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Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton 2016 Western Kentucky University

Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...


Retention Of Mothers And Infants In The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme Is Associated With Individual And Facility-Level Factors In Rwanda., Godfrey B Woelk, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Sally Behan, Martha Mukaminega, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Heather J. Hoffman, Placidie Mugwaneza, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Anouk Amzel, B Ryan Phelps 2016 George Washington University

Retention Of Mothers And Infants In The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme Is Associated With Individual And Facility-Level Factors In Rwanda., Godfrey B Woelk, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Sally Behan, Martha Mukaminega, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Heather J. Hoffman, Placidie Mugwaneza, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Anouk Amzel, B Ryan Phelps

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Investigate levels of retention at specified time periods along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade among mother-infant pairs as well as individual- and facility-level factors associated with retention.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants attending five health centres from November 2010 to February 2012 in the Option B programme in Rwanda was established. Data were collected from several health registers and patient follow-up files. Additionally, informant interviews were conducted to ascertain health facility characteristics. Generalized estimating equation methods and modelling were utilized to estimate the number of mothers attending each antenatal care visit ...


Closing The Net On Retroviruses, Jeremy Luban 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Closing The Net On Retroviruses, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

Structural studies reveal how an antiviral factor forms a molecular net to restrict retroviruses including HIV-1.


Effects Of Piscine Reovirus Infection On Innate Immune Signalling In Salmon, Mark Polinski 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Effects Of Piscine Reovirus Infection On Innate Immune Signalling In Salmon, Mark Polinski

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. McDougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


Understanding Viral Dsrna Production, Cell Entry And Use As An Antiviral Therapeutic In Rainbow Trout, Sarah J. Poynter, Amal Aloufi, Jeremy Weleff, Adam Soares, Stephanie J. DeWitte-Orr 2016 University of Waterloo

Understanding Viral Dsrna Production, Cell Entry And Use As An Antiviral Therapeutic In Rainbow Trout, Sarah J. Poynter, Amal Aloufi, Jeremy Weleff, Adam Soares, Stephanie J. Dewitte-Orr

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Fatty Acid Synthase And The Lipogenic Phenotype In Wssv-Infected Shrimp, Han-Ching Wang 2016 National Cheng Kung University

Fatty Acid Synthase And The Lipogenic Phenotype In Wssv-Infected Shrimp, Han-Ching Wang

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Lipid Metabolism During Wssv Infection In Shrimp, Cheng Cheng Shun 2016 The University of Maine

Lipid Metabolism During Wssv Infection In Shrimp, Cheng Cheng Shun

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Expression Kinetics Of Interferon Stimulated Genes In Atlantic Salmon Head Kidney Cells (Ask) Nucleofected With Poly(I:C), Adriana Magalhaes Santos Andresen 19821, Tor Gjøen 2016 University of Oslo

Expression Kinetics Of Interferon Stimulated Genes In Atlantic Salmon Head Kidney Cells (Ask) Nucleofected With Poly(I:C), Adriana Magalhaes Santos Andresen 19821, Tor Gjøen

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Reviews Of Science For Science Librarians: The Challenge Of The Zika Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus Disease, Frances A. Delwiche 2016 University of Vermont

Reviews Of Science For Science Librarians: The Challenge Of The Zika Virus: An Emerging Arbovirus Disease, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

First identified in Uganda in 1947, the Zika virus simmered quietly for sixty years, occasionally causing a mild dengue-like illness across parts of central Africa and equatorial Asia. However, since 2007, three large outbreaks have occurred: first in Micronesia, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, and as an epidemic involving Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015-2016. This paper reviews the virology of the Zika virus, its modes of transmission, symptoms of Zika Virus Disease, the association of Zika infections with microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome, prevention of Zika infections, and ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. McDougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotypes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. DeJong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Greg P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull 2016 Providence College

Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotypes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. Dejong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Greg P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull

Kathleen Cornely

Genomic analysis of a large set of phages infecting the common host Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 shows that they span considerable genetic diversity. There are more than 20 distinct types that lack nucleotide similarity with each other, and there is considerable diversity within most of the groups. Three newly isolated temperate mycobacteriophages, Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey, constitute a new group (cluster M), with the closely related phages Bongo and PegLeg forming subcluster M1 and the more distantly related Rey forming subcluster M2. The cluster M mycobacteriophages have siphoviral morphologies with unusually long tails, are homoimmune, and have larger than average genomes ...


Characterization Of Influenza Nucleoprotein Body Domain As Antiviral Target, Alicia Morgan Davis 2016 California State University, San Bernardino

Characterization Of Influenza Nucleoprotein Body Domain As Antiviral Target, Alicia Morgan Davis

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Influenza is a segmented negative strand RNA virus. Each RNA segment is encapsulated by viral nucleoprotein (NP) and bound by the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to form viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) responsible for RNA synthesis. NP is a structural component of the vRNP but also interacts with both viral and host factors to regulate viral RNA expression. NP is conserved among influenza A isolates, making NP interactions compelling antiviral targets. Here I characterize mutations within 5 amino acids of NP that comprise an accessible region of the NP body domain, as determined by NP crystal structure. This region was ...


The Frequency Of Influenza And Bacterial Co-Infection: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Eili Y. Klein, Bradley Monteforte, Alisha Gupta, Wendi Jiang, Larissa May, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Andrea Freyer Dugas 2016 George Washington University

The Frequency Of Influenza And Bacterial Co-Infection: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Eili Y. Klein, Bradley Monteforte, Alisha Gupta, Wendi Jiang, Larissa May, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Andrea Freyer Dugas

Emergency Medicine Faculty Publications

AIM: Co-infecting bacterial pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in influenza. However, there remains a paucity of literature on the magnitude of co-infection in influenza patients.

METHOD: A systematic search of MeSH, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and PubMed was performed. Studies of humans in which all individuals had laboratory confirmed influenza, and all individuals were tested for an array of common bacterial species, met inclusion criteria.

RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies including 3,215 participants met all inclusion criteria. Common etiologies were defined from a subset of eight articles. There was high heterogeneity in the results ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Human Cytomegalovirus Pus27 And Pus28: Ascertaining An Independent Or Linked Evolutionary History, Jessica A. Scarborough 2016 University of San Francisco

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Human Cytomegalovirus Pus27 And Pus28: Ascertaining An Independent Or Linked Evolutionary History, Jessica A. Scarborough

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that is particularly skilled at evading immune detection and defense mechanisms, largely due to extensive co-evolution with its host’s immune system. One aspect of this co-evolution involves the acquisition of four virally encoded GPCR chemokine receptor homologs, products of the US27, US28, UL33 and UL78 genes. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest family of cell surface proteins, found in organisms from yeast to humans. In this research, phylogenetic analysis was used to investigate the origins of the US27 and US28 genes, which are adjacent in the viral genome. The results indicate ...


Omcp Mediated Cowpox Virulence And Its Dependence On The Immune Receptors Nkg2d And Fcrl5., Michel Muzi Sun 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Omcp Mediated Cowpox Virulence And Its Dependence On The Immune Receptors Nkg2d And Fcrl5., Michel Muzi Sun

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Viruses with large DNA genomes, such as cowpox virus, encode many open-reading frames involved in the modulation of the host immune system, facilitating escape from immune detection or downregulation of specific aspects of the host immune response. Investigation of virally-encoded immunoevasins has been instrumental in understanding host-pathogen interactions. Here, we focus on the cowpox virus immunoevasin Orthopoxvirus MHC Class I-like Protein (OMCP) and demonstrate for the first time that OMCP facilitates cowpox virus virulence in vivo. We have previously documented that OMCP binds the activating receptor NKG2D on NK cells as well as the orphan receptor FCRL5 on innate B ...


Characterization Of A Mitochondrial Localizing Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Protein: Mc163r, Jesse Coutu 2016 Seton Hall University

Characterization Of A Mitochondrial Localizing Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Protein: Mc163r, Jesse Coutu

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) is an obligate human, tumorigenic poxvirus which causes benign skin neoplasms. Reduced inflammation during an MCV infection has been attributed to production of MCV immune evasion molecules (IEMs). IEMs antagonize host immune responses allowing MCV to evade the host immune system and reprogram the host cell for viral growth. MCV IEMs alter apoptosis (MC159, MC160), deregulate the cell cycle targeting retinoblastoma (MC007), and produce a chemokine homolog (MC148). Bioinformatics analysis identified MC163, as another potential host-interacting protein. Further analysis of MC163 resulted in the identification of a mitochondrial localization sequence, putative superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like Cu ...


Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang 2016 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of Induced Rnai Silencing Of Vaccinia Virus Essential Genes, Kewa Jiang

University Scholar Projects

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypical member of the family Poxviridae and is most notable for its use as the vaccine that eradicated smallpox (variola virus). More recently, VACV has been used to develop recombinant vaccines and immunotherapies. However, many of these processes require VACV replication to be tightly controlled. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for in vitro silencing of mRNAs that are complimentary to 19-21 base pairs (bp) of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This project outlines the design and preliminary analysis of two inducible RNAi silencing constructs targeting multiple VACV essential genes ...


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