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Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque 2022 Kennesaw State University

Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque

Symposium of Student Scholars

Populations of aerially insectivorous birds are declining throughout North America. Urbanization may indirectly contribute to this decline through its negative effects on populations of insects, an important food source in insectivores' diets, where low insect availability may be especially challenging for birds during breeding. How fluctuations in insect populations impact various species at higher trophic levels is an important area of current study for future conservation biology. Here, we examine whether nestling provisioning, brooding and guarding behaviors in a breeding bird—the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)—may be altered depending on the relative insect availability in the environment. We found ...


Establishing A Small-Scale Pastured Poultry Operation In Kentucky, Frederick N. Bebe 2022 Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky

Establishing A Small-Scale Pastured Poultry Operation In Kentucky, Frederick N. Bebe

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Pastured poultry is poultry rotationally raised on pasture, as opposed to large-scale confinement operations. There has been a growing demand for pastured poultry as a result of the adverse effects of the use of antibiotics in large-scale caged systems and pastured poultry’s attributable nutritional and economic benefits to consumers. As a result, an increasing number of small-scale farmers in Kentucky have begun raising birds both for personal consumption and for supplemental income, in conjunction with other farm enterprises. Poultry is the number one agricultural commodity in Kentucky. Thus, knowledge of how to establish small-scale pastured poultry operations as an ...


Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

In a time of record feed prices, nutritionists and production managers continue to look for opportunities to lower growout costs. Even though their contribution seldom exceeds 1-2% of feed costs, vitamins are not immune to this cost-crunching scrutiny. Furthermore, in late 2017, an unparalleled drop in global vitamin supply resulted in sharply increased prices, and in some cases, outright shortages. Such events have placed pressure on vitamin fortification levels in broiler feeds. Nutritionists decide on the fortification rates based on a variety of criteria – bird age, production phase, field experience, research trials, and so forth. The rapid change in broiler ...


Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Accurately meeting the dietary P needs of broilers is critical to ensure optimal bird performance, health, and welfare without causing undue environmental burdens associated with excess dietary P excretion. Phosphorus is commonly supplied in broiler diets from inorganic phosphates derived from non-renewable sources, but it has been estimated that peak P production will occur between 2030-2040 and that the global supply of P could be depleted within this century (Cordell and Drangert, 2009; Nest and Cordell, 2012). To address these concerns, inorganic P use in agriculture, including use in broiler diet formulation, requires careful stewardship. To this end, the dietary ...


Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

A project was initiated to apply dietary CP reduction under commercial conditions. The main objective was to demonstrate and validate that dietary CP can be reduced without compromising broiler performance in a production system which is already rather efficient. In addition, we wanted to demonstrate the potential of dietary CP reduction on reducing N-excretions especially in the context of German revised regulations and monitoring attempts. Finally, as previous research suggested, few further aspects such as impact of dietary CP reduction on litter quality and quantity, footpad health, change of ingredient inclusion levels and related impact on sustainability impact factors were ...


Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Modelling techniques have been used in many industries globally to illustrate to others an understanding of the way processes work. Also, engineers and scientists employ models to predict the consequences of various courses of action. Simple pictorial models, such as the diagram of the chicken digestive system, are useful in education and may be more suitable than a photograph for the purposes of explaining how the animal converts ingested feed into components that can be assimilated, leaving residue that is excreted. Complex, predictive models seek to quantify a specified outcome based on defined inputs. Many attempts have been made over ...


State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick van Emous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick Van Emous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

During the last six to seven decades, broilers have been successfully selected for maximum growth and feed efficiency (Zuidhof et al., 2014). Modern fast-growing broilers reach a body weight of 2.0 to 2.5 kg in 35 to 45 days with an average daily growth of 55 or more gram a day (Augère-Granier, 2019). In a study with different broiler strains representative of broilers in 1957 or 1978 were compared with a broiler strain from 2005 (Zuidhof et al., 2014). The 2005 strain showed, over a 56-day growth period, a 4.6 times higher growth rate and a 50 ...


Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The methods for feeding broiler breeder males have evolved over recent decades, and further revisions will likely be needed as males become more challenging to manage. Since the introduction of separate male feeding systems in the early 1980’s, breeder males’ nutrient needs have been better managed via daily feed restriction. If a breeder operation can effectively produce, haul, and store a separate male diet, then it provides more options to use different nutrient levels or feed additives that are designed to enhance fertility. This article will outline the history of male-separate feeding and revisit nutritional research on fertility of ...


Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The contention that amino acids were not all created equal is based on the simple premise that intestinal uptakes of non-bound (synthetic, crystalline, feed-grade) amino acids are more rapid than their protein-bound counterparts. The post-enteral ramifications of this difference in bioequivalence are amplified in broiler chickens given their express growth rates and just one complication is the post-prandial oxidation of amino acids. The lack of bioequivalence between non-bound and protein-bound amino acids is a real obstacle to the development and adoption of reduced-crude protein diets that have the potential to promote sustainable chicken-meat production Thus, the purpose of this paper ...


Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium and phosphorus have been recognized essential nutrients in chickens since 1950’s (Lesson & Summers, 2001) playing important roles in bone development, among other functions. Calcium is assumed an inexpensive nutrient in animal least cost formulation while phosphorus is considered expensive and scant. The actual economic impact comes from the influence of calcium on phosphorus requirements, changes in phosphorus digestibility, buffer capacity, gut health, trace mineral absorption, fat digestibility, welfare traits, etc. Both minerals have important interactions to be considered during formulation. Few changes have been made over the past 20 years to calcium and phosphorus recommendations because these values ...


Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The term “microbiome” refers to all the micro-organisms within a particular environment. In poultry, the microbiome is influenced by the barn, diet, and age of the birds and is believed to modulate immunity and inflammation. In the past, culture methods were primarily used to evaluate the presence of the various micro-organisms present in the microbiome; however, recent technological advances in genomic sequencing have revolutionized sample analysis. This technology has opened new avenues of research in poultry production and our understanding of the associated health challenges. Turkey cellulitis has been a major economic and health concern for many years. Traditional bacterial ...


Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use ...


A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the opportunity cost of using fixed tables of nutrient requirements when formulating feeds for broilers can be considerable, and that nutritionists should consider a more dynamic approach to defining the lower bounds of amino acids in particular, in line with the objective of the business, which is to maximise profit. In order to do this, it is necessary to consider the potential growth rate of the broiler, the cost of feed and amount of feed consumed, and the income generated from the sale of product.


Transitioning To Net Energy: A Swine Story, John F. Patience 2022 Iowa State University

Transitioning To Net Energy: A Swine Story, John F. Patience

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Net energy (NE) is one member of the sequence of energy systems which also includes gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME). It is perhaps the most sophisticated because it attempts to consider more components of the ingredient or diet which normally cannot be used by the pig for maintenance and/or productive purposes. Gross energy makes no such adjustment and therefore has little direct value in diet formulation. Digestible energy corrects for energy which is lost in the feces, and metabolizable energy also adjusts for energy lost in the urine. The data in Table 1 reveal ...


Where Can We Go With Net Energy In Poultry?, Katie Hilton 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Where Can We Go With Net Energy In Poultry?, Katie Hilton

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Metabolizable energy (ME) is the main system used globally in poultry industry for feed formulation and for evaluating feed ingredients and mixed feeds (de Boer and Bickel, 1988). ME is considered a reliable index of what is available to the bird for maintenance and production but is not a predictor of how efficiently the bird uses the available energy (MacLeod, 2000). The ME system developed by Hill and Anderson (1958) was reported to provide less variation in energy values for feed and ingredients than the Fraps PE system, but MacLeod (1994, 1997, 1999) suggest that the low variation of ME ...


Limestone Solubility: What Can You Do About It?, Wenting Li, Katie Hilton, Franco Mussini, Janet Remus 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Limestone Solubility: What Can You Do About It?, Wenting Li, Katie Hilton, Franco Mussini, Janet Remus

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium (Ca) is essential for bone development mineralisation, as well as for eggshell formation, muscle and neural functions. Depending on the type of diets (veggie vs. non-veggie), species (turkey, chicken, duck), and age of animal (young vs. adult), limestone can contribute up to 95% total Ca in the final diet, with more Ca from limestone for younger animals with veggie diet. Despite the significant contribution of limestone to total diet Ca levels, the bioavailability variation of limestone Ca is rarely considered. Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource and is the third most costly ingredient in poultry diets. Improving P utilization ...


Recruitment, Cost Indexes, And Management Of Box-Nesting Wood Ducks In South Carolina And North Carolina, Emily Miller 2022 Clemson University

Recruitment, Cost Indexes, And Management Of Box-Nesting Wood Ducks In South Carolina And North Carolina, Emily Miller

All Theses

The wood duck (Aix sponsa) has experienced one of the most significant declines and recoveries among species of North American waterfowl (Anatidae). With enactment of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918) and installation of hundreds of thousands of artificial nest structures for this cavity-nesting species in North America, wood duck populations have recovered and remain a sustainable harvested resource. However, long-term research on box-nesting wood ducks conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, has revealed uncertainty as to whether recruitment rates of yearling females from natal box-nesting populations are self-sustaining without immigration of hens from other complexes ...


Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food insecurity is a growing issue in developing and developed countries alike, and in countries like Belize, the prevalence of hunger has soared in recent years. Not having access to diets with sufficient calories and nutrients leads to a host of developmental issues, including stunting and cognitive delays. The purpose of this work was to create an all-encompassing manual for small-scale broiler production, with the intention of another honors student overseeing the implementation of the ideas set forth in the manual, in order to provide nourishment for the students and staff of a school in Belize. After determining that the ...


Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lameness is a major issue in animal welfare and the broiler industry. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main causes of lameness. Many staphylococcal species, including Staphylococcus agnetis isolate 908, have been isolated from the bones and blood of lame broilers at the University of Arkansas. Staphylococcus agnetis is a coagulase-variable, Gram-positive bacterial species that has been previously associated with subclinical or mild clinical cases of mastitis in dairy cattle. The annotated complete genome of hypervirulent strain 908 was published at NCBI. In this study, it has been compared to nine genomes we assembled for hypervirulent isolates ...


Histomonosis In Turkeys – Factors Influencing Transmission, Pathogenesis, And The Search For Prophylactic Or Therapeutic Compounds, Thainá Landim de Barros 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Histomonosis In Turkeys – Factors Influencing Transmission, Pathogenesis, And The Search For Prophylactic Or Therapeutic Compounds, Thainá Landim De Barros

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The incidence of histomonosis has been increasing in poultry since the ban of prophylactic and therapeutic compounds. Histomonosis is caused by the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis. The objective of this dissertation was to investigate factors impacting the pathogenesis and transmission of histomonosis and to evaluate compounds that could potentially prevent or reduce the severity of histomonosis in turkeys. In the first study, the effect of sodium chlorate and sodium nitrate on reducing histomonads growth was tested in vitro and added to a basal turkey diet. A decrease in the growth of histomonads in vitro was observed, but no in vivo effect ...


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