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Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop 2017 Western Kentucky University

Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Circadian rhythms are commonplace in organisms and are normally controlled by a master clock. More recent evidence suggests that autonomous clocks operate in various systems in the body, including the immune system. This study looks for such a connection between the circadian rhythm and the immune system. In this study, captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to different light and dark cycles and blood samples were taken every six hours. Birds were exposed to 12 hours of light and then 12 hours of darkness (LD), 24 hours of darkness (DD), or 48 hours of DD. After collecting whole blood ...


Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Bone marrow antigen presenting cells (BM-APC), from Fayoumis (disease resistant and heat tolerant) and Leghorn (disease susceptible) chicken lines were evaluated for response to an inflammatory stimulus and heat stress. BM-APC from Fayoumis produced more nitric oxide (NO) and had higher Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II cell surface expression compared to those from Leghorn, indicating that BM-APC studied in vitro may be a useful tool to evaluate molecular effects of disease and/or heat tolerance in chickens.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Body Temperature, Body Weight, Breast Yield, And Digestibility In An Advanced Intercross Line Of Chickens Under Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Kevin J. Bolek, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Body Temperature, Body Weight, Breast Yield, And Digestibility In An Advanced Intercross Line Of Chickens Under Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Kevin J. Bolek, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Background: Losses in poultry production due to heat stress have considerable negative economic consequences. Previous studies in poultry have elucidated a genetic influence on response to heat. Using a unique chicken genetic resource, we identified genomic regions associated with body temperature (BT), body weight (BW), breast yield, and digestibility measured during heat stress. Identifying genes associated with a favorable response during high ambient temperature can facilitate genetic selection of heat-resilient chickens. Methods: Generations F18 and F19 of a broiler (heat-susceptible) × Fayoumi (heat-resistant) advanced intercross line (AIL) were used to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Six hundred and thirty-one birds were ...


Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Identification ofspecific geneor quantitative trait locus that responds to specific stimulus is an important goal for genetic improvementprograms. In a heat stress experiment with 3 distinct chicken lines, we found Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) to be differentially expressed in all 3 lines during acute and chronic heat stress.This outcome suggests the need to further exploreANGPTL4 as a potential candidate gene for selection to improve chicken response to heat stress.


Transcriptome Response To Heat Stress In A Chicken Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, Liang Sun, Susan J. Lamont, Amanda M. Cooksey, Fiona M. McCarthy, Catalina O. Tudor, K. Vijay-Shanker, Rachael M. DeRita, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt 2017 University of Delaware

Transcriptome Response To Heat Stress In A Chicken Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, Liang Sun, Susan J. Lamont, Amanda M. Cooksey, Fiona M. Mccarthy, Catalina O. Tudor, K. Vijay-Shanker, Rachael M. Derita, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt

Susan J. Lamont

Heat stress triggers an evolutionarily conserved set of responses in cells. The transcriptome responds to hyperthermia by altering expression of genes to adapt the cell or organism to survive the heat challenge. RNA-seq technology allows rapid identification of environmentally responsive genes on a large scale. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify heat stress responsive genes in the chicken male white leghorn hepatocellular (LMH) cell line. The transcripts of 812 genes were responsive to heat stress (p < 0.01) with 235 genes upregulated and 577 downregulated following 2.5 h of heat stress. Among the upregulated were genes whose products function as chaperones, along with genes affecting collagen synthesis and deposition, transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and genes modulating the WNT and TGF-beta pathways. Predominant among the downregulated genes were ones that affect DNA replication and repair along with chromosomal segregation. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously implicated in the heat stress response. These data extend our understanding of the transcriptome response to heat stress with many of the identified biological processes and pathways likely to function in adapting cells and organisms to hyperthermic stress. Furthermore, this study should provide important insight to future efforts attempting to improve species abilities to withstand heat stress through genome-wide association studies and breeding.


Long-Tailed Jaegers In Western Nebraska, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Selected Works

Long-Tailed Jaegers In Western Nebraska, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

The Long-tailed Jaeger is an accidental migrant in Nebraska with just one accepted record through the mid-1990s. Based on records from adjacent states, especially Colorado (Andrews and Righter 1992) and Wyoming (Faulkner 2010), the species is probably more frequent than these records indicate, and its status is further complicated by possible confusion with Pomarine and Parasitic jaegers. In this article I report details of four records of Long-tailed Jaegers in western Nebraska and comment on the species' identification and status in the state.


Notes On Bird Sightings In Nebraska March 1997, Ruth C. Green, Alice Kenitz, Joel G. Jorgensen, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Nebraska Ornithologists' Union

Notes On Bird Sightings In Nebraska March 1997, Ruth C. Green, Alice Kenitz, Joel G. Jorgensen, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Albino Eastern Bluebirds. On 24 July 1996, I banded two totally white Eastern Bluebirds in Sarpy County, Nebraska. These two birds were in a nest with two other normally plumaged siblings. They were not only white-plumaged, their feet and bills were white and the eyes were a pinkish-red. They were just as well developed as the two normal birds and were ready to fledge, which they did the following day. I believe these birds fit the description of total albinism as defined by John K. Terres in The Audubon Encyclopedia of North American Birds. He defines total albinism as the ...


Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. Devault, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant) has been observed with increasing frequency in the alluvial plain (Delta region) of Mississippi. In the past 6 years, 22 individuals have been observed in 20 separate sightings during spring and summer. These sightings have occurred at breeding colonies of other colonial waterbirds and commercial aquaculture facilities of Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh). Two sexually mature Neotropic Cormorants have been collected at a colonial waterbird breeding colony near the Mississippi River in the western Delta region among fl ocks of Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorants). Twice during the summer of 2008, confi rmed nesting of Neotropic Cormorants ...


Mountain Plover Nest In Kimball County, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Midcontinent Ecological Science Center

Mountain Plover Nest In Kimball County, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

On 18 May 1995 I observed two adult Mountain Plovers 5 mi west and 1.25 mi north of Bushnell in southwest Kimball county. The birds were in an area of short-grass prairie interspersed with clumps of prickly pear and bare ground. I observed both birds almost continuously from 1-2 p.m. MDT. The first bird was along the road south of the fenceline, just after the road climbs on top of the plateau. The second bird was about 0.1 mi to the north on the west side of the road. Both birds were medium-sized, plain shorebirds, similar in ...


Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Turkeys, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Gerald W. Dean 2017 Iowa State College

Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Turkeys, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Gerald W. Dean

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Turkey production has become increasingly competitive and specialized in recent years. United States turkey production has nearly doubled since 1940, while the number of farms raising turkeys has steadily decreased. An increasing number of producers are looking toward savings in feed costs and better marketing methods as important aids in maintaining or increasing profits. The objective of this study is to provide turkey producers with useful predictions of least~cost rations and most profitable, or optimum, marketing weights for a wide range of price relationships.

Empirical data were obtained from Experiment 322 conducted by the Department of Poultry Husbandry in ...


Effect Of High Fiber Ingredients On The Performance, Metabolizable Energy And Digestibility Of Broiler And Layer Chicks, Muhammed Walugembe, Kenneth J. Stalder, Max F. Rothschild, Michael E. Persia 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of High Fiber Ingredients On The Performance, Metabolizable Energy And Digestibility Of Broiler And Layer Chicks, Muhammed Walugembe, Kenneth J. Stalder, Max F. Rothschild, Michael E. Persia

Kenneth J Stalder

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various fiber ingredients on the performance of chickens bred for egg or meat production from 1 to 21 d of age. The lower fiber diet was based on a traditional corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet and the higher fiber diet was formulated by addition of 60 g/kg of both dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran in the first period of feeding and 80 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran in the second period of feeding to the corn-SBM base diet. Two lines of male chicks ...


Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers: Production Functions, Gain Isoquants, Substitution Ratios, Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers Fed Corn And Soybean Oilmeal In A Fortified Ration, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Robert McAlexander 2017 Iowa State College

Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers: Production Functions, Gain Isoquants, Substitution Ratios, Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers Fed Corn And Soybean Oilmeal In A Fortified Ration, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Robert Mcalexander

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The major cost item in broilex production is feed. Previous studies indicate that feed costs generally constitute 65-75 percent of the total cost of producing broilers. Hence, one of the major opportunities for increasing profits from broiler production is to minimize the costs of producing birds of a given weight. Great progress has been made in recent years in developing high energy feeds and feeding formulas which lessen the total pounds of feed required in producing a bird of a given weight. However, even though high energy, rapid gain formulas have been developed, the problem of how major sources or ...


A Survey Of Broilers From Organic, Free-Range And Conventional Systems For Cooked Meat Yields, Composition, Relative Value, Joseph G. Sebranek, Ryan Husak 2017 Iowa State University

A Survey Of Broilers From Organic, Free-Range And Conventional Systems For Cooked Meat Yields, Composition, Relative Value, Joseph G. Sebranek, Ryan Husak

Joseph G. Sebranek

The project analyzed meat from broilers raised in three production systems to determine how they differed in terms of cost, yield, and various chemical and sensory qualities.


