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Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system health is an important aspect of broiler production, especially with the reduction of the use of antibiotics. Nutritional aspects, like crude protein percentage, and natural alternatives to antibiotics are being investigated to see the effect they have on immunity. Spirulina is an alternative proteinaceous ingredient that producers are looking into, not only due to its high nutritional value, but also its immune boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein diet (LCP) and a Spirulina-supplemented low crude protein (LCP-SP) diet on broiler blood cell measurements, including, concentrations and proportions ...


The Effects Of Common Stressors On Poultry Production: A Case Study In Northern Mozambique, Grace Lehfeldt 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Common Stressors On Poultry Production: A Case Study In Northern Mozambique, Grace Lehfeldt

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chicken is one of the main proteins that feeds the world. For centuries, the human race has relied on chickens to eat. Therefore, as food science becomes more relevant, the way that chickens are raised has become a science. However, this is not true in every part of the world. In Mozambique the process for raising chickens for consumption is not the same as it would be in America. This is a study of two specific “stressors” (feed and temperature) and how they impacted chicken growth and development on a live production poultry farm in Northern Mozambique. In addition, it ...


“The Role Of Poultry On Food Insecurity In Mozambique”, Austin Heinisch 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

“The Role Of Poultry On Food Insecurity In Mozambique”, Austin Heinisch

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hunger, poverty, and starvation in developing countries are some of the most prevalent challenges facing the world today but many people outside of these areas are not fully aware as to just how bad it is. In the country of Mozambique, where the following research took place, food insecurity levels are rampant, and many different groups/companies are trying to change that. Through a service-learning study abroad program in the summer of 2019, my group and I worked with the local company New Horizons to research ways in which poultry production for both the company and their rural out growers ...


Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels

Accounting Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the summer of 2019, I, along with 8 other students from the University of Arkansas departed the United States for the Central American country of Belize. Despite our limited knowledge of what Belize held in store for us, we were enthusiastic about the coming months. While we had different projects, we all set out with the same universal question in mind. How can we use the knowledge we have gained through education to make a positive impact on the lives of people living in an impoverished town? Some of the members of our team worked alongside local businesses to ...


Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day and the time of sample collection of an

experimental challenge with Eimeria maxima (EM) and Eimeria acervulina (EA) in broiler chickens. One day old male Cobb-Vantress broiler chickens were randomly allocated to one of three groups with ten replicates (n=8 chickens/replicate). Chickens were placed in battery cages with a controlled age-appropriate environment: Group 1) Negative control (no challenge or treatment); 2) Challenge control (Eimeria challenge only); 3) Challenge + Salinomycin. Challenged chickens were orally gavaged with the mixed culture of EM/EA (10,000 sporulated EM containing 4 ...


The Effects Of Different Feed Supplements On Performance Parameters, Egg Measurements, And Eggshell Integrity In Older White Leghorn Laying Hens, Josephine Foley 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Different Feed Supplements On Performance Parameters, Egg Measurements, And Eggshell Integrity In Older White Leghorn Laying Hens, Josephine Foley

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multiple feed additives on the performance of older White Leghorn hens. Study 1 examined the effects of 2 vitamin/mineral supplements and 1 medium chain fatty acid. Study 2 examined the effects of a novel butyric acid product, a tributyrin ester. Both studies followed a completely randomized design with repeated measures and data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure in SAS version 9.4 for Windows.

The first study took place November 2015 to April 2016. Trt 1 was a control diet, Trt 2 was supplemented with a Ca, Fe, Mn ...


Distinct Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection During Heat Stress In Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Tissue, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Vivian Yu, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou 2021 University of California, Davis

Distinct Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection During Heat Stress In Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Tissue, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Vivian Yu, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou

Animal Science Publications

Newcastle disease (ND) has a great impact on poultry health and welfare with its most virulent (velogenic) strain. In addition, issues exacerbated by the increase in global temperatures necessitates a greater understanding of the host immune response when facing a combination of biotic and abiotic stress factors in poultry production. Previous investigations have revealed that the host immune response is tissue-specific. The goal of this study was to identify genes and/or signaling pathways associated with immune response to NDV (Newcastle disease virus) in the trachea, an essential organ where NDV replicate after the infection, by profiling the tissue specific ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth 2021 University of South Dakota

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2021 Iowa State University

Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the etiological agent of chicken spotty liver disease. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of C. hepaticus strain USA52 from the United States. The genome comprises a chromosome of 1,509,100 bp with an average GC content of 28.02%.


Genetic Resistance To Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli (Apec): Current Status And Opportunities, Melissa S. Monson, Susan J. Lamont 2021 Iowa State University

Genetic Resistance To Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli (Apec): Current Status And Opportunities, Melissa S. Monson, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Infections with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can be extremely detrimental to poultry health and production. Investigating host genetic variation could identify the biological mechanisms that control resistance to this pathogen and allow selection for improved resistance in experimental and commercial poultry populations. In this review, the current knowledge of how host genetics contributes to APEC resistance and future opportunities that would benefit the understanding or application of genetic resistance are discussed. Phenotypes, such as antibody responses, lesion scores, and mortality, revealed that genetic background impacts APEC resistance and interacts with other factors including the environment and challenge conditions. Experiments ...


Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson 2021 Iowa State University

Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson

Animal Science Publications

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne disease and consumption of contaminated poultry products, including turkey, is one source of exposure. Minimizing Salmonella colonization of commercial turkeys could decrease the incidence of Salmonella-associated human foodborne illness. Understanding host responses to these bacteria is critical in developing strategies to minimize colonization and reduce food safety risk. In this study, we evaluated bacterial load and blood leukocyte transcriptomic responses of 3-week-old turkeys challenged with the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) UK1 strain. Turkeys (n = 8/dose) were inoculated by oral gavage with 108 or 1010 ...


Early Evidence Of Natal-Habitat Preference: Juvenile Loons Feed On Natal-Like Lakes After Fledging, Brian A. Hoover, Kristin M. Brunk, Gabriella L. Jukkala, Nathan Banfield, Andrew L. Rypel, Walter H. Piper 2020 Chapman University

Early Evidence Of Natal-Habitat Preference: Juvenile Loons Feed On Natal-Like Lakes After Fledging, Brian A. Hoover, Kristin M. Brunk, Gabriella L. Jukkala, Nathan Banfield, Andrew L. Rypel, Walter H. Piper

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Many species show natal habitat preference induction (NHPI), a behavior in which young adults select habitats similar to those in which they were raised. However, we know little about how NHPI develops in natural systems. Here, we tested for NHPI in juvenile common loons (Gavia immer) that foraged on lakes in the vicinity of their natal lake after fledging. Juveniles visited lakes similar in pH to their natal lakes, and this significant effect persisted after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. On the other hand, juveniles showed no preference for foraging lakes of similar size to their natal one. When lakes were ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Characterization Of Growth Patterns And Meat Quality Characteristics Of Four Commercial Broiler Strains In Small Bird And Large Bird Programs In The United States, Clay Johnny Maynard 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Growth Patterns And Meat Quality Characteristics Of Four Commercial Broiler Strains In Small Bird And Large Bird Programs In The United States, Clay Johnny Maynard

Theses and Dissertations

Through current trends in animal protein consumption, the United States poultry industry has seen a drastic rise in production and popularity. Over the last few decades, poultry meat has surpassed both beef and pork production to become the most widely consumed animal protein. This rise may be accredited to an increased transition to more health-conscious consumers. As more consumers purchase poultry as a lean source of protein, the need for a superior quality product is of great interest to poultry integrators.

Relationships between commercial broiler lines have been well documented in previous years, but constant and intensive genetic selection in ...


Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the relationship between multiple temperature variables, to include annual and pre-lay date temperatures with first-egg and mean first-egg lay dates of the eastern bluebird at the Warner Parks in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Data is collected by citizen scientists for the Eastern Bluebird Nesting Box Project while visiting artificial nest boxes throughout the park and recording observations made during the breeding season. Temperature data is retrieved from the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering’s Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) Climate Group, based at Oregon State University. The analyses showed no correlation between annual or ...


