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Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney 2020 University of Montana

Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Ground dwelling birds must scale all kinds of complex terrain in order to survive in their natural environments. For instance, Alectoris chukar live on steep hillsides with slopes of up to 60° or 172.3% slope. We undertook the present study to improve understanding of how birds successfully traverse such complex terrain. Using a high speed camera, we analyzed the hind limb kinematics of chukars during normal locomotion on a 10° and 35° incline, decline, and level slope. We compared the data collected from the video recordings, which we had used to identify and digitize the bony landmarks, between all ...


Detection Of Selection Signatures Among Brazilian, Sri Lankan, And Egyptian Chicken Populations Under Different Environmental Conditions, Muhammed Walugembe, Francesca Bertolini, Chandraratne Mahinda B. Dematawewa, Matheus P. Reis, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Detection Of Selection Signatures Among Brazilian, Sri Lankan, And Egyptian Chicken Populations Under Different Environmental Conditions, Muhammed Walugembe, Francesca Bertolini, Chandraratne Mahinda B. Dematawewa, Matheus P. Reis, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Max Rothschild

Extreme environmental conditions are a major challenge in livestock production. Changes in climate, particularly those that contribute to weather extremes like drought or excessive humidity, may result in reduced performance and reproduction and could compromise the animal’s immune function. Animal survival within extreme environmental conditions could be in response to natural selection and to artificial selection for production traits that over time together may leave selection signatures in the genome. The aim of this study was to identify selection signatures that may be involved in the adaptation of indigenous chickens from two different climatic regions (Sri Lanka = Tropical; Egypt ...


Immunomodulatory Effects Of Heat Stress And Lipopolysaccharide On The Bursal Transcriptome In Two Distinct Chicken Lines, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica Van Goor, Christopher M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2019 Iowa State University

Immunomodulatory Effects Of Heat Stress And Lipopolysaccharide On The Bursal Transcriptome In Two Distinct Chicken Lines, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica Van Goor, Christopher M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Max Rothschild

Background: Exposure to heat stress suppresses poultry immune responses, which can increase susceptibility to infectious diseases and, thereby, intensify the negative effects of heat on poultry welfare and performance. Identifying genes and pathways that are affected by high temperatures, especially heat-induced changes in immune responses, could provide targets to improve disease resistance in chickens. This study utilized RNAsequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate transcriptome responses in the bursa of Fabricius, a primary immune tissue, after exposure to acute heat stress and/or subcutaneous immune stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a 2 × 2 factorial design: Thermoneutral + Saline, Heat + Saline, Thermoneutral + LPS and Heat ...


Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow 2019 University of Southern Maine

Changes In Spring Arrival Times: Climate Change And The Phenology Of Spring Bird Migration, Aaron Svedlow

Student Scholarship

Climate change and weather affect the phenology of bird migration; however, specific climatological factors associated with these observed effects have only recently been described. The relationship between local, regional, and global climate patterns and avian migration are increasingly important to understand due to the widespread, and potentially negative, implications (such as reduced fecundity) of rapid human induced climate change on bird populations. Migratory birds are under selective pressure to arrive at breeding areas at the optimal time to set up nesting territories and exploit seasonally abundant food resources, and because climate change has the potential to occur more rapidly than ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske 2019 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Rudy Valentine

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske 2019 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Kevin Schalinske

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


Identification Of Genome-Wide Snp-Snp Interactions Associated With Important Traits In Chicken, Hui Zhang, Jia-Qiang Yu, Li-Li Yang, Luke M. Kramer, Xin-Yang Zhang, Wei Na, James M. Reecy, Hui Li 2019 Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China

Identification Of Genome-Wide Snp-Snp Interactions Associated With Important Traits In Chicken, Hui Zhang, Jia-Qiang Yu, Li-Li Yang, Luke M. Kramer, Xin-Yang Zhang, Wei Na, James M. Reecy, Hui Li

James M Reecy

Background: In addition to additive genetic effects, epistatic interactions can play key roles in the control of phenotypic variation of traits of interest. In the current study, 475 male birds from lean and fat chicken lines were utilized as a resource population to detect significant epistatic effects associated with growth and carcass traits.

Results: A total of 421 significant epistatic effects were associated with testis weight (TeW), from which 11 sub-networks (Sub-network1 to Sub-network11) were constructed. In Sub-network1, which was the biggest network, there was an interaction between GGA21 and GGAZ. Three genes on GGA21 (SDHB, PARK7 and VAMP3) and ...


A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genomic Regions And Positional Candidate Genes For Fat Deposition In Broiler Chickens, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M. Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Priscila Anchieta Trevisoli, Maurício E. Cantão, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Jane de Oliveira Peixoto, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho 2019 University of São Paulo

A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genomic Regions And Positional Candidate Genes For Fat Deposition In Broiler Chickens, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M. Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Priscila Anchieta Trevisoli, Maurício E. Cantão, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Jane De Oliveira Peixoto, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

James M Reecy

Background: Excess fat content in chickens has a negative impact on poultry production. The discovery of QTL associated with fat deposition in the carcass allows the identification of positional candidate genes (PCGs) that might regulate fat deposition and be useful for selection against excess fat content in chicken’s carcass. This study aimed to estimate genomic heritability coefficients and to identify QTLs and PCGs for abdominal fat (ABF) and skin (SKIN) traits in a broiler chicken population, originated from the White Plymouth Rock and White Cornish breeds.

Results: ABF and SKIN are moderately heritable traits in our broiler population with ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske 2019 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


Detection Of Selection Signatures Among Brazilian, Sri Lankan, And Egyptian Chicken Populations Under Different Environmental Conditions, Muhammed Walugembe, Francesca Bertolini, Chandraratne Mahinda B. Dematawewa, Matheus P. Reis, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Detection Of Selection Signatures Among Brazilian, Sri Lankan, And Egyptian Chicken Populations Under Different Environmental Conditions, Muhammed Walugembe, Francesca Bertolini, Chandraratne Mahinda B. Dematawewa, Matheus P. Reis, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Extreme environmental conditions are a major challenge in livestock production. Changes in climate, particularly those that contribute to weather extremes like drought or excessive humidity, may result in reduced performance and reproduction and could compromise the animal’s immune function. Animal survival within extreme environmental conditions could be in response to natural selection and to artificial selection for production traits that over time together may leave selection signatures in the genome. The aim of this study was to identify selection signatures that may be involved in the adaptation of indigenous chickens from two different climatic regions (Sri Lanka = Tropical; Egypt ...


Effects Of Litter Floor Access And Inclusion Of Experienced Hens In Aviary Housing On Floor Eggs, Litter Condition, Air Quality, And Hen Welfare, Jofran L. Oliveira, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Suzanne T. Millman 2018 Iowa State University

Effects Of Litter Floor Access And Inclusion Of Experienced Hens In Aviary Housing On Floor Eggs, Litter Condition, Air Quality, And Hen Welfare, Jofran L. Oliveira, Hongwei Xin, Lilong Chai, Suzanne T. Millman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

To better understand how relevant intensive systems’ characteristics simultaneously affect the performance and welfare of broiler chickens, a meta-analysis of recent literature was carried out. The study determined the effects of gender, genetics, experimental initial age (EIA, d), stocking density (SD; kg/m2), group size (GS; n), bedding material (yes/no), duration of photoperiod (DP; h), divided scotoperiod (yes/no), feeding phases (1/2/3/>3), environmental control (EC; yes/no), environmental enrichment (yes/no), use of vaccines and other medications (yes/no), experimental duration (d), and relevant 2-way interactions on average daily gain (g/d), average daily feed intake ...


Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationships Among Biodiversity Dimensions Of Birds In Nebraska, Nadejda Mirochnitchenko

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is a multi-dimensional concept that can be decomposed to measure information about taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional variation within communities. Although the dimensions of biodiversity are interrelated, the assumption that measuring one dimension of diversity can inform about patterns in another dimension does not necessarily follow from theory or empirical study. The relationships among biodiversity dimensions is not well understood, nor how differences among dimensions could influence conservation decision making. Using the avian community as a study system, we explored the relationships of breadth metrics from the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional dimensions among each other and across ...


Evaluation Of Genetic And Environmental Influences On Broiler Meat Quality, Sara Katherine Orlowski 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Genetic And Environmental Influences On Broiler Meat Quality, Sara Katherine Orlowski

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of both genetic and environmental influences on broiler meat quality were evaluated over three experiments. Selection response was assessed for broiler lines selected for high (HBY4) and low (LBY4) four day percentage breast yield which were formed from a random bred control (RAN). A modern random bred population (MRB) created in 2015 was evaluated for differences in 4 day percentage breast yield and the resulting differences in the incidence and severity of the woody breast and white striping myopathies. Additionally, the use of embryonic thermal manipulation to impact cell division and early caloric feed restriction to slow growth ...


Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West

Theses and Dissertations

Determination of metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) digestibility values of single feed indigents continues to be two of the most important aspects for successful least-cost poultry feed formulation. It would be advantageous if a common diet type could be utilized to determine both ME and AA digestibility values of feed ingredients within a single assay. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of basal diet type and excreta collection method on the ME value of single feed ingredients determined in broiler chicks using the regression method. In experiment 1, the objective was to investigate the influence of ...


Study Of Three Potential Variables That May Impact The Maximum Shear Force And Shear Variation During The Growth And Transport Of Mixed Sex Broilers Grown In Commercial Poultry Houses, Mark Christie 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Study Of Three Potential Variables That May Impact The Maximum Shear Force And Shear Variation During The Growth And Transport Of Mixed Sex Broilers Grown In Commercial Poultry Houses, Mark Christie

Theses and Dissertations

Temperature conditions during the transportation to the processing facility of commercial broilers have a direct impact on the meat texture, specifically maximum shear force and shear variation of cooked breast meat. Analysis of a calendar year of flock data (N=346), reveals that the largest impact of transport conditions, specifically temperature, is on the standard deviation of the flocks range of cooked shear values. The optimal transport temperature that yields broiler breast meat with average flock minimum shear and standard deviation values is approximately 60°F. The shear values for flocks at or near 60°F are on average 1 ...


Effect Of Cooking Method On Meat Texture In Normal And Woody Broiler Breast Fillets Using Instrumental Analysis And Descriptive Sensory Analysis, Lynda D. Combs 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Cooking Method On Meat Texture In Normal And Woody Broiler Breast Fillets Using Instrumental Analysis And Descriptive Sensory Analysis, Lynda D. Combs

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past few decades, broiler breast meat has changed in terms of meat quality. Meat quality has deteriorated with the rise in the occurrence of muscle myopathies. Conditions such as woody breast, which is described as pale and bulging areas of distinct hardness, compromise both the textural and technological traits that have been associated with breast meat. The Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) method is a common method for indirectly assessing poultry meat tenderness. A blunt version of the MORS (BMORS) has been shown to be a more sensitive method at higher degrees of toughness. A slightly larger stainless steel ...


Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye

Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent infectious enteritis mainly foodborne from chickens. Despite of reducing C. jejuni food contamination dramatically decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available for the bacterial reduction in chickens. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product deoxycholic acid (DCA) to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed 0 or 1.5 g/kg DCA, lithocholic acid (LCA), or urodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in diets or orally gavaged with cholic acid (CA, 1.5g/kg body weight). Birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anearo) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). Birds were infected with ...


Integration Of Genome Wide Association Studies And Whole Genome Sequencing Provides Novel Insights Into Fat Deposition In Chicken, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M. Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Fábio Pértille, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian J. Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho 2018 University of São Paulo

Integration Of Genome Wide Association Studies And Whole Genome Sequencing Provides Novel Insights Into Fat Deposition In Chicken, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M. Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Fábio Pértille, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian J. Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

Animal Science Publications

Excessive fat deposition is a negative factor for poultry production because it reduces feed efficiency, increases the cost of meat production and is a health concern for consumers. We genotyped 497 birds from a Brazilian F2 Chicken Resource Population, using a high-density SNP array (600 K), to estimate the genomic heritability of fat deposition related traits and to identify genomic regions and positional candidate genes (PCGs) associated with these traits. Selection signature regions, haplotype blocks and SNP data from a previous whole genome sequencing study in the founders of this chicken F2 population were used to refine the list of ...


Andean Condor Nesting And Behavior: A Study Of A Free-Living Pair And Chick As Well As Population Behavior Near Antisana Ecological Reserve, Ecuador, Ian Handler 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Andean Condor Nesting And Behavior: A Study Of A Free-Living Pair And Chick As Well As Population Behavior Near Antisana Ecological Reserve, Ecuador, Ian Handler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The behavior of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), especially nest behavior, is little known outside of captivity. More information on chick-parent interactions and parenting dynamics of successful condor pairs is needed in order to help create an effective conservation plan for a species in peril of extinction. Study of nest home used by a free-living pair of condors and home to a five-month old juvenile began on November 11, 2018 and continued through November 29, 2018. The nest is located in Antisanilla Biological Reserve and nearby Antisana Ecological Reserve. The chick was also tagged with numbers and a tracking device ...


Differences In Temporal And Territorial Feeding Patterns Of Various Tropical Trochilidae Species As Observed At Two Different Ecosystems In Soberanía National Park, Delaney Vorwick 2018 SIT Study Abroad

Differences In Temporal And Territorial Feeding Patterns Of Various Tropical Trochilidae Species As Observed At Two Different Ecosystems In Soberanía National Park, Delaney Vorwick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study aims to illustrate differences in feeding patterns and displays of territorialism at two artificial feeding sites, located in two ecosystems; one site in a secondary forest of Soberanía National Park, the other in a residential area in the nearby town of Gamboa. Four 1-hour observation periods were recorded each day for four days at both sites. During each period of observation, the allocation of time to the three activities of perching, flying, and feeding was recorded, along with the number of visits the feeders. Notes were taken on patterns of territoriality as connected to species and sex. Significance ...


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