Attracting Birds To Your Yard, Shane Patterson, Adam Janke, Georgia Bryan, James Pease, Karl Jungbluth 2017 Iowa State University

Attracting Birds To Your Yard, Shane Patterson, Adam Janke, Georgia Bryan, James Pease, Karl Jungbluth

Adam Janke

Birds capture the imagination of homeowners from all walks of life. A glance out a window during fall or spring may reveal a pinstriped blackpoll warbler busily feeding during a break from migratory flights that take it to places as far away as the boreal forests of Canada or the mountain forests of South America. Lifeless and cold winter days may be enhanced by the company of a flock of chickadees. A morning on the back porch may turn into a front seat for the first attempts at flight by recently hatched robins. Backyard habitats are important resources for many ...


The Nutritive Value Of Corn Oil Meal And Feather Protein, C. I. Draper 2017 Iowa State College

The Nutritive Value Of Corn Oil Meal And Feather Protein, C. I. Draper

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The proteins, as one of the primary groups of nutrients, have commanded the attention of research workers for many years.

Experiments have demonstrated that various proteins differ greatly in nutritive value. Since a large part of the animal diet is generally compounded from protein feeds, which are usually high priced, it is important that this nutrient group be utilized as efficiently as possible.

Corn oil meal is a corn milling by-product consisting of the corn germ after the oil has been extracted. It contains from 20 to 25 percent protein.

Eleven large companies are now operating in the United States ...


Effect Of Dietary Beta-Glucan On The Performance Of Broilers, Sun Hee Moon, Xi Feng, Hyon Yong Lee, Jihee Kim, Dong Uk Ahn 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dietary Beta-Glucan On The Performance Of Broilers, Sun Hee Moon, Xi Feng, Hyon Yong Lee, Jihee Kim, Dong Uk Ahn

Dong U. Ahn

A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm ...


Cytotoxic And Antigenotoxic Activities Of Phosvitin From Egg Yolk, Sunhee Hoon, Dong U. Ahn 2017 Iowa State University

Cytotoxic And Antigenotoxic Activities Of Phosvitin From Egg Yolk, Sunhee Hoon, Dong U. Ahn

Dong U. Ahn

Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and thus has a strong metal-binding ability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin in vitro. Using the MTT assay, the cytotoxicity of phosvitin was evaluated in human cancer cell lines of various tissue origins, including the cervix (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), stomach (AGS), lung (A549 and SK-MES-1), liver (HepG2), and larynx (Hep-2). The growth of all cancer cell lines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by phosvitin. Among the cancer cell lines tested, MCF-7 and SK-MES-1 were the least sensitive ...


Sequential Separation Of Lysozyme, Ovomucin, Ovotransferrin And Ovalbumin From Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn 2017 Iowa State University

Sequential Separation Of Lysozyme, Ovomucin, Ovotransferrin And Ovalbumin From Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn

Dong U. Ahn

The objective of this study was to develop a simple, sequential separation method for multiple proteins from egg white. Separated proteins are targeted for human use, and thus any toxic compounds were excluded. The methods for individual components and the sequential separation were practiced in laboratory scale first, and then tested for scale-up. Lysozyme was separated first using a cation exchange resin and then ovomucin using isoelectric precipitation. Ovalbumin and ovotransferrin were separated from the lysozyme- and ovomucin-free egg white by precipitating ovotransferrin twice using (NH4)2SO4 and citric acid combination. After centrifugation, the supernatants were used for ovalbumin separation ...


Separation Of Ovotransferrin And Ovomucoid From Chicken Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn 2017 Iowa State University

Separation Of Ovotransferrin And Ovomucoid From Chicken Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn

Dong U. Ahn

Ovotransferrin and ovomucoid were separated using two methods after extracting ovotransferrin- and ovomucoid-containing fraction from egg white. Diluted egg white (2x) was added with Fe3+ and treated with 43% ethanol (final conc.). After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected and treated with either a high-level ethanol (61%, final conc.) or an acidic salt combination (2.5% ammonium sulfate and 2.5% citric acid) to separate ovotransferrin and ovomucoid. For the high-level ethanol method, ovotransferrin was precipitated using 61% ethanol. After centrifugation, the precipitant was dissolved in 9 vol. distilled water and the residual ethanol in the solution was removed using ultrafiltration ...


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