The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. McWilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger 2020 University of Rhode Island

The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Elite human and animal athletes must acquire the fuels necessary for extreme feats, but also contend with the oxidative damage associated with peak metabolic performance. Here, we show that a migratory bird with fuel stores composed of more omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) expended 11% less energy during long-duration (6 hr) flights with no change in oxidative costs; however, this short-term energy savings came at the long-term cost of higher oxidative damage in the omega-6 PUFA-fed birds. Given that fatty acids are primary fuels, key signaling molecules, the building blocks of cell membranes, and that oxidative damage has long-term consequences for ...


The Use Of Inorganic And Organic Acids As Short Duration Antimicrobial Dips On Mitigating Pathogens Present On Commercial Chicken During Peri-Harvest, Dana Kristen Dittoe 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Use Of Inorganic And Organic Acids As Short Duration Antimicrobial Dips On Mitigating Pathogens Present On Commercial Chicken During Peri-Harvest, Dana Kristen Dittoe

Theses and Dissertations

With poultry being the most consumed meat in the United States, poultry processors must provide consumers with safe, wholesome products. As a consequence, poultry processors are faced with the challenge of reducing the presence of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni among raw poultry products. Though multi-hurdle approaches using antimicrobials are placed throughout processing to reduce these pathogens, Salmonella and C. jejuni still persist among raw poultry. Thus, it was the objective of the current dissertation to investigate various antimicrobials, organic and inorganic acids, as short duration dips and sprays as means to reduce common pathogens (Salmonella ...


Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague

Theses and Dissertations

Bacillus spp. are ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore forming bacteria that are commonly recovered from the environment and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of poultry. These spores are capable of withstanding harsh condition such as feed pelletization, which facilitates inclusion in poultry feeds. Once ingested by the bird, spores germinate into metabolically active vegetative cells which can produce extracellular enzymes which can hydrolyze otherwise indigestible components of the feed. Soybean meal (SBM) is the gold standard vegetable protein source for non-ruminant animals worldwide and is included in practically all poultry diets in the United States at levels ranging from 10 to more than 30 ...


Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft

Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the fate and dissemination of Salmonella Reading (SR) in market-age turkeys using an oral gavage challenge model. One hundred twenty-eight-week-old commercial turkey hens were moved from commercial production to research facilities. Upon arrival, a combination of enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg, and florfenicol, 20 mg/kg, were orally administered sequentially before comingled placement on fresh pine shavings. Turkeys were challenged with 108 cfu SR by oral gavage on days 4 and 7 post-placement. Subsets were subjected to simulated commercial processing on days 14 (n=40), 21 (n=40) and 28 (n=32) post-placement (corresponding to 10 ...


Phenotypic Variability And Population Structure Analysis Of Tanzanian Free-Range Local Chickens, James R. Mushi, Gaspar H. Chiwanga, Esinam N. Amuzu-Aweh, Muhammed Walugembe, Robert A. Max, Susan J. Lamont, Terra R. Kelly, Esther L. Mollel, Peter L. Msoffe, Jack Dekkers, Rodrigo Gallardo, Huaijun Zhou, Amandus P. Muhairwa 2020 Sokoine University of Agriculture

Phenotypic Variability And Population Structure Analysis Of Tanzanian Free-Range Local Chickens, James R. Mushi, Gaspar H. Chiwanga, Esinam N. Amuzu-Aweh, Muhammed Walugembe, Robert A. Max, Susan J. Lamont, Terra R. Kelly, Esther L. Mollel, Peter L. Msoffe, Jack Dekkers, Rodrigo Gallardo, Huaijun Zhou, Amandus P. Muhairwa

Animal Science Publications

Background Free-range local chickens (FRLC) farming is an important activity in Tanzania, however, they have not been well-characterized. This study aimed to phenotypically characterize three Tanzanian FRLCs and to determine their population structure. A total of 389 mature breeder chickens (324 females and 65 males) from three popular Tanzanian FRLC ecotypes (Kuchi, Morogoro-medium and Ching’wekwe) were used for the phenotypic characterization. Progenies of these chickens were utilized to assess population structure. The ecotypes were collected from four geographical zones across Tanzania: Lake, Central, Northern and Coastal zones. Body weights and linear measurements were obtained from the mature breeders, including ...


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