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The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph 2022 Georgia College

The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph

Biology Theses

Adenovirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that contains a 36 Kbp genome. The E4 ORF3 region of its genome consists of an E4 11k protein that can reorganize host cell components by relocalizing cellular proteins. One such cellular component is the cytoplasmic processing body, which consists of proteins involved in translational repression of mRNA and mRNA degradation. During an adenovirus infection, processing body proteins Ddx6 and Pat1b have been shown to colocalize and form aggresomes. Aggresomes induced by E4 11k are specific to the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad 5). In this study, cytoplasmic Pat1b foci were observed and quantified ...


Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl 2022 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Conformational Dynamics And Allosteric Modulation Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike, Marco A. Diaz-Salinas, Qi Li, Ejemel Monir, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Jeremy Luban, Kuang Shen, Yang Wang, James B. Munro 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Conformational Dynamics And Allosteric Modulation Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike, Marco A. Diaz-Salinas, Qi Li, Ejemel Monir, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Jeremy Luban, Kuang Shen, Yang Wang, James B. Munro

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects cells through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This interaction is mediated by the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) glycoprotein. Structural and dynamic data have shown that S can adopt multiple conformations, which controls the exposure of the ACE2-binding site in the RBD. Here, using single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging, we report the effects of ACE2 and antibody binding on the conformational dynamics of S from the Wuhan-1 strain and in the presence of the D614G mutation. We find that D614G modulates the energetics of the RBD ...


Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Structural and functional studies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins have recently determined distinct functional states of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 spike variants, providing a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms that link the effect of mutations with the enhanced virus infectivity and transmissibility. A detailed dynamic and energetic analysis of these variants was undertaken in the present work to quantify the effects of different mutations on functional conformational changes and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We employed the efficient and accurate coarse-grained (CG) simulations of multiple functional states of the D614G mutant, B.1 ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Application Of The Skin Virome For Human Identification, Ema H. Graham, Jennifer Clarke, Samodha Fernando, Joshua Herr, Michael Adamowicz

Virology Papers

The use of skin virome offers a unique approach for human identification purposes in instances where a viable and statistically relevant human DNA profile is unavailable. The skin virome may act as an alternative DNA profile and/or an additional form of probative genetic material. To date, no study has attempted to investigate the human virome over a time series across various physical locations of the body to identify its diagnostic potential as a tool for human identification. For this study, we set out to evaluate the stability, diversity, and individualization of the human skin virome. An additional goal was ...


A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece 2022 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Contamination of oysters with a variety of viruses is one key pathway to trigger outbreaks of massive oyster mortality as well as human illnesses, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Much effort has gone into examining the fate of viruses in contaminated oysters, yet the current state of knowledge of nonlinear virus-oyster interactions is not comprehensive because most studies have focused on a limited number of processes under a narrow range of experimental conditions. A framework is needed for describing the complex nonlinear virus-oyster interactions. Here, we introduce a mathematical model that includes key processes for viral dynamics in oysters, such as ...


The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown 2022 Western Kentucky University

The Isolation And Characterization Of Bacteriophage Hasitha, Gillian Brown

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Microbacteriophage Hasitha is a virus that infects Microbacterium foliorum, a bacterium associated with grasses that was first discovered in Germany. Hasitha was isolated from an enriched compost sample and is of particular interest due to its unusual growth pattern. Most bacteriophages require actively growing host cells to produce new phage progeny. However, Hasitha can infect and kill stationary (non-replicating) bacterial cells. We discovered this unusual characteristic through a fortuitous observation of infected lawns that were allowed to incubate in the lab workspace for approximately one month. During this time, a noticeable “halo” grew around the initial site of infection and ...


Role Of Host Restriction Factors On Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Replication, Pratik Katwal 2022 South Dakota State University

Role Of Host Restriction Factors On Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Replication, Pratik Katwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, the role of IFITM3 on PRRSV replication was studied in vitro by expressing exogenous IFITM3 in MARC-145 cells. An average of 31% reduction in PRRSV N protein expression and an average of 5.4 fold decrease in virus titer in the supernatant were observed in IFITM3 overexpressing cells as compared to vector control cells at 24 hours post infection (hpi). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between interferon- induced IFITM3 up-regulation and reduced PRRSV replication. To determine the role of endogenous IFITM3 in PRRSV replication, siRNA induced knockdown of IFITM3 was employed. RT-PCR validated the successful silencing ...


Virology: Mutagenizing The Proteolytic Cleavage Site In The Major Capsid Protein In Ssv1, Thejanee Liyanaarachchi 2021 Portland State University

Virology: Mutagenizing The Proteolytic Cleavage Site In The Major Capsid Protein In Ssv1, Thejanee Liyanaarachchi

University Honors Theses

SSV1, spindle-shaped virus 1, is an archaeal virus with a unique shape that belongs to the family of fuselloviruses and infects hyperthermophilic archaea that thrive at 80°C and pH 3. SSV1 has two capsid proteins, VP1 and VP3, that presumably produce the lemon-shaped virion structure characteristic of fuselloviruses. The VP1 amino acid sequence is highly conserved among SSVs. Here, we investigate the importance of the proteolytic cleavage site in position E66 in VP1 by changing its glutamic acid to the other 19 amino acids. We have developed a new protocol for creating SSV1 mutants through HiFi Assembly (NEB) to ...


Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan 2021 Biosystem Engineering and Soil Science

Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil microbial communities are a critical component for ecosystem stability and function. Viruses, as an important biotic controller, have the potential to regulate the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities through infection. Soil is known to harbor abundant and diverse viral assemblages but their ecological role and influence on microbial processes has not been fully elucidated. Microbes can be influenced by viruses not only from infection but though biogeochemical feedbacks of the “microbial (bacterium–phage–DOC) loop” or “viral shunt”. However, we know relatively little about the microbial community and function under the regulation of viruses in soil and how ...


Examination Of The Association Between C - Reactive Protein(Crp) And Covid-19 Infection Severity And Length Of Hospitalization, Abdulahi Aremu Ayanwale 2021 University of Texas at El Paso

Examination Of The Association Between C - Reactive Protein(Crp) And Covid-19 Infection Severity And Length Of Hospitalization, Abdulahi Aremu Ayanwale

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Chronic stress can lead to many systemic complications and low-grade systemic inflammation including increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a marker of systemic inflammation and is associated with depression and perceived stress. Elevations can result in ineffective immune responses, thereby increasing the risk of complications and mortality from infections. Recent evidence suggests that uncontrolled inflammatory responses associated with COVID 19 are a major determinant of disease severity.  The COVID 19 is transmitted from one person to another through droplets from coughing, sneezing, talking, touching droplets on surfaces and contamination by hand-to-mouth routes. The mechanism ...


Kshv Susceptibility And Transmission Within Tonsillar Specimens, Farizeh Aalam 2021 Chapman University

Kshv Susceptibility And Transmission Within Tonsillar Specimens, Farizeh Aalam

Pharmaceutical Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

Despite nearly three decades of research, not much is known regarding the early stages of development for KSHV lymphoproliferative disorders, hindering our ability to develop prophylactic measures or effective treatments. This dissertation will focus on the host and viral factors influencing the magnitude and dynamics of KSHV infection in the human tonsil to pave the way for future interventions directed at limiting person-to-person transmission of KSHV.

To understand the contribution of host factors to KSHV susceptibility in B lymphocytes, we generated a library of 40 tonsillar specimens. Our results indicate that the immunological composition of tonsillar lymphocytes varies across our ...


Study Of The D-Dimer, C-Reactive Protein, And Autoantibodies Markers Among Hbv Infected Patients In Babylon Province, Iraq, Ahmed Abdul-Abbas Bayram, Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmoshi, Noor S.K. Al-Khafaji, Raheem Tuama Obayes Al Mammori, Ali Husain Shilib Al-Shimmery, Morteza Saki 2021 College of science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Hilla City, Iraq

Study Of The D-Dimer, C-Reactive Protein, And Autoantibodies Markers Among Hbv Infected Patients In Babylon Province, Iraq, Ahmed Abdul-Abbas Bayram, Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmoshi, Noor S.K. Al-Khafaji, Raheem Tuama Obayes Al Mammori, Ali Husain Shilib Al-Shimmery, Morteza Saki

BioMedicine

Background: Hepatitis B can be defined as one of the dangerous diseases caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which infects the liver and causes liver failure, cirrhosis, and death.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and autoantibodies markers among HBV- infected patients in Babylon province, Iraq, compared to a healthy control group.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all patients referred to GIT and liver centers in Merjan Medical City, Babylon, Iraq from January 2016 to January 2018 were screened for HBV infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Antinuclear antibody (ANA), dsDNA, D-dimer ...


Investigation Of An Alternative Protocol For The Production Of Sars-Cov-2 Antigenic Proteins, Nichole Ninaltowski 2021 University of South Florida

Investigation Of An Alternative Protocol For The Production Of Sars-Cov-2 Antigenic Proteins, Nichole Ninaltowski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the COVID-19 pandemic showing no signs of slowing down, large-scale antigenic protein production is still needed for surveillance using serologic assays. From screening to vaccines to biotherapeutics, being able to produce the proteins for these assays is essential; however, the current gold standard method for producing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins is prohibitively expensive for most research groups.

Alternative methods of transfecting mammalian cells to produce recombinant proteins that are relatively inexpensive have been used for years. Unlike the expensive, commercially available lipid-based methods, other established methods such as polyethyleneimine (PEI), are considerably easier, and cheaper to meet the needs of ...


Immunometabolic Dysregulation At The Intersection Of Obesity And Covid-19, Collins N. Khwatenge, Marquette Pate, Laura C. Miller, Yongming Sang 2021 Tennessee State University

Immunometabolic Dysregulation At The Intersection Of Obesity And Covid-19, Collins N. Khwatenge, Marquette Pate, Laura C. Miller, Yongming Sang

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Obesity prevails worldwide to an increasing effect. For example, up to 42% of American adults are considered obese. Obese individuals are prone to a variety of complications of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Recent meta-analyses of clinical studies in patient cohorts in the ongoing coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that the presence of obesity and relevant disorders is linked to a more severe prognosis of COVID-19. Given the significance of obesity in COVID-19 progression, we provide a review of host metabolic and immune responses in the immunometabolic dysregulation exaggerated by obesity and the ...


Harness Organoid Models For Virological Studies In Animals: A Cross-Species Perspective, Yongming Sang, Laura C. Miller, Rahul K. Nelli, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola 2021 Tennessee State University

Harness Organoid Models For Virological Studies In Animals: A Cross-Species Perspective, Yongming Sang, Laura C. Miller, Rahul K. Nelli, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Animal models and cell culture in vitro are primarily used in virus and antiviral immune research. Whereas the limitation of these models to recapitulate the viral pathogenesis in humans has been made well aware, it is imperative to introduce more efficient systems to validate emerging viruses in both domestic and wild animals. Organoids ascribe to representative miniatures of organs (i.e., mini-organs), which are derived from three-dimensional culture of stem cells under respective differential conditions mimicking endogenous organogenetic niches. Organoids have broadened virological studies in the human context, particularly in recent uses for COVID19 research. This review examines the status ...


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