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Elucidating The Role Of Interleukin-17a In West Nile Virus Infection, Dhiraj Acharya 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Role Of Interleukin-17a In West Nile Virus Infection, Dhiraj Acharya

Dissertations

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus of significant public health importance for which no therapeutics and vaccine are currently available. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is an inflammatory cytokine that regulates diverse immune functions, while its role is unclear in host’s immune response to WNV. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells are crucial components of immunity and play a vital role in recovery from WNV infection. Here, we report a previously unrecognized function of IL-17A in regulating CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity. We show that WNV induces the expression of IL-17A in both mouse splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in ...


Lysine Residues Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect The Replication And Transcription Activatormediated Lytic Replication Of Kaposi’S Sarcomaassociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8, Tianzheng Zhang, Ying Wang, Li Zhang, Bin Liu, Jinhui Xie, Charles Wood, Jinzhong Wang 2017 Nankai University

Lysine Residues Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect The Replication And Transcription Activatormediated Lytic Replication Of Kaposi’S Sarcomaassociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8, Tianzheng Zhang, Ying Wang, Li Zhang, Bin Liu, Jinhui Xie, Charles Wood, Jinzhong Wang

Virology Papers

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection goes through latent and lytic phases, which are controlled by the viral replication and transcription activator (RTA). Upon KSHV infection, the host responds by suppressing RTA-activated lytic gene expression through interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7), a key regulator of host innate immune response. Lysine residues are potential sites for post-translational modification of IRF-7, and were suggested to be critical for its activity. In this study, we analysed the 15 lysine residues for their effects on IRF-7 function by site-directed mutagenesis. We found that some mutations affect the ability of IRF-7 to activate interferon (IFN ...


Detecting, Cloning, And Screening For Suppressors Of Rna Silencing In Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus And Sugarcane Mosaic Virus, Nicole E. Bacheller 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Detecting, Cloning, And Screening For Suppressors Of Rna Silencing In Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus And Sugarcane Mosaic Virus, Nicole E. Bacheller

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is one of the most important viral diseases of maize. MLND occurs when Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) co-infects the same plant with one of several potyviruses, including Sugarcane mosaic virus, Wheat streak mosaic virus or Maize dwarf mosaic virus. Originally prevalent in the Midwest and Peru in the 1970s, the disease was called corn lethal necrosis (CLN) and was controlled through breeding and sanitation. Recently, the disease has re-emerged in East Africa and is rapidly spreading and threatening the food sources of subsistence-farming populations. This re-emergence has raised several questions about the unknown molecular ...


Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky 2017 George Washington University

Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A. This activity was shown to be dependent on oxidative stress, and for NS4A they demonstrated involvement of the TOR ...


Senecavirus A: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis And Infection Dynamics, Lok Raj Joshi 2017 South Dakota State University

Senecavirus A: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis And Infection Dynamics, Lok Raj Joshi

Theses and Dissertations

Senecavirus A (SVA) is a positive sense single-stranded virus that belongs to the genus Senecavirus within the family Picornaviridae. Senecavirus has been present in US swine population since 1988. However, there have been only a few reports of SVA associated with disease in last two decades. In late 2014 early 2015, a sudden increase in the number of cases of Senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease was observed in Brazil, the US and China. Affected pigs presented vesicles on snout, coronary band, and dewclaw. Additionaly, increased neonatal mortality has been reported in the field. Many aspects of SVA epidemiology, infection ...


Reactivation Of Hiv-1 Proviruses In Immune-Compromised Mice Engrafted With Human Voa-Negative Cd4+ T Cells, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Wuxun Lu, Qingsheng Li 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Reactivation Of Hiv-1 Proviruses In Immune-Compromised Mice Engrafted With Human Voa-Negative Cd4+ T Cells, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Wuxun Lu, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

Background: HIV-1 infection remains incurable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to virus latency. To date, enhanced co-culture assays, including viral outgrowth assays (VOA), are commonly used to measure HIV-1 latent reservoirs and evaluate latency-reversing agents (LRAs). However, VOA can only reactivate a small fraction of intact proviruses.

Methods: To explore the utility of NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice as an in vivo model to reactivate HIV-1 proviruses from VOA-negative CD4+ T cells, resting CD4+ T cells from an HIV-1 latently infected individual were isolated and the human CD4+ T cells corresponding to VOA-positive and VOA-negative CD4+ T cells were engrafted ...


Distinct Transcriptome Profiles Of Gag-Specific Cd8+ T Cells Temporally Correlated With The Protection Elicited By Sivδnef Live Attenuated Vaccine, Wuxun Lu, Yanmin Wu, Fangrui Ma, R. Paul Johnson, Qingsheng Li 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Distinct Transcriptome Profiles Of Gag-Specific Cd8+ T Cells Temporally Correlated With The Protection Elicited By Sivδnef Live Attenuated Vaccine, Wuxun Lu, Yanmin Wu, Fangrui Ma, R. Paul Johnson, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The live attenuated vaccine (LAV) SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) confers the best protection among all the vaccine modalities tested in rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 infection. This vaccine has a unique feature of time-dependent protection: macaques are not protected at 3±5 weeks post vaccination (WPV), whereas immune protection emerges between 15 and 20 WPV. Although the exact mechanisms of the time-dependent protection remain incompletely understood, studies suggested that both cellular and humoral immunities contribute to this time-dependent protection. To further elucidate the mechanisms of protection induced by SIVΔnef, we longitudinally compared the global gene expression profiles of SIV Gag-CM9+ CD8+ (Gag-specific ...


Investigating High Speed Localization Microscopy Through Experimental Methods, Data Processing Methods, And Applications Of Localization Microscopy To Biological Questions, Andrew J. Nelson 2016 University of Maine

Investigating High Speed Localization Microscopy Through Experimental Methods, Data Processing Methods, And Applications Of Localization Microscopy To Biological Questions, Andrew J. Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy(FPALM) and other super resolution localization microscopy techniques can resolve structures with nanoscale resolution. Unlike techniques of electron microscopy, they are also compatible with live cell and live animal studies, making FPALM and related techniques ideal for answering questions about the dynamic nature of molecular biology in living systems. Many processes in biology occur on rapid sub second time scales requiring the imaging technique to be capable of resolving these processes not just with a high enough spatial resolution, but with an appropriate temporal resolution. To that end, this Dissertation in part investigates high speed FPALM ...


Peering Below The Diffraction Limit: Robust And Specific Sorting Of Viruses With Flow Cytometry, Shea T. Lance, David J. Sukovich, Kenneth M. Stedman, Adam R. Abate 2016 University of California, San Francisco

Peering Below The Diffraction Limit: Robust And Specific Sorting Of Viruses With Flow Cytometry, Shea T. Lance, David J. Sukovich, Kenneth M. Stedman, Adam R. Abate

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Viruses are incredibly diverse organisms and impact all forms of life on Earth; however, individual virions are challenging to study due to their small size and mass, precluding almost all direct imaging or molecular analysis. Moreover, like microbes, the overwhelming majority of viruses cannot be cultured, impeding isolation, replication, and study of interesting new species. Here, we introduce PCR-activated virus sorting, a method to isolate specific viruses from a heterogeneous population. Specific sorting opens new avenues in the study of uncultivable viruses, including recovering the full genomes of viruses based on genetic fragments in metagenomes, or identifying the hosts ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


Peroxiredoxin Ii Regulates Effector And Secondary Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses, Ryan D. Michalek, Katie E. Crump, Ashley E. Weant, Elizabeth M. Hiltbold, Daniel G. Juneau, Eun-Yi Moon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Leslie B. Poole, Jason M. Grayson 2016 Metabolon Corporation

Peroxiredoxin Ii Regulates Effector And Secondary Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses, Ryan D. Michalek, Katie E. Crump, Ashley E. Weant, Elizabeth M. Hiltbold, Daniel G. Juneau, Eun-Yi Moon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Leslie B. Poole, Jason M. Grayson

Katie Crump

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H2O2on an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8+ T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8+ T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar ...


Genomes Of Gardnerella Strains Reveal An Abundance Of Prophages Within The Bladder Microbiome, Kema Malki, Jason W. Shapiro, Travis Kyle Price, Evann Elizabeth Hilt, Krystal Thomas-White, Trina Sircar, Amy B. Rosenfeld, Michael J. Zilliox, Alan J. Wolfe, Catherine Putonti 2016 Loyola University Chicago

Genomes Of Gardnerella Strains Reveal An Abundance Of Prophages Within The Bladder Microbiome, Kema Malki, Jason W. Shapiro, Travis Kyle Price, Evann Elizabeth Hilt, Krystal Thomas-White, Trina Sircar, Amy B. Rosenfeld, Michael J. Zilliox, Alan J. Wolfe, Catherine Putonti

Bioinformatics Faculty Publications

Bacterial surveys of the vaginal and bladder human microbiota have revealed an abundance of many similar bacterial taxa. As the bladder was once thought to be sterile, the complex interactions between microbes within the bladder have yet to be characterized. To initiate this process, we have begun sequencing isolates, including the clinically relevant genus Gardnerella. Herein, we present the genomic sequences of four Gardnerella strains isolated from the bladders of women with symptoms of urgency urinary incontinence; these are the first Gardnerella genomes produced from this niche. Congruent to genomic characterization of Gardnerella isolates from the reproductive tract, isolates from ...


Chemokine Levels In The Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate With Hiv-1 Acquisition And Are Reduced By Male Circumcision In Rakai, Uganda., Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M. Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul 2016 George Washington University

Chemokine Levels In The Penile Coronal Sulcus Correlate With Hiv-1 Acquisition And Are Reduced By Male Circumcision In Rakai, Uganda., Jessica L Prodger, Ronald H Gray, Brett Shannon, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Xiangrong Kong, Kate Grabowski, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Cindy M. Liu, Aaron A R Tobian, Rupert Kaul

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Individual susceptibility to HIV is heterogeneous, but the biological mechanisms explaining differences are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that penile inflammation may increase HIV susceptibility in men by recruiting permissive CD4 T cells, and that male circumcision may decrease HIV susceptibility in part by reducing genital inflammation. We used multi-array technology to measure levels of seven cytokines in coronal sulcus (penile) swabs collected longitudinally from initially uncircumcised men enrolled in a randomized trial of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Coronal sulcus cytokine levels were compared between men who acquired HIV and controls who remained seronegative. Cytokines were also compared within men before ...


P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi SenGupta 2016 George Washington University

P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi Sengupta

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, potentially accelerating immunological aging and dysfunction. In order to investigate the immunological aging in HIV patients, p16 protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, in T cell subsets in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected patients on and off ART as well as age-matched healthy controls. Results showed that untreated HIV-infected subjects exhibited ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Implicates The P53 Signaling Pathway In The Establishment Of Hiv-1 Latency In Central Memory Cd4 T Cells In An In Vitro Model, Cory White, Bastiaan Moesker, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Laura Martins, Celsa Spina, Alberto Bosque, +4 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Transcriptomic Analysis Implicates The P53 Signaling Pathway In The Establishment Of Hiv-1 Latency In Central Memory Cd4 T Cells In An In Vitro Model, Cory White, Bastiaan Moesker, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Laura Martins, Celsa Spina, Alberto Bosque, +4 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The search for an HIV-1 cure has been greatly hindered by the presence of a viral reservoir that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of HIV-1 latency in vivo are also complicated by the low proportion of latently infected cells in HIV-1 infected individuals. A number of models of HIV-1 latency have been developed to examine the signaling pathways and viral determinants of latency and reactivation. A primary cell model of HIV-1 latency, which incorporates the generation of primary central memory CD4 T cells (TCM), full-length virus infection (HIVNL4-3) and ART to suppress virus replication, was used to investigate the ...


Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine Demarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80–90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity. In the current ...


Unusual Polymorphisms In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Associated With Nonprogressive Infection, Louis Alexander, Emma Weiskopf, Thomas C. Greenough, Nathan C. Gaddis, Marcy C. Auerbach, MIchael H. Malim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Bruce D. Walker, John L. Sullivan, Ronald C. Desrosiers 2016 Harvard Medical School

Unusual Polymorphisms In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Associated With Nonprogressive Infection, Louis Alexander, Emma Weiskopf, Thomas C. Greenough, Nathan C. Gaddis, Marcy C. Auerbach, Michael H. Malim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Bruce D. Walker, John L. Sullivan, Ronald C. Desrosiers

Stephen O'Brien

Factors accounting for long-term nonprogression may include infection with an attenuated strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), genetic polymorphisms in the host, and virus-specific immune responses. In this study, we examined eight individuals with nonprogressing or slowly progressing HIV-1 infection, none of whom were homozygous for host-specific polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF-1-3'A) which have been associated with slower disease progression. HIV-1 was recovered from seven of the eight, and recovered virus was used for sequencing the full-length HIV-1 genome; full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from the eighth were determined following amplification of viral sequences directly from peripheral blood ...


Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue VandeWoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick; Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species ...


Phylogenetic Associations Of Human And Simian T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphotropic Virus Type I Strains: Evidence For Interspecies Transmission, Igor J. Koralnik, Enzo Boeri, W. Carl Saxinger, Anita Lo Monico, Jake Fullen, Antoine Gessain, Hong-Guang Guo, Robert C. Gallo, Phillip Markham, Vaniambadi Kalyanaraman, Vanessa Hirsch, Jonathan Allan, Krishna Murthy, Patricia Alford, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Stephen J. O'Brien, Genoveffa Ranchini 2016 National Cancer Institute at Bethesda

Phylogenetic Associations Of Human And Simian T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphotropic Virus Type I Strains: Evidence For Interspecies Transmission, Igor J. Koralnik, Enzo Boeri, W. Carl Saxinger, Anita Lo Monico, Jake Fullen, Antoine Gessain, Hong-Guang Guo, Robert C. Gallo, Phillip Markham, Vaniambadi Kalyanaraman, Vanessa Hirsch, Jonathan Allan, Krishna Murthy, Patricia Alford, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Stephen J. O'Brien, Genoveffa Ranchini

Stephen O'Brien

Homologous env sequences from 17 human T-leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) strains from throughout the world and from 25 simian T-leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-I) strains from 12 simian species in Asia and Africa were analyzed in a phylogenetic context as an approach to resolving the natural history of these related retroviruses. STLV-I exhibited greater overall sequence variation between strains (1 to 18% compared with 0 to 9% for HTLV-I), supporting the simian origin of the modern viruses in all species. Three HTLV-I phylogenetic clusters or clades (cosmopolitan, Zaire, and Melanesia) were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood ...


Mannose Binding Lectin Genotypes Influence Recovery From Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Chloe L. Thio, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Jacquie Astemborski, Spencer Greer, Gregory D. Kirk, Stephen J. O'Brien, David L. Thomas 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Mannose Binding Lectin Genotypes Influence Recovery From Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Chloe L. Thio, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Jacquie Astemborski, Spencer Greer, Gregory D. Kirk, Stephen J. O'Brien, David L. Thomas

Stephen O'Brien

Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a central component of the innate immune response and thus may be important for determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence. Since single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding MBL (mbl2) alter the level of functional MBL, we hypothesized that mbl2 genotypes are a determinant of HBV persistence or recovery from viral infection. We tested this hypothesis by using a nested case control design with 189 persons with HBV persistence matched to 338 individuals who had naturally recovered from HBV infection. We determined genotypes of two promoter and three exon 1 SNPs in mbl2 and grouped ...


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