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Research Article A New Informatics Framework For Evaluating The Codon Usage Metrics, Evolutionary Models And Phylogeographic Reconstruction Of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Tylcv) In Different Regions Of Asian Countries, Mamathashree Mn, Kuralyanapalya Putta Honnappa Suresh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Mallikarjun S Beelagi, Sushma Pradeep, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Siju Susan Jacob, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Raghu Ram Achar, Ashwini Prasad, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu 2022 ICARNational Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru560064, Yelahanka, India

Research Article A New Informatics Framework For Evaluating The Codon Usage Metrics, Evolutionary Models And Phylogeographic Reconstruction Of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Tylcv) In Different Regions Of Asian Countries, Mamathashree Mn, Kuralyanapalya Putta Honnappa Suresh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Mallikarjun S Beelagi, Sushma Pradeep, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Siju Susan Jacob, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Raghu Ram Achar, Ashwini Prasad, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a major devastating viral disease, majorly affecting the tomato production globally. The disease is majorly transmitted by the Whitefly. The Begomovirus (TYLCV) having a six major protein coding genes, among them the C1/AC1 is evidently associated with viral replication. Owing to immense role of C1/AC1 gene, the present study is an initial effort to elucidate the factors shaping the codon usage bias and evolutionary pattern of TYLCV-C1/AC1 gene in five major Asian countries. Based on publically available nucleotide sequence data the Codon usage pattern, Evolutionary and Phylogeographic reconstruction was carried out. The study …


Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Based Techniques In Analyzing The Covid-19 Gene Expression Data: A Review, Santhosh K, Ajitha S, Sushma Pradeep, Kuralyanapalya Putta Honnappa Suresh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Chandan Shivmallu 2022 Department of Computer Science, JSS College for Women, Mysore, India

Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Based Techniques In Analyzing The Covid-19 Gene Expression Data: A Review, Santhosh K, Ajitha S, Sushma Pradeep, Kuralyanapalya Putta Honnappa Suresh, Sharanagouda S Patil, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Chandan Shivmallu

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

The novel Coronavirus associated with respiratory illness has become a new threat to human health as it is spreading very rapidly among the human population. Scientists and healthcare specialists throughout the world are still looking for a breakthrough technology to help combat the Covid-19 outbreak, despite the recent worldwide urgency. The use of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in earlier epidemics has encouraged researchers by providing a fresh approach to combating the latest Coronavirus pandemic. This paper aims to comprehensively review the role of AI and ML for analysis of gene expressed data of COVID-19


Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal 2022 East Tennessee State University

Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection initiates major metabolic and cell- survival complications. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is the current approach to suppress active HIV replication to a level of undetected viral load, but it is not a curative approach. Newer and sophisticated gene editing technologies could indeed be a potent antiviral therapy to achieve a clinical sterilization/cure of HIV infection. Chronic HIV patients, even under a successful ART regimen, exhibit a low-grade inflammation, immune senescence, premature aging, telomeric DNA attrition, T cell apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. In this dissertation, we investigated CD4 T cell homeostasis, degree of T cell apoptosis, an …


Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Aedes aegypti is a medically important mosquito species that transmits multiple arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever. This mosquito species has expanded its geographical range into expanded into the Northern Chihuahuan Desert to further increase the risk of infection by these viruses in naïve human populations. Although Ae. aegypti is abundant along the U.S.â??Mexico border, the biology and ecology of this mosquito species in this temperate/arid climate region is not understood. The objective of this study was to understand the environmental factors that influence the invasive species of Ae. aegypti abundance, breeding habitat selection, host feeding behavior, and …


Biology And Epidemiology Of Dengue Viruses In The El Paso And The Surrounding Usa And Mexico Border Communities, Pedro Miguel Palermo Infante 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Epidemiology Of Dengue Viruses In The El Paso And The Surrounding Usa And Mexico Border Communities, Pedro Miguel Palermo Infante

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Dengue is considered one of the most important human arboviral diseases worldwide. Dengue cases have increased in the last three decades in the Americas, especially along the United States (US)- Mexico (MX) border region, where the main vector of dengue, Aedes aegypti mosquito, is widely distributed. Explosive outbreaks of dengue in northern Mexico have been associated with imported and local transmission of dengue in the US border communities, especially in the Southeast Texas area, also known as Rio Grande Valley. Due to the unknown if dengue virus (DENV) is present in other areas in the US border located west of …


Viruses In Astrobiology, Ignacio de la Higuera, Ester Lázaro 2022 Portland State University

Viruses In Astrobiology, Ignacio De La Higuera, Ester Lázaro

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, and yet, they have not received enough consideration in astrobiology. Viruses are also extraordinarily diverse, which is evident in the types of relationships they establish with their host, their strategies to store and replicate their genetic information and the enormous diversity of genes they contain. A viral population, especially if it corresponds to a virus with an RNA genome, can contain an array of sequence variants that greatly exceeds what is present in most cell populations. The fact that viruses always need cellular resources to multiply means that they establish very …


Sars-Cov-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant: Structural Features, Biological Characteristics, Impact On Scientific Research, General Precautions And Protective Procedures; A Systematic Review, Prithivi Nagarajan, Anitha Vetrivel, Jayanthi Kumar, Anusheela Howlader, Kumar Rangarajalu, Satheesh Kumar Sabapathy, Muthu Gopal, Saravanaavel Kumar 2022 ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, MULTI-DISCIPLINARY CENTRE FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH, AARUPADAI VEEDU MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL, INDIA

