Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad
Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...
Peroxiredoxin Ii Regulates Effector And Secondary Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses, 2016 Metabolon Corporation
Peroxiredoxin Ii Regulates Effector And Secondary Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses, Ryan D. Michalek, Katie E. Crump, Ashley E. Weant, Elizabeth M. Hiltbold, Daniel G. Juneau, Eun-Yi Moon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Leslie B. Poole, Jason M. Grayson
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H2O2on an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8+ T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8+ T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar ...
P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, 2016 George Washington University
P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi Sengupta
Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications
Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, potentially accelerating immunological aging and dysfunction. In order to investigate the immunological aging in HIV patients, p16 protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, in T cell subsets in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected patients on and off ART as well as age-matched healthy controls. Results showed that untreated HIV-infected subjects exhibited ...
Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, 2016 George Washington University
Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine Demarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 Additional Authors
Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80–90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity. In the current ...
Unusual Polymorphisms In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Associated With Nonprogressive Infection, 2016 Harvard Medical School
Unusual Polymorphisms In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Associated With Nonprogressive Infection, Louis Alexander, Emma Weiskopf, Thomas C. Greenough, Nathan C. Gaddis, Marcy C. Auerbach, Michael H. Malim, Stephen J. O'Brien, Bruce D. Walker, John L. Sullivan, Ronald C. Desrosiers
Factors accounting for long-term nonprogression may include infection with an attenuated strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), genetic polymorphisms in the host, and virus-specific immune responses. In this study, we examined eight individuals with nonprogressing or slowly progressing HIV-1 infection, none of whom were homozygous for host-specific polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF-1-3'A) which have been associated with slower disease progression. HIV-1 was recovered from seven of the eight, and recovered virus was used for sequencing the full-length HIV-1 genome; full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from the eighth were determined following amplification of viral sequences directly from peripheral blood ...
Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick; Colorado State University - Fort Collins
Seroprevalence And Genomic Divergence Of Circulating Strains Of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Among Felidae And Hyaenidae Species, Jennifer L. Troyer, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Melody E. Roelke, Warren E. Johnson, Sue Vandewoude, Nuria Vazquez-Salat, Meredith Brown, Laurence Frank, Rosie Woodroffe, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie Winterbach, Graham Hemson, Mitchell Bush, Kathleen A. Alexander, Eloy Revilla, Stephen J. O'Brien
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species ...
Phylogenetic Associations Of Human And Simian T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphotropic Virus Type I Strains: Evidence For Interspecies Transmission, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Bethesda
Phylogenetic Associations Of Human And Simian T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphotropic Virus Type I Strains: Evidence For Interspecies Transmission, Igor J. Koralnik, Enzo Boeri, W. Carl Saxinger, Anita Lo Monico, Jake Fullen, Antoine Gessain, Hong-Guang Guo, Robert C. Gallo, Phillip Markham, Vaniambadi Kalyanaraman, Vanessa Hirsch, Jonathan Allan, Krishna Murthy, Patricia Alford, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Stephen J. O'Brien, Genoveffa Ranchini
Homologous env sequences from 17 human T-leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) strains from throughout the world and from 25 simian T-leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-I) strains from 12 simian species in Asia and Africa were analyzed in a phylogenetic context as an approach to resolving the natural history of these related retroviruses. STLV-I exhibited greater overall sequence variation between strains (1 to 18% compared with 0 to 9% for HTLV-I), supporting the simian origin of the modern viruses in all species. Three HTLV-I phylogenetic clusters or clades (cosmopolitan, Zaire, and Melanesia) were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood ...
Mannose Binding Lectin Genotypes Influence Recovery From Hepatitis B Virus Infection, 2016 Johns Hopkins University
Mannose Binding Lectin Genotypes Influence Recovery From Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Chloe L. Thio, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Jacquie Astemborski, Spencer Greer, Gregory D. Kirk, Stephen J. O'Brien, David L. Thomas
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a central component of the innate immune response and thus may be important for determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence. Since single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding MBL (mbl2) alter the level of functional MBL, we hypothesized that mbl2 genotypes are a determinant of HBV persistence or recovery from viral infection. We tested this hypothesis by using a nested case control design with 189 persons with HBV persistence matched to 338 individuals who had naturally recovered from HBV infection. We determined genotypes of two promoter and three exon 1 SNPs in mbl2 and grouped ...
Insertional Polymorphisms Of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Insertional Polymorphisms Of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses, Alfred L. Roca, William G. Nash, Joan C. Menninger, William J. Murphy, Stephen J. O'Brien
The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one ...
Influence Of The Ccr2-V64i Polymorphism On Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptor Activity And On Chemokine Receptor Function Of Ccr2b, Ccr3, Ccr5, And Cxcr4, Benhur Lee, Benjamin J. Doranz, Shalini Rana, Yanji Yi, Mario Mellado, Jose M. R. Frade, Carlos Martinez-A., Stephen J. O'Brien, Michael Dean, Ronald G. Collman, Robert W. Doms
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells. In addition, some virus strains can use alternative chemokine receptors, including CCR2b and CCR3, for infection. A polymorphism in CCR2 (CCR2-V64I) is associated with a 2- to 4-year delay in the progression to AIDS. To investigate the mechanism of this protective effect, we studied the expression of CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I, their chemokine and HIV-1 coreceptor activities, and their effects on the expression and receptor activities of the major HIV-1 coreceptors. CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I were expressed at similar levels ...
Genetic Protection Against Hepatitis B Virus Conferred By Ccr5Δ32: Evidence That Ccr5 Contributes To Viral Persistence, 2016 Johns Hopkins University
Genetic Protection Against Hepatitis B Virus Conferred By Ccr5Δ32: Evidence That Ccr5 Contributes To Viral Persistence, Chloe L. Thio, Jacquie Astemborski, Arman A. Bashirova, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Spencer Greer, Mallory D. Witt, James J. Goedert, Margaret Hilgartner, Audrey Majesk, Stephen J. O'Brien, David L. Thomas, Mary Carrington
Recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires a broad, vigorous T-cell response, which is enhanced in mice when chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is missing. To test the hypothesis that production of a nonfunctional CCR5 (CCR5Δ32 [a functionally null allele containing a 32-bp deletion]) increases the likelihood of recovery from hepatitis B in humans, we studied 526 persons from three cohorts in which one person with HBV persistence was matched to two persons who recovered from an HBV infection. Recovery or persistence was determined prior to availability of lamivudine. We determined genotypes forCCR5Δ32 and for polymorphisms in the CCR5 ...
Evidence For The Horizontal Acquisition Of Murine Akr Virogenes By Recent Horizontal Infection Of The Germ Line, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Evidence For The Horizontal Acquisition Of Murine Akr Virogenes By Recent Horizontal Infection Of The Germ Line, Stephen J. O'Brien, Janet L. Moore, Malcolm A. Martin, James E. Womack
Several recent reports have established the biological and molecular genetic similarity between the endogenous AKV virus of strain AKR, and an N-ecotropic endogenous virus found in the genome of feral Japanese mice, Mus musculus molossinus. The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. The virogenes of AKR mice may have been acquired by either: (a) common descent of AKR (and other AKV+ strains) from a common ancestor of AKR and molossinus animals, or (b) horizontal germ line infection of the AKR strains by ...
Emerging Viruses In The Felidae: Shifting Paradigms, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Emerging Viruses In The Felidae: Shifting Paradigms, Stephen J. O'Brien, Jennifer L. Troyer, Meredith Brown, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes, Melody E. Roelke, Jill Pecon-Slattery
The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate ...
Canine And Feline Parvoviruses Can Use Human Or Feline Transferrin Receptors To Bind, Enter, And Infect Cells, John S. L. Parker, William J. Murphy, Dai Wang, Stephen J. O'Brien, Colin R. Parrish
Canine parvovirus (CPV) enters and infects cells by a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, and viral capsids colocalize with transferrin in perinuclear vesicles of cells shortly after entry (J. S. L. Parker and C. R. Parrish, J. Virol. 74:1919–1930, 2000). Here we report that CPV and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a closely related parvovirus, bind to the human and feline transferrin receptors (TfRs) and use these receptors to enter and infect cells. Capsids did not detectably bind or enter quail QT35 cells or a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-derived cell line that lacks any TfR (TRVb cells). However, capsids ...
Bvr-1, A Restriction Locus Of A Type C Rna Virus In The Feline Cellular Genome: Pleiotropic Restriction Of Endogenous Balb Virus In Cat X Mouse Somatic Cell Hybrids, 2016 National Cancer Institute, Bethesda
Bvr-1, A Restriction Locus Of A Type C Rna Virus In The Feline Cellular Genome: Pleiotropic Restriction Of Endogenous Balb Virus In Cat X Mouse Somatic Cell Hybrids, Stephen J. O'Brien, Janice M. Simonson
Bvr-1 is a dominant X-linked feline gene which restricts the replication of B-tropic murineleukemia virus (B-MuLV) in somatic cell hybrids between murine BALB/c-RAG cells and FL-74 feline cells. Since the hybrids were originally derived by the hypoxanthine aminopterin thymidine selection scheme, counter selection experiments on 6-thioguanine result in preferential survival of hybrid cells which have spontaneously lost the feline X-chromosome on which is located the structural gene for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (IMP: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyl transferase, E.C. 18.104.22.168) and Bvr-1. Back selected Bvr-1- cells express high parental levels of B-MuLV. Bvr-1- effectively restricts the IdU-mediated ...
Association Of Dc-Sign Promoter Polymorphism With Increased Risk For Parenteral, But Not Mucosal, Acquisition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Association Of Dc-Sign Promoter Polymorphism With Increased Risk For Parenteral, But Not Mucosal, Acquisition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection, Maureen P. Martin, Michael M. Lederman, Holli B. Hutcheson, James J. Goedert, George W. Nelson, Yvette Van Kooyk, Roger Detels, Susan Buchbinder, Keith Hoots, David Vlahov, Stephen J. O'Brien, Mary Carrington
There is considerable debate about the fundamental mechanisms that underlie and restrict acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In light of recent studies demonstrating the ability of C type lectins to facilitate infection with HIV-1, we explored the potential relationship between polymorphisms in the DC-SIGN promoter and risk for acquisition of HIV-1 according to route of infection. Using samples obtained from 1,611 European-American participants at risk for parenteral (n = 713) or mucosal (n = 898) infection, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the DC-SIGN promoter using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Individuals at risk for parenterally acquired infection who had ...
Apobec3g Genetic Variants And Their Influence On The Progression To Aids, 2016 National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Apobec3g Genetic Variants And Their Influence On The Progression To Aids, Ping An, Gabriela Bleiber, Priya Duggal, George Nelson, Margaret May, Bastien Mangeat, Irene Alobwede, Didier Trono, David Vlahov, Sharyne Donfield, James J. Goedert, John Phair, Susan Buchbinder, Stephen J. O'Brien, Amalio Telenti, Cheryl Winkler
The cytosine deaminase APOBEC3G, in the absence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory gene HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (vif), inhibits viral replication by introducing G→A hypermutation in the newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA negative strand. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of APOBEC3G may modify HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region (three), introns (two), and exons (two). Genotypes were determined for 3,073 study participants enrolled in six HIV-AIDS prospective cohorts. One codon-changing variant, H186R in exon 4, was polymorphic in African Americans (AA) (f < 37%) and rare in European Americans (f < 3%) or Europeans (f = 5 ...
A Lion Lentivirus Related To Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Epidemiologic And Phylogenetic Aspects, 2016 Program Resources, Inc./DynCorp
A Lion Lentivirus Related To Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Epidemiologic And Phylogenetic Aspects, Eric W. Brown, Naoya Yuhki, Craig Packer, Stephen J. O'Brien
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%o. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues ...
Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities Of Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Generated From Human Volunteers Receiving A Dna Prime-Protein Boost Hiv Vaccine: A Dissertation, Matthew R. Costa
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years’ infection and as a result, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that a moderate protection is possible, which may correlate with antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Previous studies in the Lu lab demonstrated that in an HIV-1 vaccine phase I trial, DP6-001, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation, could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities along with multiple Fc ...
Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, 2016 Western Kentucky University
Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...