Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Poultry or Avian Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,202 Full-Text Articles 2,024 Authors 179,117 Downloads 69 Institutions

All Articles in Poultry or Avian Science

Faceted Search

2,202 full-text articles. Page 1 of 36.

Enhancing Quality Of Life Through Foreign Direct Investment In Northern Mozambique, Sarah-Beth DeLay 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Enhancing Quality Of Life Through Foreign Direct Investment In Northern Mozambique, Sarah-Beth Delay

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has the potential to increase economic activity and improve GDP growth in low-income countries, but can hinder economic development (quality of life improvements) if not sustainable and holistic in manner. Africa serves as a host to many cases of FDI focused on economic growth, but not necessarily improving the quality of life for its citizens. FDI has spread throughout the African continent, where many countries are well endowed with natural resources, like minerals and coal. These economies have experienced rapid GDP growth with few benefits reaching citizens of the host country. Mozambique is a low-income country ...


The Effect Of Magnetic Water On Feed Conversion Ratio, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake And Livability Of Male Broiler Chickens, Kenia Mitre 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Magnetic Water On Feed Conversion Ratio, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake And Livability Of Male Broiler Chickens, Kenia Mitre

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Passing water through a magnetic field has been shown to have positive effects in agricultural activities such as crops, cattle and poultry production (Ali, Samaneh and Kavakebian, 2014). Several experiments performed in Middle Eastern countries have evaluated the effect of magnetizing drinking water on poultry performance, but results are inconsistent. The current project was conducted to evaluate the effect of magnetizing the drinking water on key aspects of poultry production such as Feed Conversion Ratio, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and Livability. Four hundred and forty-nine male Cobb-500 chicks were randomly placed in 6 replicate pens for each of 3 ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans 2018 USDA, Wildlife Services

Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Abundant gull (Figure 1) populations in North America have led to a variety of conflicts with people. Gulls cause damage at aquaculture facilities and other properties, and often collide with aircraft. Their use of structures on and near water results in excessive amounts of bird droppings on boats and docks. Their presence near outdoor dining establishments, swimming beaches, and recreational sites can lead to negative interactions with people. Large amounts of gull fecal material pollutes water and beaches resulting in drinking water contamination and swim bans. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion and limited lethal control may reduce damage to ...


Effects Of Dimethyl Sulfoxide And Glycerol Based Vitrification Protocols On Zona Pellucida Hardening In Mature Bovine Oocytes, Kaci Denise Rogers 2018 Louisiana State University

Effects Of Dimethyl Sulfoxide And Glycerol Based Vitrification Protocols On Zona Pellucida Hardening In Mature Bovine Oocytes, Kaci Denise Rogers

LSU Master's Theses

Zona pellucida hardening is a natural process that occurs after oocyte fertilization to prevent polyspermic fertilization and to protect embryonic development. Pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida however, decreases fertilization rates. Cryoprotectants have also been shown to negatively affect fertilization rates, one possible mechanism of which being through zona hardening. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different cryoprotectants on hardening of the zona pellucida using fresh mature bovine oocytes and vitrified mature bovine oocytes. Oocytes were post-slaughter from mixed breed cows. After collection, oocytes were randomly assigned to three cryoprotectant treatment groups: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol or ...


Transcriptome Analysis In Spleen Reveals Differential Regulation Of Response To Newcastle Disease Virus In Two Chicken Lines, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2018 Iowa State University

Transcriptome Analysis In Spleen Reveals Differential Regulation Of Response To Newcastle Disease Virus In Two Chicken Lines, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Jibin Zhang

Enhancing genetic resistance of chickens to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) provides a promising way to improve poultry health, and to alleviate poverty and food insecurity in developing countries. In this study, two inbred chicken lines with different responses to NDV, Fayoumi and Leghorn, were challenged with LaSota NDV strain at 21 days of age. Through transcriptome analysis, gene expression in spleen at 2 and 6 days post-inoculation was compared between NDV-infected and control groups, as well as between chicken lines. At a false discovery rate <0.05, Fayoumi chickens, which are relatively more resistant to NDV, showed fewer differentially expressed ...


Transcriptome Analysis In Spleen Reveals Differential Regulation Of Response To Newcastle Disease Virus In Two Chicken Lines, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2018 Iowa State University

Transcriptome Analysis In Spleen Reveals Differential Regulation Of Response To Newcastle Disease Virus In Two Chicken Lines, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C.M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Enhancing genetic resistance of chickens to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) provides a promising way to improve poultry health, and to alleviate poverty and food insecurity in developing countries. In this study, two inbred chicken lines with different responses to NDV, Fayoumi and Leghorn, were challenged with LaSota NDV strain at 21 days of age. Through transcriptome analysis, gene expression in spleen at 2 and 6 days post-inoculation was compared between NDV-infected and control groups, as well as between chicken lines. At a false discovery rate <0.05, Fayoumi chickens, which are relatively more resistant to NDV, showed fewer differentially expressed ...


More Mhc-Like Class I Y Mrna Detected In Relatively Resistant Fayoumis Than Susceptible Leghorns, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2018 Iowa State University

More Mhc-Like Class I Y Mrna Detected In Relatively Resistant Fayoumis Than Susceptible Leghorns, Melissa S. Deist, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The inbred chicken lines Fayoumi and Leghorn have been shown to be relatively resistant and susceptible, respectively, to Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this experiment we detected higher gene expression levels of MHC-like class I Y (MHCIY) in the Fayoumi trachea, lung, and Harderian gland of NDV challenged and nonchallenged birds across multiple time points. MHC region is important to the immune system and is often associated with resistance to pathogens. This gene may be associated with the Fayoumis’ resistant phenotype.


Gene Expression Responses To Infection With Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli In Chicken Spleen, Melissa S. Monson, Michael G. Kaiser, Susan J. Lamont 2018 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Responses To Infection With Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli In Chicken Spleen, Melissa S. Monson, Michael G. Kaiser, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Mortality and other production losses due to infection with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are a worldwide problem for the poultry industry. In this study, changes in gene expression during APEC infection were characterized in the chicken spleen using RNA-sequencing. Over 400 genes had significant expression changes in response to APEC, with greater changes at 1 day post infection (DPI) than 2 DPI. This decrease was consistent with bacterial clearance from the spleen. Immune signaling, complement, and antimicrobial genes (such as AVD and IL22) were highly upregulated in response to APEC and predicted to increase phagocyte migration and leukocyte activation ...


Heat Stress Of Commercial Producing Laying Hens Affects Gene Expression In Cecal Tonsil, John C.F. Hsieh, Melissa S. Monson, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2018 Iowa State University

Heat Stress Of Commercial Producing Laying Hens Affects Gene Expression In Cecal Tonsil, John C.F. Hsieh, Melissa S. Monson, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

In this experiment, producing layers were exposed to 4 weeks of cyclic heat to better understand the effects of heat stress on the gene expression in the cecal tonsil (CT). CT is the immune tissue located at the junction between the ileum and the ceca within the digestive tract. CT has been suggested to have a role in the regulation of the cecal content, which may have an impact on nutrient absorption. Knowledge of specific changes in gene expression at the CT highlights potential mechanisms that the tissue utilizes to alleviate the effect from heat stress.


Regions Of Genomic Control Identified For Feed Efficiency In Laying Hens Under Heat Stress, Kaylee Rowland, John C.F. Hsieh, Nathaniel Barrett, Chris M. Ashwell, Mike E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2018 Iowa State University

Regions Of Genomic Control Identified For Feed Efficiency In Laying Hens Under Heat Stress, Kaylee Rowland, John C.F. Hsieh, Nathaniel Barrett, Chris M. Ashwell, Mike E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The future of agriculture presents unique challenges, including producing more food using fewer resources, as global climate changes. Genetic selection and genomic data continue to be valuable tools in animal agriculture that will help address these challenges. We used genomic data and statistical analysis to investigate response of laying hens to heat stress. Hens of the Hy-Line W-36 female parent line were exposed to a daily cyclic heat challenge from 24 to 28 weeks of age. Eggs were collected daily in two-week periods (pre heat, 2 and 4 weeks post heat) for measurements of egg weight. Egg weights and feed ...


Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu 2018 Iowa State University

Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu

Animal Industry Report

The tumorigenesis caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV) occurs through a complex regulatory architecture. , We applied a novel methodology to jointly analyze four different types of datasets: mRNA expression, the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. The pathway analysis shows that combined analysis produced more informative results than single data-type analyses, and the co-expression network analysis found key elements involved in the host-pathogen interaction. The integration of multiple data sources yielded deeper insights into the pathogenesis of the virus and the host immune response.


Amino Acid Digestibility Of A High Protein Ddgs Product In Broilers, Krysten Fries, Elizabeth Bobeck 2018 Iowa State University

Amino Acid Digestibility Of A High Protein Ddgs Product In Broilers, Krysten Fries, Elizabeth Bobeck

Animal Industry Report

Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a common feedstuff in poultry diets, however, digestibility estimates vary with production method and strain (broiler vs layer). The objective of this study was to determine the amino acid digestibility of 34.1% (as fed) high-protein DDGS in straight-run Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Calculated standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of indispensable amino acids (AA) ranged from 81.20 to 90.41%. The SIAAD of dispensable AA ranged from 16.16 to 89.78%. The digestibility of limiting AA in HiP DDGS was greater than reported digestibility values of the same AA ...


Energy Digestibility Of A High Protein Ddgs Product In Broilers, Krysten Fries, Elizabeth Bobeck 2018 Iowa State University

Energy Digestibility Of A High Protein Ddgs Product In Broilers, Krysten Fries, Elizabeth Bobeck

Animal Industry Report

Changes to the production method of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a common feedstuff in poultry diets, can alter the nutrient profile and energy content. Estimates of DDGS digestibility vary as a result of the altered production method, removal of value-added products like distiller’s corn oil, as well as the strain of chicken used (broiler vs. layer). The objective of this study was to determine the energy digestibility of high protein DDGS (HiP DDGS) fed to straight-run Cobb 500 broiler chickens. The apparent nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy of HiP DDGS was calculated at 2,710 kcal/kg. Additional ...


Determining Presence Of Yolk Sac And Intestinal Bacterial Colonization In Pre-Hatch Chicken Embryos, Meaghan Meyer, Lucas Koester, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth Bobeck 2018 Iowa State University

Determining Presence Of Yolk Sac And Intestinal Bacterial Colonization In Pre-Hatch Chicken Embryos, Meaghan Meyer, Lucas Koester, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth Bobeck

Animal Industry Report

Chicks hatch with a sterile gastrointestinal tract and receive the first colonization of intestinal bacteria from the shell and hatching environment. Bacteria may translocate from the shell to remaining yolk and/or the developing embryo pre-hatch due to penetration of the protective bloom on the unwashed shell’s surface. The objective of this study was to determine the presence or absence of bacterial DNA via PCR in the gastrointestinal tract of pre-hatch and hatched chicken embryos. Pre-hatch chicken embryo digestive tracts and yolk sacs sampled in a biosafety cabinet on days 13, 20, and 21 of incubation showed no bacterial ...


Genetic Parameters And Genomic Regions Associated With Growth Rate And Response To Newcastle Disease In Local Chicken Ecotypes In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Muhammed Walugembe, Boniface Baboreka Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa 2018 University of Ghana

Genetic Parameters And Genomic Regions Associated With Growth Rate And Response To Newcastle Disease In Local Chicken Ecotypes In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Muhammed Walugembe, Boniface Baboreka Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa

Animal Industry Report

Local chicken enterprises in Africa are of great importance to household livelihoods but face major constraints with devastating disease outbreaks such as Newcastle disease (ND), which cause major economic losses. A study was conducted in two countries, Ghana and Tanzania, where three ecotypes in each country were challenged with a lentogenic (vaccine) strain of ND virus and various response phenotypes, including growth, anti-NDV antibody levels, and viral load from hatch to 38 days of age were taken. We estimated variance components and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using ~2800 birds. Moderate heritabilities (0.14-0.55) of the above traits ...


Egg Flats And Pallets Disinfection With Heat Treatment, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, Brad Richardson 2018 Iowa State University

Egg Flats And Pallets Disinfection With Heat Treatment, Lilong Chai, Hongwei Xin, Yang Zhao, Brad Richardson

Animal Industry Report

Sanitation of egg flats and pallets may be done by heating them up above 130 ºF and maintaining the high temperature for a period of time (e.g., 6-8 h). To assess the heating performance of a newly built heat treatment room at a commercial layer farm in wintertime (December) in Iowa, temperature of room air and inside the stacked pallets and flats were monitored during the heating process. Preliminary results show that directing heat more toward the floor improved the room heating effect greatly; the room air and pallet stacks temperature reached the target zone (130-140ºF) 30 min and ...


Evaluation Of A High Protein Ddgs Product On Broiler Performance, Krysten Fries, Elizabeth Bobeck 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A High Protein Ddgs Product On Broiler Performance, Krysten Fries, Elizabeth Bobeck

Animal Industry Report

Dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) are commonly fed at an inclusion of 10% or less in broiler diets with the added benefit of an improved ability to utilize the available nutrients compared to layers fed the same inclusion. Combined with intentional changes to processing to enhance the nutritional quality of DDGS, there is the potential to increase the utilization of DDGS when fed to broilers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding up to a 20% inclusion of high protein DDGS (HiP DDGS) on broiler performance in straight-run Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Birds ...


New Control Strategy Against Temperature Sudden-Drop In The Initial Stage Of Pad Cooling Process In Poultry Houses, Xue Hui, Baoming Li, Hongwei Xin, Weichao Zheng, Zhengxiang Shi, Xiao Yang, Shumei Zhao 2018 China Agricultural University

New Control Strategy Against Temperature Sudden-Drop In The Initial Stage Of Pad Cooling Process In Poultry Houses, Xue Hui, Baoming Li, Hongwei Xin, Weichao Zheng, Zhengxiang Shi, Xiao Yang, Shumei Zhao

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Preliminary field measurements have shown substantial temperature sudden-drop (ΔTsd) at bird level in the initial stage of pad cooling process in arid regions of China. Such sudden temperature fluctuation can cause thermal stress to laying hens and this problem is attracting increasing concerns. The purpose of this study was to develop a new control strategy (NCS) to avoid or minimize ΔTsd while simplify the operational process. Theoretical calculation and field test were conducted in this study. The key ambient thermal factor affecting ΔTsd was analysed by calculating temperature drop of cooled air existing the cooling pad (ΔTd). A countermeasure was ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Taylor Readyhough 2018 Regis University

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Taylor Readyhough

All Regis University Theses

Life in a zoo brings a score of stressors into the lives of captive animals, including artificial light, crowds of visitors, and increased noise levels. Stress especially impacts captive birds, and continued exposure to these stressors can negatively affect birds’ reproductive success and overall well-being. Staff at the Denver Zoo noticed increased aggression between a male and female pair of great Indian hornbills during the winter of 2016. This behavioral shift coincided with Zoo Lights, a holiday event that results in the hornbills’ exhibit remaining open to the public for approximately four extra hours through the entire month of December ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress