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Diamondback Terrapin Population Distribution And Nesting Areas In Coastal Georgia, Grace Clements, J. D. Lambert 2020 University of North Florida

Diamondback Terrapin Population Distribution And Nesting Areas In Coastal Georgia, Grace Clements, J. D. Lambert

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

The terrapin population range is small and the research is scarce. Surveil of the entire Georgia coast is the overarching goal of the research and the past four years have already resulted in 60% percent of the state completed and 1500 records accomplished. Coverage of the coastline will be continued in 2019 in the southernmost county, Cambden, and in 2020 completing the research in the northernmost county, Chathman. Diamondback terrapins are the only turtle to prefer brackish water habitats and are the first to be affected by sea level rising. Crab pots are a main factor in terrapin mortality. When ...


What Do Alligators Eat On Golf Courses?, E. R. Beal, A. E. Rosenblatt 2020 University of North Florida

What Do Alligators Eat On Golf Courses?, E. R. Beal, A. E. Rosenblatt

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Urbanization is an ever-increasing threat to wildlife and their natural habitats, yet research has been limited to a small number of taxa and very few large predator species. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator across the southeast U.S. and has surprisingly received minimal attention within urban areas. To investigate the potential effects of land development on alligator trophic ecology, we performed gut content analysis on golf course alligators found on Jekyll Island, Georgia. We then made comparisons with alligators found in more natural areas on Sapelo Island, Georgia. In total, we collected stomach content samples from ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxiii. Buthus (Buthidae), With Description Of Two New Species, František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský, Hassan S. A. Elmi 2020 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxiii. Buthus (Buthidae), With Description Of Two New Species, František Kovařík, František Šťáhlavský, Hassan S. A. Elmi

Euscorpius

New data are presented on the distribution of the genus Buthus Leach, 1815 in the Horn of Africa, mainly in Somaliland, acquired during expeditions in 2011–2019. Buthus berberensis Pocock, 1900, for which the exact locality was not known, was collected again. B. zeylensis Pocock, 1900 is restored from synonymy and elevated to species rank, based on a study of 75 recently collected specimens. Two new species, B. pococki sp. n. and B. somalilandus sp. n., are described, fully complemented with color photographs of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitats. In addition to the analyses of external ...


Scorpion Predation In Cuba: New Cases And A Review, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera,, Rolando Teruel, Ernesto Morell Savall 2020 Marshall University

Scorpion Predation In Cuba: New Cases And A Review, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera,, Rolando Teruel, Ernesto Morell Savall

Euscorpius

The ecology of Cuban scorpions is very insufficiently studied and the scarce existing information on their natural enemies is dispersed in the literature. However, scorpions in general are well known to play an important role both as predators and prey in natural ecosystems. Herein we present new instances of predation on different species of scorpions in Cuba, and a review on the topic


Miss Independent: Social Group Composition Influences Spatial Patterns In A Female Lion, Andrew Mayfield, Abigail Smith 2020 Grand Valley State University

Miss Independent: Social Group Composition Influences Spatial Patterns In A Female Lion, Andrew Mayfield, Abigail Smith

Student Scholars Day Posters

The introduction of a new animal to a social group can cause individual zoo animals to alter their behavior. In 2019, a male lion was successfully introduced to an adult female at John Ball Zoo, after previously being exhibited with her sister in 2018. A second, older male continued to be exhibited alone, alternating with the pair in the same enclosure. Our study objective was to compare differences in behavior between 2018 and 2019 for the female (“experimental” animal whose social group changed) and the solitary male (“control” animal whose social group did not change). We used Zoomonitor to record ...


Thing 1 And Thing 2 Are In A New Zoo: Changes In Behavior Of Amur Tigers Following Introduction To John Ball Zoo, Caitlin Gerke, Faith Hensley 2020 Grand Valley State University

Thing 1 And Thing 2 Are In A New Zoo: Changes In Behavior Of Amur Tigers Following Introduction To John Ball Zoo, Caitlin Gerke, Faith Hensley

Student Scholars Day Posters

Animals alter their behavior in response to changes in their environment such as alterations to their enclosure, social group, or husbandry routine. In 2018, two related, young adult Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) were transferred to the John Ball Zoo (JBZ). The male siblings were given access to a spacious, wooded outdoor enclosure (area = 920 m²). We used Zoomonitor in 2018 and 2019 to conduct focal-animal sampling of the two males. We recorded state behaviors in 30 sec intervals of scan sampling, and all occurrences of event behaviors, both during 30 min sampling sessions. Our study objective was to compare ...


Mediterranean House Geckos Exploit Novel Resources In A Recipient Lizard Assemblage, John M. Arnett, Connor S. Adams, Carmen G. Montana 2020 Stephen F Austin State University

Mediterranean House Geckos Exploit Novel Resources In A Recipient Lizard Assemblage, John M. Arnett, Connor S. Adams, Carmen G. Montana

Undergraduate Research Conference

A species’ ecological niche represents the environmental conditions needed for an individual to replace itself and is comprised of multiple resource axes (Pianka 2000 Evol. Ecol.).

One mechanism of establishment of non-native species is via exploitation of novel resources in recipient ecosystems through their unique functional traits (Schalk et al. 2018 Biol. Invas.).

Mediterranean House Geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) are an exotic species introduced in urban areas across Texas, yet little is known about their resource use relative to native lizards.

We hypothesized that H. turcicus would exhibit low overlap in resource use in their habitat, dietary, and isotopic niches compared ...


Dairy Digest 2020 : Rooted In Tradition, South Dakota State University Dairy Club 2020 South Dakota State University

Dairy Digest 2020 : Rooted In Tradition, South Dakota State University Dairy Club

Dairy Digest

This is the 2020 Dairy Digest published annually by the South Dakota State University Dairy Club. The Digest contains information and news about the activities and members of the SDSU Dairy Club for the academic year 2019 - 2020.


Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Numbering in the tens of millions of birds, grackle populations in North America can cause a variety of conflicts with people. Grackles eat agricultural crops and livestock feed, damage property, spread pathogens, and collide with aircraft. Their large roosts can be a nuisance in urban and suburban areas. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion, and lethal removal may help to reduce grackle damage.

Grackles adapt easily to human-dominated environments, and exploit human food and other features of human landscapes. Thus, an integrated damage management approach to grackle damage focuses on reducing and eliminating the damage, rather than simply controlling grackle ...


Evaluation Of Anterior Pituitary Leptin Receptor Expression In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Gilts, Juliana Pederson, Jeffrey Clapper 2020 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Anterior Pituitary Leptin Receptor Expression In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Gilts, Juliana Pederson, Jeffrey Clapper

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

Successful reproduction in porcine depends on the coordinated synthesis and release of several hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland. Leptin, a hormone produced from adipocytes, interacts with other specific reproductive hormones and affects the reproductive success in swine. However, the full extent of leptin’s impact is unclear. This experiment sought to examine the difference in expression between the anterior pituitary gland leptin receptors in pregnant and non-pregnant pigs to confer the impact leptin has on reproductive success. Twentyfour crossbred gilts of similar age and weight had their estrus cycles synchronized and then were bred via artificial insemination ...


Development And Diagnostic Application Of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (Sads-Cov), Molly Kroeger 2020 South Dakota State University

Development And Diagnostic Application Of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (Sads-Cov), Molly Kroeger

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a member of the Coronaviridae family. The virus is associated with severe small intestine inflammation and diarrhea in suckling piglets. In 2017, SADS-CoV was first detected and identified as the causative agent of a devasting swine disease outbreak in southern China. Routine monitoring and early detection of the source of infection is therefore integral to the prevention and control of a SADS-CoV outbreak in the United States. However, the United States does not currently have any diagnostic or surveillance tests to identify this emerging disease. To address these industry needs, we developed monoclonal ...


Investigating Microbiomes And Developing Direct-Fed Microbials To Improve Cattle Health, Alison Bartenslager 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigating Microbiomes And Developing Direct-Fed Microbials To Improve Cattle Health, Alison Bartenslager

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Over the last decade, global beef production has increased to meet the protein needs of the growing population. As a result, the intensification of beef cattle production systems has resulted in broad spectrum prophylactic use of antibiotics and growth promoting agents. With increased concern around antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and emergence of novel pathogenic strains of bacteria, it is critical to understand disease progression and associated changes in the microbiome to develop novel therapeutic alternatives to reduce antibiotic use and control disease. One such approach that is currently being investigated is the development of novel direct-fed microbial strains to outcompete pathogens ...


Artificial Perches As A Technique For Enhancing Tropical Forest Restoration: A Case Study From The Dominican Republic, Spencer Schubert, Ally S. Lahey, Ashley R. Weisman, Eric L. Walters 2020 Old Dominion University

Artificial Perches As A Technique For Enhancing Tropical Forest Restoration: A Case Study From The Dominican Republic, Spencer Schubert, Ally S. Lahey, Ashley R. Weisman, Eric L. Walters

College of Sciences Posters

Recovering secondary forests on degraded agricultural lands represents a promising opportunity to offset global carbon emissions as well as increasing local biodiversity and ecosystem services. In the insular tropical forests of the Caribbean, frugivorous birds are the primary seed dispersers for most native woody plants and have a large influence on regeneration dynamics during forest succession. In 2017, we initiated an experimental forest restoration program incorporating artificial perches on private farms within the Rio Yaque del Norte watershed in La Vega province, Dominican Republic. Five restoration plots (0.15–0.25 ha) were constructed in pastures near deforested streams. In ...


Does Installation Method Affect Snake Entanglement In Erosion Control Blankets?, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Kasey L. Jobe, Krista J. Ward 2020 Stephen F Austin State University

Does Installation Method Affect Snake Entanglement In Erosion Control Blankets?, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Kasey L. Jobe, Krista J. Ward

Undergraduate Research Conference

Erosion control blankets (ECBs) are installed at construction sites to mitigate against soil loss and promote plant growth. Wildlife, particularly snakes, are prone to becoming entangled in ECBs that contain fixed‐intersection, small‐diameter polypropylene mesh with multiple layers (Ebert et al. 2019 Wildl. Soc. Bull.; Fig. 1).

The majority of ECBs on the Texas Department of Transportation’s Approved Product List contain fixed-intersection mesh, which pose a risk to snakes.

Snake entanglements often occur at the edge of an ECB where the snake often passes between the multiple mesh layers (Ebert et al. 2019 Wildl. Soc. Bull.)

Burying the ...


On The Diversity Of Erosion Control Products: Implications For Snake Entanglement, Kasey L. Jobe, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Krista Ward 2020 Stephen F Austin State University

On The Diversity Of Erosion Control Products: Implications For Snake Entanglement, Kasey L. Jobe, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Krista Ward

Undergraduate Research Conference

After a road construction project, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) mandates that erosion control products (ECPs) are installed to prevent soil loss and promote plant growth. However, their presence on the landscape pose negative consequences to wildlife via entanglement.

TxDOT provides an Approved Products List (APL) of ECPs meeting soil erosion prevention and plant growth standards. In Texas, multiple types of ECPs are produced with a range of materials and attributes to decrease the erosion potential on multiple soil types and slopes. Certain attributes are more likely to lead to snake entanglement (Ebert et al. 2019 Wildl. Soc. Bull.; Fig ...


An Analysis Of Dredge Efficiency For Surfclam And Ocean Quahog Commercial Dredges, Leanne Poussard 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

An Analysis Of Dredge Efficiency For Surfclam And Ocean Quahog Commercial Dredges, Leanne Poussard

Master's Theses

Between 1997 and 2011, The National Marine Fisheries Service conducted 50 depletion experiments to estimate survey gear efficiency and stock density for Atlantic surfclam (Spisula solidissima) and ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) populations using commercial hydraulic dredges. The Patch Model was formulated to estimate gear efficiency and organism density from the data. The range of efficiencies estimated is substantial, leading to uncertainty in the application of these estimates in stock assessment. Analysis of depletion experiment simulations showed that uncertainty in the estimates of gear efficiency from depletion experiments was reduced by higher numbers of dredge tows per experiment, more tow overlap ...


Heat Stress-Induced Deficits In Growth, Metabolic Efficiency, And Cardiovascular Function Coincided With Chronic Systemic Inflammation And Hypercatecholaminemia In Ractopamine-Supplemented Feedlot Lambs; Atypical Cyclicity At Puberty In Beef Cows Is Associated With Early Deficits In Muscling, Metabolic Indicators, And Myoblast Function In Offspring But Does Not Impact Feedlot Performance., Rebecca M. Swanson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Heat Stress-Induced Deficits In Growth, Metabolic Efficiency, And Cardiovascular Function Coincided With Chronic Systemic Inflammation And Hypercatecholaminemia In Ractopamine-Supplemented Feedlot Lambs; Atypical Cyclicity At Puberty In Beef Cows Is Associated With Early Deficits In Muscling, Metabolic Indicators, And Myoblast Function In Offspring But Does Not Impact Feedlot Performance., Rebecca M. Swanson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Our 1st study evaluated the effects of b-adrenergic agonist (ractopamine) supplementation on growth, health, and wellbeing in heat-stressed feedlot wethers. Chronic heat stress impaired growth, metabolism, and wellbeing even when the impact of reduced feed intake was eliminated by pair-feeding. We observed systemic inflammation and hypercatecholaminemia that were likely mediators of these deficits. Moreover, ractopamine did not diminish any wellbeing indicators and improved muscle growth without worsening the effects of heat stress.

Our 2nd study assessed the effects of pubertal cyclicity (weaning to 1st breeding) in cows on myoblast-mediated muscle growth, metabolism, and growth efficiency of their ...


Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley

Dissertations

This study focuses on the vocalization repertoires of wild North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in New York and California. Although they are the same species, these two established populations of river otters are separated by a significant distance and are distinct from one another. River otters are semi-aquatic social predators that can be found throughout North America. This is the first study to examine the vocalizations of wild river otters, and results are compared across field sites in the different regions. River otter vocalizations and behaviors in New York were recorded using Bushnell Aggressor trail cameras that were placed ...


The Impacts Of Large Carnivores On Human Livelihood: The Illusion Of Carnivore Conflict, Costs Of Coexistence, And Strategies For Mitigation, Elisabeth Russell 2020 Liberty University

The Impacts Of Large Carnivores On Human Livelihood: The Illusion Of Carnivore Conflict, Costs Of Coexistence, And Strategies For Mitigation, Elisabeth Russell

Senior Honors Theses

Incidents of what is commonly referred to as human-carnivore conflict (HCC) are increasing. Examples include livestock depredation and carnivores attacking humans. Since HCC occurs most frequently where humans and carnivores commonly inter-mix – near the periphery of human habitations – habitat loss and fragmentation may contribute to the rise of HCC, amongst other factors. Although HCC cannot be eliminated, it can be reduced by well-planned and implemented strategies. These strategies must approach the conflict holistically and address both the animal and the human sides of the problem. Since humans rely on the healthy functioning of the ecosystem for survival, implementing these solutions ...


Physiological And Behavioral Effects Of Climate Change On Wildlife: An Introduction And Overview, Andy Clarke 2020 Liberty University

Physiological And Behavioral Effects Of Climate Change On Wildlife: An Introduction And Overview, Andy Clarke

Senior Honors Theses

Planetary environmental system changes have been recorded and documented for several decades. Fluctuations that were first noticed in atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels have now extended into global pattern changes. Climatic variations that were initially non-threatening variabilities have since been observed creating significant biological influences. The results and evidence of the effects of worldwide environmental climate change on wildlife and biotic environments are worth examining because of the impacts it has on the planet. These climatic effects extend from changes in distribution and diversity patterns of terrestrial mammals to sea-life impacts and recovery trends. Possible wildlife benefits may include increased humidity and ...


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