Sars-Cov-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant: Structural Features, Biological Characteristics, Impact On Scientific Research, General Precautions And Protective Procedures; A Systematic Review, Prithivi Nagarajan, Anitha Vetrivel, Jayanthi Kumar, Anusheela Howlader, Kumar Rangarajalu, Satheesh Kumar Sabapathy, Muthu Gopal, Saravanaavel Kumar

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The SARS-CoV-2 mutations that have occurred have alarmed the entire medical community. Thus, global concerns have been expressed regarding the transmission, pathogenicity and immune evasion of the Omicron strain, which shares mutations with the variants of concern Alpha, Beta, and Gamma strains. Still, Omicron transmission has crossed numerous borders worldwide compared to other types of SARS-CoV-2. The number of confirmed cases has increased and is reappearing in India. Given the worrisome situation created by the Omicron outbreak, scientists and postgraduates have had to make decisions about current research programs at institutions around the globe. The Omicron variants under development have …


Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr. 2022 Western University

Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr.

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The microbiota is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The nasal milieu secretes immune molecules that can be influenced by diverse bacteria. Hence commensals that enhance anti-viral responses may confer resistance to respiratory viral infection.

Our collaborators have identified 7 microbial state types (CST) defined by indicator species in the nose and recently, through analyses of nasal immune molecules, we have categorized the nasal immune profile types into 8 groups (IPT). Although the IPTs correlated with certain CSTs, the influence of the nasal microbiome on susceptibility to respiratory pathogens is still unknown.

Defining this complex relationship requires a …


Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mycobacteriophages are a group of phages that infect members of the genus Mycobacteria. Previous studies have conducted extensive comparisons of the mycobacteriophage genomes and amino acid sequences to establish different phage families. MooMoo is a singleton mycobacteriophage that has been characterized due to its lack of appreciable homology to other phages. Some of its unique properties include its structure and the isolation of a mutant that causes clear plaque phenotypes. The experiments described in this thesis identified three MooMoo phage (gp87, gp90, and gp91) encoded proteins that are toxic to the bacterial host, Mycobacterium smegmatis.Through the use of a …


Defining The Importance Of The Hnrnp I Interaction To The Sindbis Virus Subgenomic Viral Rna Using An Innovative Tethering Approach., Claire Westcott 2022 University of Louisville

Defining The Importance Of The Hnrnp I Interaction To The Sindbis Virus Subgenomic Viral Rna Using An Innovative Tethering Approach., Claire Westcott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Old World alphaviruses cause significant outbreaks of illness and debilitating multi-joint arthritis for prolonged periods. Currently, there are no FDA approved vaccines or antiviral therapies; and thus, there is a critical need to identify and characterize the molecular biology of alphaviruses. Alphaviruses rely on the host cell machinery to complete the viral lifecycle and are dependent on interactions with host RNA binding proteins. Accordingly, several host heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein proteins (hnRNPs) have been found to bind to the Sindbis virus (SINV) RNAs. Disrupting the interaction sites in the viral RNAs of these RNA:Protein interactions results in decreased viral titers in …


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in …


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly

Honors Theses

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an emerging problem for humans. Clinical misuse, overuse in agricultural and food settings, and limited numbers of new antibiotics have accelerated the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To confront this threat, scientists must develop new therapeutics that kill these antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we used Escherichia coli to analyze antibiotic and bacteriophage susceptibility. E. coli is a common, mostly benign, enteric, gram-negative bacteria. We isolated three E. coli strains from the Hans Groot Kill, a stream that runs through Union College’s campus. We sought to assess various E. coli strains’ antibiotic resistance, susceptibility …


The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family which causes both seasonal epidemics and pandemics. IAV preferentially infects epithelial cells in the upper and lower respiratory tract, resulting in a range of disease severity from mild upper respiratory infections to potentially-lethal pneumonia. Ultimately, the severity of symptoms and complications from IAV infection depends on control of virus replication in the lungs, the inflammatory nature of the immune response, and the effectiveness of post-infection lung repair to regain pulmonary function. An arsenal of secreted proteins in the lung regulates these antiviral, inflammatory, and regenerative activities during infection, …


The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph 2022 Georgia College

The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph

Biology Theses

Adenovirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that contains a 36 Kbp genome. The E4 ORF3 region of its genome consists of an E4 11k protein that can reorganize host cell components by relocalizing cellular proteins. One such cellular component is the cytoplasmic processing body, which consists of proteins involved in translational repression of mRNA and mRNA degradation. During an adenovirus infection, processing body proteins Ddx6 and Pat1b have been shown to colocalize and form aggresomes. Aggresomes induced by E4 11k are specific to the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad 5). In this study, cytoplasmic Pat1b foci were observed and quantified …


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 …


Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In recent years, there is a growing interest in the investigation of using potassium to treat virus infections. In the region of infection, there is a biological observation of extracel- lular potassium level being typically very low whereas the intracellular potassium levels are much higher. There are numerous biological studies showing that elevated potassium levels in the extracellular membrane tends to block virus infections. A recent effort in this direction is a collaborative research conducted by mathematicians and biologists from the University of Texas at El Paso, New Mexico State University, and the University of New Mexico, where we develop …


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses …


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