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Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont

Robert Jernigan

Newcastle Disease (ND) is caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and is a major problem in developing countries where vaccination against NDV is not easily achievable. A step required for NDV infection is the cleavage of the NDV fusion (F) protein. Using structural information of the NDV F protein and the only known host protein binding partner, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), we computer modeled the interaction between the two proteins by looking at a docked structure of these two proteins. With our docked structure, we visualized one of the catalytic domains of PDIA3 being near the cleavage site of ...


Value Of Some Of The Glass Substitutes In Growing Chicks, R. L. Cochran, H. A. Bittenbender 2017 Iowa State College

Value Of Some Of The Glass Substitutes In Growing Chicks, R. L. Cochran, H. A. Bittenbender

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

During the last few years considerable interest has been shown in the production of broiler chicks to the age of 10 to 12 weeks. During the late winter and early spring months, difficulties, such as leg weakness have been frequently encountered and remedies, such as cod liver oil, egg yolks, quartz mercury vapor lamp, glass substitutes or direct sunlight have been advocated to provide the antirachitic vitamin, which is necessary to insure success and obtain maximum growth.

Variability in potency, supply and cost of cod liver oil and egg yolks have been limiting factors in their use by the practical ...


The Nesting Habits Of The Hen, Geo. M. Turpin 2017 Iowa State College

The Nesting Habits Of The Hen, Geo. M. Turpin

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Suitable nesting equipment is essential for the successful management of laying hens. It should be planned to minimize the labor required in gathering eggs, in keeping nests clean and in supplying suitable nesting material. It is also important that the nests be made attractive and satisfactory to the hens. The tendency of hens to lay their eggs on the poultry house floor, in the poultry yard or in “stolen” nests causes serious losses to poultry keepers. It increases the labor of finding and gathering the eggs; it causes the entire loss of many eggs and a deterioration in the quality ...


Trussing And Boning Chicken For Fancy Trade, W. A. Lippincott 2017 Iowa State College

Trussing And Boning Chicken For Fancy Trade, W. A. Lippincott

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

A chicken sold on the general market as dressed has been killed, bled and picked. To be in the best condition for keeping it should be killed by piercing the brain with a sharp knife, bled through the mouth by severing the jugular vein, and dry picked. Such a bird is shown in Fig. 1. It is now ready to be transformed from common chicken into an extra fancy product that often retails as high as 50 cents a pound.

The first thing to do in bringing about this transformation is to singe off the hair-like feathers that cannot be ...


Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra

Theses and Dissertations

Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, quantification of heat loss of the broilers loaded on trailers is important in understanding the well-being of the broilers. We have developed four electronic chickens (E-chickens) to simulate the sensible heat loss of live ...


Characterization Of The Thermal Environment During Transport Of Commercial Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of The Thermal Environment During Transport Of Commercial Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge

Theses and Dissertations

Transport of commercial broiler chickens from the farm to the processing plant is perceived to compromise welfare under some circumstances. Research has been conducted using European standard equipment to characterize the environment experienced by poultry during broiler transport. In contrast no studies have been reported on the environment experienced by broilers under United States standard industry practices during transport. Moreover, microenvironment temperatures within industry trailers have not been reported.

The present study characterized the thermal micro-environment experienced by broiler chickens during transport across different seasons. The temperatures were influenced by temperature mitigation practices (plastic wrap, double side board, single side ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Feed And Environmental Factors On Broiler Growth In The United States, Alexandra Gulli 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparative Analysis Of Feed And Environmental Factors On Broiler Growth In The United States, Alexandra Gulli

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler production in the United States has become an important industry within the last half century. As the demand for poultry continues to increase and the concern of climate change also increases, it will become an important part of the industry to become more sustainable. This study uses a feed optimization model, a broiler growth model, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine how feed ingredients and the barn environment can affect the broiler’s growth and production emissions. A multi-criteria ration optimization model is used to produce feeds based on carbon footprint and cost. A growth model is ...


Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop 2017 Western Kentucky University

Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Circadian rhythms are commonplace in organisms and are normally controlled by a master clock. More recent evidence suggests that autonomous clocks operate in various systems in the body, including the immune system. This study looks for such a connection between the circadian rhythm and the immune system. In this study, captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to different light and dark cycles and blood samples were taken every six hours. Birds were exposed to 12 hours of light and then 12 hours of darkness (LD), 24 hours of darkness (DD), or 48 hours of DD. After collecting whole blood ...


Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Bone marrow antigen presenting cells (BM-APC), from Fayoumis (disease resistant and heat tolerant) and Leghorn (disease susceptible) chicken lines were evaluated for response to an inflammatory stimulus and heat stress. BM-APC from Fayoumis produced more nitric oxide (NO) and had higher Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II cell surface expression compared to those from Leghorn, indicating that BM-APC studied in vitro may be a useful tool to evaluate molecular effects of disease and/or heat tolerance in chickens.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Body Temperature, Body Weight, Breast Yield, And Digestibility In An Advanced Intercross Line Of Chickens Under Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Kevin J. Bolek, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Body Temperature, Body Weight, Breast Yield, And Digestibility In An Advanced Intercross Line Of Chickens Under Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Kevin J. Bolek, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Background: Losses in poultry production due to heat stress have considerable negative economic consequences. Previous studies in poultry have elucidated a genetic influence on response to heat. Using a unique chicken genetic resource, we identified genomic regions associated with body temperature (BT), body weight (BW), breast yield, and digestibility measured during heat stress. Identifying genes associated with a favorable response during high ambient temperature can facilitate genetic selection of heat-resilient chickens. Methods: Generations F18 and F19 of a broiler (heat-susceptible) × Fayoumi (heat-resistant) advanced intercross line (AIL) were used to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Six hundred and thirty-one birds were ...


Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Identification ofspecific geneor quantitative trait locus that responds to specific stimulus is an important goal for genetic improvementprograms. In a heat stress experiment with 3 distinct chicken lines, we found Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) to be differentially expressed in all 3 lines during acute and chronic heat stress.This outcome suggests the need to further exploreANGPTL4 as a potential candidate gene for selection to improve chicken response to heat stress.


Transcriptome Response To Heat Stress In A Chicken Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, Liang Sun, Susan J. Lamont, Amanda M. Cooksey, Fiona M. McCarthy, Catalina O. Tudor, K. Vijay-Shanker, Rachael M. DeRita, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt 2017 University of Delaware

Transcriptome Response To Heat Stress In A Chicken Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, Liang Sun, Susan J. Lamont, Amanda M. Cooksey, Fiona M. Mccarthy, Catalina O. Tudor, K. Vijay-Shanker, Rachael M. Derita, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt

Susan J. Lamont

Heat stress triggers an evolutionarily conserved set of responses in cells. The transcriptome responds to hyperthermia by altering expression of genes to adapt the cell or organism to survive the heat challenge. RNA-seq technology allows rapid identification of environmentally responsive genes on a large scale. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify heat stress responsive genes in the chicken male white leghorn hepatocellular (LMH) cell line. The transcripts of 812 genes were responsive to heat stress (p < 0.01) with 235 genes upregulated and 577 downregulated following 2.5 h of heat stress. Among the upregulated were genes whose products function as chaperones, along with genes affecting collagen synthesis and deposition, transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and genes modulating the WNT and TGF-beta pathways. Predominant among the downregulated genes were ones that affect DNA replication and repair along with chromosomal segregation. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously implicated in the heat stress response. These data extend our understanding of the transcriptome response to heat stress with many of the identified biological processes and pathways likely to function in adapting cells and organisms to hyperthermic stress. Furthermore, this study should provide important insight to future efforts attempting to improve species abilities to withstand heat stress through genome-wide association studies and breeding.


Gene Expression Response To Heat Stress In Two Broiler Lines, Jibin Zhang, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Response To Heat Stress In Two Broiler Lines, Jibin Zhang, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The fast growth rate and increased body weight of modern broilers makes them susceptible to heart failure and sensitive to heat stress. To find the genetic causes of these problems, gene expression was measured in hearts of two broiler lines that differed in their response to heat stress. Each line was separated into two groups that were kept under heat stress or at ambient temperature. The comparison of gene expression between the two lines and heat treatments suggests that expression of 325 genes were significantly changed in modern broilers under heat stress, while only 3 genes changed their expression in ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Turkeys, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Gerald W. Dean 2017 Iowa State College

Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Turkeys, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Gerald W. Dean

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Turkey production has become increasingly competitive and specialized in recent years. United States turkey production has nearly doubled since 1940, while the number of farms raising turkeys has steadily decreased. An increasing number of producers are looking toward savings in feed costs and better marketing methods as important aids in maintaining or increasing profits. The objective of this study is to provide turkey producers with useful predictions of least~cost rations and most profitable, or optimum, marketing weights for a wide range of price relationships.

Empirical data were obtained from Experiment 322 conducted by the Department of Poultry Husbandry in ...


Effect Of High Fiber Ingredients On The Performance, Metabolizable Energy And Digestibility Of Broiler And Layer Chicks, Muhammed Walugembe, Kenneth J. Stalder, Max F. Rothschild, Michael E. Persia 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of High Fiber Ingredients On The Performance, Metabolizable Energy And Digestibility Of Broiler And Layer Chicks, Muhammed Walugembe, Kenneth J. Stalder, Max F. Rothschild, Michael E. Persia

Kenneth J Stalder

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various fiber ingredients on the performance of chickens bred for egg or meat production from 1 to 21 d of age. The lower fiber diet was based on a traditional corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet and the higher fiber diet was formulated by addition of 60 g/kg of both dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran in the first period of feeding and 80 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran in the second period of feeding to the corn-SBM base diet. Two lines of male chicks ...


Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers: Production Functions, Gain Isoquants, Substitution Ratios, Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers Fed Corn And Soybean Oilmeal In A Fortified Ration, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Robert McAlexander 2017 Iowa State College

Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers: Production Functions, Gain Isoquants, Substitution Ratios, Least-Cost Rations And Optimum Marketing Weights For Broilers Fed Corn And Soybean Oilmeal In A Fortified Ration, Earl O. Heady, Stanley Balloun, Robert Mcalexander

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The major cost item in broilex production is feed. Previous studies indicate that feed costs generally constitute 65-75 percent of the total cost of producing broilers. Hence, one of the major opportunities for increasing profits from broiler production is to minimize the costs of producing birds of a given weight. Great progress has been made in recent years in developing high energy feeds and feeding formulas which lessen the total pounds of feed required in producing a bird of a given weight. However, even though high energy, rapid gain formulas have been developed, the problem of how major sources or ...


A Survey Of Broilers From Organic, Free-Range And Conventional Systems For Cooked Meat Yields, Composition, Relative Value, Joseph G. Sebranek, Ryan Husak 2017 Iowa State University

A Survey Of Broilers From Organic, Free-Range And Conventional Systems For Cooked Meat Yields, Composition, Relative Value, Joseph G. Sebranek, Ryan Husak

Joseph G. Sebranek

The project analyzed meat from broilers raised in three production systems to determine how they differed in terms of cost, yield, and various chemical and sensory qualities.


The Nutritive Value Of Corn Oil Meal And Feather Protein, C. I. Draper 2017 Iowa State College

The Nutritive Value Of Corn Oil Meal And Feather Protein, C. I. Draper

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The proteins, as one of the primary groups of nutrients, have commanded the attention of research workers for many years.

Experiments have demonstrated that various proteins differ greatly in nutritive value. Since a large part of the animal diet is generally compounded from protein feeds, which are usually high priced, it is important that this nutrient group be utilized as efficiently as possible.

Corn oil meal is a corn milling by-product consisting of the corn germ after the oil has been extracted. It contains from 20 to 25 percent protein.

Eleven large companies are now operating in the United States ...


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