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Energy And Amino Acid Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows Consuming Feed Byproducts, Kyle McLain 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Energy And Amino Acid Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows Consuming Feed Byproducts, Kyle Mclain

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Animal protein byproducts are high bypass proteins commonly used in the dairy industry. These bypass proteins can escape the rumen to supply additional amino acids needed to support milk and protein yield. Two of the more popular animal protein byproducts used in the dairy industry are blood meal and hydrolyzed feather meal. In the first experiment, two flow meters were compared using headbox-style calorimeters. The objectives of the first study were to test mass flow meter (MFM) and volumetric flow meter (VFM) by measuring O2 consumption and CO2 production and to illustrate the effects of incomplete gas recovery on estimated ...


The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Postmortem Meat Quality, Nicolas J. Herrera 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Postmortem Meat Quality, Nicolas J. Herrera

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Tenderness is the primary factor to influence consumer palatability in fresh meat. The tenderization of muscle is dependent on proteolytic mechanisms, including calcium dependent, non-lysosomal endogenous enzymes such as calpains and proteasomes. These mechanisms have been indicated alongside apoptosis early postmortem as cascades of apoptotic events promote ideal conditions for postmortem tenderization. Recent literature has identified oxidative stress-mediated events to be linked to apoptotic activity. Oxidative stress is defined as the overwhelming production of reactive species compared to homeostatic, endogenous antioxidants present within muscle systems. These conditions exhaust antioxidant function and facilitate reactive species to alter protein, lipid, or nucleic ...


Impact Of Diet And Quality Grade On Meat Quality Characteristics And Their Relationship To Oxidative Stress, Nicolas Bland 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Diet And Quality Grade On Meat Quality Characteristics And Their Relationship To Oxidative Stress, Nicolas Bland

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Marbling and tenderness in meat are some of the most impactful factors for the consumer eating experience. The cause of the relationship between marbling and tenderness is still unresolved. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different types of processed corn, with or without distiller grains on oxidative stress, and how that relates to tenderness and shelf life of beef steaks of differing quality grades. Steers (n= 240) were finished on dry rolled corn (DRC), DRC + 30% dried distillers grains (DDGS), steam flaked corn (SFC), or SFC + 30% DDGS. Cattle were fed 10 per pen. Only pens ...


Lake Ontario Alewife, Alosa Pseudoharengus, Maturation And Reproduction Dynamics, Tom Bianchi 2020 The College at Brockport: State University of New York

Lake Ontario Alewife, Alosa Pseudoharengus, Maturation And Reproduction Dynamics, Tom Bianchi

Environmental Science and Ecology Theses

Since their introduction in Lake Ontario, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) have dominated the forage fish community, making them the primary food source for the lake’s economically valuable sport fish populations. Therefore, alewife population dynamics can impact fishery success and management. Recently observed declines in alewife abundance and year class strength variability further increase the need to better understand alewife reproduction. The objectives of this study were to quantify maturation and reproductive dynamics of Lake Ontario alewife by 1) determining if alewife display determinate or indeterminate fecundity, 2) determining if age 2 alewife could be considered part of the spawning stock ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2019 - 2020, Jack R. Buchanan, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2019 - 2020, Jack R. Buchanan, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The 2019 Striped Bass juvenile abundance index was 9.54 and was not significantly different than the reference mean of 7.77 from 1980-2009. Abundance indices in the James, York, and Rappahannock rivers in 2019 were average compared with their individual reference means (1980-2009). Relatively low catches of young‐of‐the‐year Striped Bass from sites upriver and downriver of core nursery areas suggest Striped Bass largely remained within core nursery areas in 2019. Juvenile White Perch abundance indices in 2019 were above historic averages in the James, York and Rappahannock river systems.

Juvenile abundance indices for Atlantic Croaker, Alewife ...


Characterization Of Stream Quality Of Five Ouachita River Tributaries Utilizing Macrobenthic Species And Fish Populations, Hunter Jones, Brockton Brown 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

Characterization Of Stream Quality Of Five Ouachita River Tributaries Utilizing Macrobenthic Species And Fish Populations, Hunter Jones, Brockton Brown

Scholars Day Conference

The Ouachita River originates in west-central Arkansas and exits the state in south-central Arkansas near El Dorado. There are many tributaries that make up the Ouachita River through its Arkansas journey. Five of these tributaries are located in Clark County and were selected for this research. Basic in situ water quality parameters were measured and the riparian zone was characterized at each sample site. The five streams selected were Decieper/Little Deceiper Creek, Mill Creek, DeRoche Creek, Saline Bayou, and Tupelo Creek. Macrobenthic and fish surveys were conducted at two sites (upper and lower) on each creek except Saline Bayou ...


Impact Of Cow Size And Validation Of An Electronic Feeder To Optimize Resources In Beef Production Systems, Rob Ziegler 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Cow Size And Validation Of An Electronic Feeder To Optimize Resources In Beef Production Systems, Rob Ziegler

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Optimizing beef production systems is critical in the longevity of an enterprise. In a time of rapid change and innovation, there are increasingly more opportunities to improve efficiency of livestock production by taking advantage of new technologies. Furthermore, production environments vary drastically in all segments of the beef industry, which influence feed resource availability. Therefore, it is critical to realize the cow type that excels in a given production environment according to management objectives. To gain a better understanding of the optimal cow type in the Nebraska Sandhills, a retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate increasing cow body weight (BW ...


Evaluation Of Maternal Diet And Its Effect On Milk Composition And Piglet Health And Growth Performance, Shana Barnett 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Maternal Diet And Its Effect On Milk Composition And Piglet Health And Growth Performance, Shana Barnett

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Both graduate research and graduate teaching duties work together to help to develop a graduate student’s skills both in the classroom and on their research experiments. Being both a GTA and GRA allows a student to form more sound hypotheses, connect better with students, and better understand their own research.

During the time as a GTA and GRA four surveys were developed to analyze different groups of students and their learning environment and two animal experiments were conducted to evaluate maternal diet and its effect on milk composition and piglet health and growth performance

The surveys given to students ...


Usu Equine-Assisted Activities And Therapies Facilities Designed Master Plan, Lindsie C. Smith 2020 Utah State University

Usu Equine-Assisted Activities And Therapies Facilities Designed Master Plan, Lindsie C. Smith

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) is recognized as a therapeutic approach for persons with disabilities. The USU Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences Department provides EAAT instruction and services; however, they do not have the appropriate facilities to model best-practices in the delivery of these services. This design research entailed the development of a phased masterplan to support the instruction and delivery of equine-assisted activities and therapies in an innovative and accessible environment that supports animal-assisted intervention and natural equine behaviors.

The methodology used to approach the master plan design was derived from Norman K. Booth’s (1990) design process, as ...


Forest Grouse Ecology And Management In The Bear River Range Northern Utah, Skyler Y. Farnsworth 2020 Utah State University

Forest Grouse Ecology And Management In The Bear River Range Northern Utah, Skyler Y. Farnsworth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To better manage dusky grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), hereafter forest grouse, managers require better information on forest grouse population status and habitat selection. To address this need, from 2015-2017, I conducted research on a sympatric populations inhabiting the Bear River Range of northern Utah to develop a breeding survey protocol, assess habitat selection, evaluate dusky grouse response to livestock grazing, and determine hunter harvest rates.

The breeding census protocol that I developed compared listening intervals with and without electronic playback calls at designated survey stop locations. Using digital mapping software, I plotted the estimated location of ...


North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Recovery Project: Using Translocation To Prevent State-Wide Extirpation And Develop Rangewide Protocols, Kade D. Lazenby 2020 Utah State University

North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Recovery Project: Using Translocation To Prevent State-Wide Extirpation And Develop Rangewide Protocols, Kade D. Lazenby

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Greater sage-grouse (Centrocurcus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) are the largest grouse species in North America. Sage-grouse occupy 11 western states, extending into North Dakota. North Dakota sage-grouse population is part of the Great Plains Management Zone. Conservation of sage-grouse has been on the forefront of conservation management 1990s. In 2015 the USFWS declared sage-grouse were not warranted for listing based on significant management efforts. Translocations of sage-grouse to prevent populations from extirpation are an example of these efforts.

Translocations have been described as movement and release of animals into a novel environment. There have been more than 7200 sage-grouse translocated during ...


Stage-Structured Blue Crab Population Model With Fishing, Predation And Cannibalism, Fangming Xu 2020 William & Mary

Stage-Structured Blue Crab Population Model With Fishing, Predation And Cannibalism, Fangming Xu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blue crab is a species of crab commonly found in the waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most important shellfish in the Chesapeake Bay. The blue crab fishing industry has a notable impact on the local economy, and blue crabs form a key link in the Chesapeake Bay food web. Between the mid-1990s and 2004, the blue crab population dropped by two thirds. Factors such as habitat loss, harvest pressure and climate change may have contributed to the decline. However, there hasn’t been enough research on the long term dynamic equilibrium, making it difficult ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Effects Of Bovine Maternal Nutrient Restriction On Offspring Microrna And Mrna Expression And Muscle Fiber Type, Nikole E. Ineck 2020 Utah State University

Effects Of Bovine Maternal Nutrient Restriction On Offspring Microrna And Mrna Expression And Muscle Fiber Type, Nikole E. Ineck

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For producers in more temperate areas, such as the Intermountain West, poor nutrition during the second trimester of gestation is common due to seasonal changes in forage and nutrient availability. The majority of muscle fibers are formed and adipogenesis is initiated in the second trimester, making it a critical time for skeletal muscle and adipose development in beef cattle. However, the extent to which these changes persist in the offspring postnatally is unknown. In this study, maternal nutrition was restricted during the second trimester in order to analyze the effects of maternal nutrient restriction on offspring skeletal muscle growth. Offspring ...


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Pilot Testing A Qualitative Methodology To Evaluate The Perceived Benefits And Stressors Of Sole-Dog Ownership In Full-Time College Students, Emma Williams 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pilot Testing A Qualitative Methodology To Evaluate The Perceived Benefits And Stressors Of Sole-Dog Ownership In Full-Time College Students, Emma Williams

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The number of individuals acquiring pets is continually increasing, with 71.5% of Americans owning a pet in 2012. Companion animals are a huge source of benefits but owning them can also come with several stressors. However, little research has been conducted on the negative aspects of dog ownership. This pilot test evaluates the perceived stressors and benefits of sole dog ownership in full-time college students. The pilot aimed to hold three focus groups from which qualitative thematic data were collected and quantitative were collected from a demographic survey of participants. Participants were asked a series of questions about sole ...


Impact Of Phosphorus Intake On Beef Heifer Growth Performance And Conception Rates, Hailey Hilfiker 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Phosphorus Intake On Beef Heifer Growth Performance And Conception Rates, Hailey Hilfiker

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study aims to examine the effects of phosphorus intake on beef heifer growth performance and conception rates. In Northwest Arkansas, there has been an increase in phosphorus concentrations in soil where livestock manures have been repeatedly applied. Consequently, forages grown on soils high in phosphorus tend to contain high amounts of the mineral itself. This has led many to question whether it is necessary to supplement phosphorus in areas where concentrations may be higher. In this study, crossbred Angus heifers (n = 72), approximately 30 days after weaning, were stratified by body weight (average initial weight 251 ± 3.9 kg ...


From Fields To Factories: The Industrialization Of The United States’ Cattle Industry, Joseph Petersen 2020 Dominican University of California

From Fields To Factories: The Industrialization Of The United States’ Cattle Industry, Joseph Petersen

History | Senior Theses

This paper will look at the changes of the United States of America's cattle and beef industry from the 19th into the 21st century. It will also show how the industry has evolved into its current state and predict the changes to come. This paper will be evaluating how technology and equipment have changed the traditional farming and ranch lifestyles. While also breaking down the economies from pre-industrial times into modern day. This paper will also explore the effect that technology, equipment, ranching styles, labor and financial changes had on the cattle and beef industry. Finally, this paper will ...


Effect Of Zelnate Administered As A Metaphylactic Upon Initial Processing Of High-Risk, Newly Received Beef Calves On Performance And Morbidity, Brady Martin 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Zelnate Administered As A Metaphylactic Upon Initial Processing Of High-Risk, Newly Received Beef Calves On Performance And Morbidity, Brady Martin

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the most prominent and costly ailment in the stocker cattle industry today, and its prevalence has not been diminished in the last thirty years. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Zelnate, a DNA immunostimulant, administered upon arrival to calves (n = 261; BW 253 ± 4.0 kg), on morbidity/mortality, performance and producer costs. Crossbred male beef calves were acquired and transported to the University of Arkansas stocker unit for a 42-d backgrounding period. Calves were allocated into treatment groups: 1) Zelnate, DNA immunostimulant administered or 2) Control, in which ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


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