genome, which enables a process of segment transmission between viruses following cellular co-infection, a process termed reassortment. The high rate of IAV mutation and continued co-circulation of diverse viral strains in divergent host species leads to the persistent prospect for emergence of new IAV with pandemic potential. Therefore, it is of great importance ...


Effects Of Adenovirus Infection On The Localization Of Cellular Protein Pat1b, Emilee Friedman, Kasey A. Karen 2017 Georgia College and State University

Effects Of Adenovirus Infection On The Localization Of Cellular Protein Pat1b, Emilee Friedman, Kasey A. Karen

Georgia Journal of Science

Adenoviruses are a diverse family of nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses with a variety of vertebrate hosts including humans. Over 50 serotypes of human adenovirus have been identified, and cause a number of illnesses, including conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and respiratory infections. The life cycle of adenovirus is divided into immediate early, early, and late phases, with immediate early proteins controlling transcription and the cell cycle, early proteins being largely regulatory, and late proteins being structural. Early proteins such as E4 11k have been demonstrated to relocalize key cellular proteins, including proteins found within mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies). It is hypothesized that E4 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress