Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animal Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

39,590 Full-Text Articles 49,490 Authors 10,994,595 Downloads 262 Institutions

All Articles in Animal Sciences

Faceted Search

39,590 full-text articles. Page 4 of 964.

Evaluation Of Selected Bacteria And Yeast For Probiotic Potential In Poultry Production, Beverly Dixon, Agnes Kilonzo-Nthenge, Maureen Nzomo, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon 2022 Tennessee State University

Evaluation Of Selected Bacteria And Yeast For Probiotic Potential In Poultry Production, Beverly Dixon, Agnes Kilonzo-Nthenge, Maureen Nzomo, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Performance and efficiency of feed utilization in poultry is highly influenced by gut health, which is dependent on intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements or viable microorganisms that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbial balance. However, their mode of action and suitable GIT environment favoring their colonization of the GIT is obscure. The probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, and Saccharomyces boulardii were evaluated. These microbes were tested in vitro against gastrointestinal conditions for survivability and their ability to attach to the intestinal mucosa. The ability of the microbes to ...


Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne

Masters Theses

Global agricultural intensification has caused large-scale wildlife declines, but agricultural lands that maintain natural habitats can support healthy wildlife populations and receive significant ecosystem services from these natural communities. However, how on-farm biodiversity results in beneficial ecosystem services is highly variable and is reported to differ among taxa and guilds. One group that has attracted attention for their potential beneficial role in reducing pest abundance are birds. Understanding the role of bird communities and individual species in pest control could be important for managing farms under a low intensity agroecological framework. In New England, farmers are increasingly applying low intensity ...


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after ...


Genomic Organization And Expression Of The Wc1 Hybrid Coreceptor And Pattern Recognition Receptor On Porcine Gamma Delta T Cells, Lauren Le Page 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Genomic Organization And Expression Of The Wc1 Hybrid Coreceptor And Pattern Recognition Receptor On Porcine Gamma Delta T Cells, Lauren Le Page

Doctoral Dissertations

gd T cells are a crucial component of the immune response to a number of increasingly relevant and largely zoonotic pathogens to which efficacious vaccination is lacking. In ruminants and swine, gd T cells represent a major population of peripheral blood and epithelial tissue-resident lymphocytes. gdT cells respond to both protein and non-protein antigens independently of MHC presentation and possess immunological memory. Upon activation, gamma delta T cells illicit a variety of effector functions and play an indispensable role of orchestrating the downstream immune response. These characteristics make gamma delta T cells a promising candidate for recruitment by vaccination, however ...


Drivers And Direct Impacts Of Lean Mass Dynamics On The Stopover Ecology And Migratory Pace Of Nearctic-Neotropical Migrant Songbirds In Spring, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Direct Impacts Of Lean Mass Dynamics On The Stopover Ecology And Migratory Pace Of Nearctic-Neotropical Migrant Songbirds In Spring, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez

Doctoral Dissertations

Annual migration in songbirds is one of the most demanding life-history stages. It represents a period of high mortality, yet there is still much unknown about the ecological correlates that influence its successful completion. After long non-stop migratory flights, birds require a stopover period to rest and replenish depleted energy reserves. Birds use fat as the primary fuel to power long-distance flights. However, birds also burn lean tissue, which results in significant reductions in muscle and organ masses. The discovery and quantification of lean mass catabolism represented a paradigm shift in migration ecology because non-fat components were thought to remain ...


Thinking Outside The Box Of Evaluation Platforms: Adapting Qualtrics For Virtual 4-H Judging Competitions, Maria Calvert, Ty Peckman 2022 University of Missouri

Thinking Outside The Box Of Evaluation Platforms: Adapting Qualtrics For Virtual 4-H Judging Competitions, Maria Calvert, Ty Peckman

The Journal of Extension

Competitive events represent a major component of 4-H programming. These events are typically held in person; however, unforeseen circumstances, like the COVID-19 pandemic, have required Extension professionals to adapt these programs to virtual settings. This paper outlines some unique features of Qualtrics, a web-based tool commonly used to build surveys, that led Missouri 4-H to use the platform to administer agriculture and natural resource science contests.


A Revision Of The Genus Mesobuthus Vachon, 1950, With A Description Of 14 New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Victor Fet, Benjamin Gantenbein, Matthew R. Graham, Ersen A. Yağmur, František Šťáhlavský, Nikita M. Poverennyi, Nizami E. Novruzov 2022 Marshall University

A Revision Of The Genus Mesobuthus Vachon, 1950, With A Description Of 14 New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Victor Fet, Benjamin Gantenbein, Matthew R. Graham, Ersen A. Yağmur, František Šťáhlavský, Nikita M. Poverennyi, Nizami E. Novruzov

Euscorpius

The Asian genus Mesobuthus Vachon, 1950, s. str. (Buthidae) (also known as an informal ‘M. eupeus complex’), which includes the most common scorpion species found from Turkey to China, is revised based on new collections, mainly from Central Asia, Turkey, and Iran, using both morphological and mitochondrial DNA data. Available type specimens of all species were studied; neotypes and lectotypes were designated when necessary. The type species Mesobuthus eupeus (C. L. Koch, 1839), s. str., is restricted to the Caucasus Mts. Currently, the genus includes 29 valid species. Fifteen previously described taxa are recognized as species: Mesobuthus afghanus (Pocock, 1889 ...


Comparison Of Transcervical Insemination Versus Surgical Insemination Methods In Dogs At A Veterinary Clinic In Lincoln, Nebraska, Lauren Ahlers 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Comparison Of Transcervical Insemination Versus Surgical Insemination Methods In Dogs At A Veterinary Clinic In Lincoln, Nebraska, Lauren Ahlers

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Artificial insemination paved the way for many advancements in reproductive technology. Two common artificial insemination methods recommended for use with frozen semen are transcervical insemination and surgical insemination. To better understand the conception rates of dogs for each method, data was collected from Hillcrest Animal Clinic. The data suggested that neither transcervical insemination nor surgical insemination was significantly better than the other. 50% of the dogs conceived when inseminated using the transcervical method, and 54.5% of the dogs conceived when inseminated using the surgical method. Based on the results, more data needs to be collected on both insemination procedures ...


Mesobuthus Zarudnyi Sp. N. From Azerbaijan (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Nizami E. Novruzov, František Kovařík, Victor Fet 2022 Marshall University

Mesobuthus Zarudnyi Sp. N. From Azerbaijan (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Nizami E. Novruzov, František Kovařík, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

A new species Mesobuthus zarudnyi sp. n. is described from Azerbaijan, fully illustrated with color photos. We compare the new species with two other species, M. eupeus (C. L. Koch, 1839) and M. persicus (Pocock, 1899), both found also in Azerbaijan.


Conservation Status Assessment Of The Egg-Mimic Darter (Percidae: Etheostoma Pseudovulatum) Using A Multi-Faceted Approach, Zachary L. Wolf, John W. Johansen, Rebecca E. Blanton 2022 Department of Biology and Center of Excellence for Field Biology, Austin Peay State University, PO Box 4718, Clarksville, TN 37044. Present Address: US Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville District, PO Box 59, Louisville, KY 40201.

Conservation Status Assessment Of The Egg-Mimic Darter (Percidae: Etheostoma Pseudovulatum) Using A Multi-Faceted Approach, Zachary L. Wolf, John W. Johansen, Rebecca E. Blanton

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The imperiled Egg-mimic Darter (Etheostoma pseudovulatum) is a headwater-adapted fish restricted to an area less than 1000 km2 in Tennessee. It is found in only six tributaries of the Duck River and the large, mainstem of this system may act as a barrier to dispersal, restricting population connectivity. The only status assessment of this species was over two decades ago; genetic diversity and the degree of population connectivity have never been evaluated. We conducted a conservation status assessment using a multi-faceted approach to better inform conservation management plans, including examining its current distribution, assessing habitat quality, estimating abundance, population ...


The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey 2022 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey

Independent Research Projects

Decomposition plays an important ecological role in carbon and nutrient cycling that supply food and energy resources to food webs. This study investigates the potential role that leaf decomposition of different leaf species may play in macroinvertebrate assemblages in upper Midwest streams. We hypothesized that the different decomposition rates experienced with different leaf species and in different streams would have an effect on invertebrate colonization due to the variance in nutrient availability. Due to altered fire regimes and other influences, forests are experiencing declines in fire-adapted, heliophytic species such as oaks and compositional shifts toward shade-tolerant, mesophytic species such as ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio 2022 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) adopted the Interstate Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the American Eel in November 1999. The FMP calls for efforts to collect American Eel data through both fishery‐dependent and fishery‐independent studies in coastal states. Consequently, member jurisdictions agreed to implement an annual survey for young‐of‐year (YOY or glass) American Eels. The survey is intended to “…characterize trends in annual recruitment of the YOY eels over time [to produce a] qualitative appraisal of the annual recruitment of American Eel to the U.S. Atlantic Coast” (ASMFC 2000). The development of these ...


Body Condition Score Change Throughout Lactation Utilizing An Automated Bcs System: A Descriptive Study, Carissa M. Truman, Magnus R. Campler, Joao H. C. Costa 2022 University of Kentucky

Body Condition Score Change Throughout Lactation Utilizing An Automated Bcs System: A Descriptive Study, Carissa M. Truman, Magnus R. Campler, Joao H. C. Costa

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a traditional visual technique often using a five-point scale to non-invasively assess fat reserves in cattle. However, recent studies have highlighted the potential in automating body condition scoring using imaging technology. Therefore, the objective was to implement a commercially available automated body condition scoring (ABCS) camera system to collect data for developing a predictive equation of body condition dynamics throughout the lactation period. Holstein cows (n = 2343, parity = 2.1 ± 1.1, calving BCS = 3.42 ± 0.24), up to 300 days in milk (DIM), were scored daily using two ABCS cameras mounted on sort-gates ...


First Record Of The Genus Compsobuthus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Maharashtra, India, With Description Of A New Species, Vivek Waghe, Satpal Gangalmale, Akshay Khandekar 2022 Marshall University

First Record Of The Genus Compsobuthus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Maharashtra, India, With Description Of A New Species, Vivek Waghe, Satpal Gangalmale, Akshay Khandekar

Euscorpius

A new species of the genus Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 (Buthidae) belonging to the werneri group is described from two localities in Jalgaon District, Maharashtra, India. The new species can be easily distinguished from all four members of the werneri group known from India and Pakistan by combination of nonoverlapping morphological characters. Compsobuthus satpuraensis sp. n. is the first species of this genus to be reported from the state of Maharashtra and fourth to be reported from India.


Recent Advances In Probiotic Application In Animal Health And Nutrition: A Review, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon 2022 University of Kentucky

Recent Advances In Probiotic Application In Animal Health And Nutrition: A Review, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Biotechnological advances in animal health and nutrition continue to play a significant role in the improvement of animal health, growth, and production performance. These biotechnological advancements, especially the use of direct-fed microbials, also termed probiotics, those genetically modified and otherwise, have minimized many challenges facing livestock production around the world. Such advancements result in healthy animals and animal products, such as meat, for a growing population worldwide. Increasing demand for productivity, healthy animals, and consumer food safety concerns, especially those emanating from excessive use of antibiotics or growth promoters, are a driving force for investing in safer alternatives, such as ...


A Facial Congenital Anomaly In A Mature Male White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Travis Cunningham, Al Mead 2022 Georgia College & State University

A Facial Congenital Anomaly In A Mature Male White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Travis Cunningham, Al Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Congenital anomalies are rarely documented in wild ungulates. This study describes a congenital facial malformation in a mature male white-tailed deer harvested in central Georgia in 2020. The skull displays a mediolateral deflection of the rostrum, and the mandibles display similar deflection with posterior rotation at the mandibular symphysis, a maxillofacial malformation commonly called wry face. Based on physical examination and radiographic imagery, there were no signs of neoplasia or healed bone trauma on the skull or jaws, suggesting a congenital origin for the deformity. Studies of domestic horses displaying wry face conclude that the malformation arises from fetal mispositioning ...


Use Of A Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test For Diagnosis Of Rabies Virus In Bats, Charles E. Rupprecht, Lolita Van Pelt, April D. Davis, Richard B. Chipman, David L. Bergman 2022 LYSSA LLC

Use Of A Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test For Diagnosis Of Rabies Virus In Bats, Charles E. Rupprecht, Lolita Van Pelt, April D. Davis, Richard B. Chipman, David L. Bergman

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rabies, a zoonotic encephalitis due to transmission of a lyssavirus, such as rabies virus (RABV), has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. A global program for the elimination of human rabies caused by dogs is proposed for realization by 2030. Sensitive, specific, and inexpensive diagnostic tests are necessary for enhanced surveillance to detect infection, inform public health and veterinary professionals during risk assessments of exposure, and support overall programmatic goals. Multiple laboratory techniques are used to confirm a suspect case of rabies. One method for the detection of lyssavirus antigens within the brain is the direct rapid immunohistochemical ...


Ontogenetic Drivers Of Morphological Evolution In Monitor Lizards And Allies (Squamata: Paleoanguimorpha), A Clade With Extreme Body Size Disparity, Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Damien Esquerré, J. Scott Keogh 2022 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Ontogenetic Drivers Of Morphological Evolution In Monitor Lizards And Allies (Squamata: Paleoanguimorpha), A Clade With Extreme Body Size Disparity, Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Damien Esquerré, J. Scott Keogh

Publications and Research

Background

Heterochrony, change in the rate or timing of development, is thought to be one of the main drivers of morphological evolution, and allometry, trait scaling patterns imposed by size, is traditionally thought to represent an evolutionary constraint. However, recent studies suggest that the ontogenetic allometric trajectories describing how organisms change as they grow may be labile and adaptive. Here we investigated the role of postnatal ontogenetic development in the morphological diversification of Paleoanguimorpha, the monitor lizards and allies, a clade with extreme body size disparity. We obtained linear and geometric morphometric data for more than 1,600 specimens belonging ...


Size Estimates Of The Extinct Marine Snake Pterosphenus Schucherti From Eocene-Aged Sediments Of Central Georgia, Colin J. Calvert, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley 2022 Georgia College & State University

Size Estimates Of The Extinct Marine Snake Pterosphenus Schucherti From Eocene-Aged Sediments Of Central Georgia, Colin J. Calvert, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley

Georgia Journal of Science

Fossil snakes are most often identified from isolated vertebrae, complicating estimations of total body lengths of extinct taxa. Here we estimate the range of total body length of the late Eocene North American palaeophiid marine snake Pterosphenus schucherti based on 29 recently collected fossil vertebrae from Wilkinson County, Georgia, USA. Previous research suggests that the palaeophiids are most closely related to modern boids. Total body length estimates here are based on family-specific regressions of centrum length versus known total body length in extant members of Boidae, Pythonidae, and Colubridae. The high correlation coefficients for the family specific regressions supports previous ...


Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress