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Factors Influencing A Malformation Of The Leg Bones Of Growing Chickens, Thomas Theodore Milby 2017 Iowa State College

Factors Influencing A Malformation Of The Leg Bones Of Growing Chickens, Thomas Theodore Milby

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

When varying amounts of phosphorus from inorganic sources were added to a basal ration of ground yellow corn, wheat middlings and dry skimmilk, in which the amount of calcium in the various rations was held practically constant, the incidence of slipped tendon increased as the phosphorus increased. Though the trend was very definite, the relation between the amount of phosphorus in the ration and the percentage of slipped tendon was not exactly linear, indicating that factors other than the amount of phosphorus in the ration may have been operating to influence the incidence of slipped tendon. Two groups of chicks ...


Selection For Resistance To Fowl Typhoid In The Chicken With Reference To Its Inheritance, W. V. Lambert, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

Selection For Resistance To Fowl Typhoid In The Chicken With Reference To Its Inheritance, W. V. Lambert, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Experiments were planned to study the influence of selection upon natural resistance to fowl typhoid in the chicken, and to determine something about the genetic nature of differences in resistance.

Using a pathogen of constant virulence and a uniform method of infection, it was determined that degree of infection influenced the mortality in unselected chicks. Both total mortality and rate of mortality were increased by the heavier doses.

Four generations of selection for resistance to a standard dose of fowl typhoid bacteria resulted in a decided decrease in mortality in the selected population. The mortalities observed in the chicks of ...


Factors Influencing Egg Production Ill. The Association Of The Date Of Hatch With Date Of First Egg, Sexual Maturity And Egg Production In S. C. White Leghorns, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

Factors Influencing Egg Production Ill. The Association Of The Date Of Hatch With Date Of First Egg, Sexual Maturity And Egg Production In S. C. White Leghorns, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. The data show a positive rectilinear association between the date of hatch and the date of first egg.

2. The date of hatch seemed to have a very slight association with the age at first egg (sexual maturity).

3. A decided curvilinear association was found between the date of hatch and the number of eggs produced before March 1.

4. The data show a positive rectilinear correlation between the date of hatch and spring egg production (March, April, May and June).

5. The date of hatch has a curvilinear association with total annual egg yield.


Factors Influencing Egg Production Ii. The Influence Of The Date Of First Egg Upon Maturity And Production, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

Factors Influencing Egg Production Ii. The Influence Of The Date Of First Egg Upon Maturity And Production, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. Pullets that laid their first egg early in their laying year were generally of earlier sexual maturity than those which laid their first egg later in the year.

2. The time that the first egg was laid had a curvilinear association with winter egg production.

3. Birds that laid their first egg in September had the highest winter egg production.

4. Pullets that laid their first egg between the dates of Sept. 6 and Dec. 13 produced 50 or more eggs in the winter period.

5. There was a slight curvilinear association between the date of first egg and ...


The Genetics Of Poultry Color In Poultry, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

The Genetics Of Poultry Color In Poultry, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. The chromogen gene for color, CC, acted as a simple dominant.

2. The extension of black pigment, EE, was inherited on a simple monohybrid basis.

3. The heterozygous extension and chromogen genes (Cc Ee) had a balanced relationship. This combination of heterozygous factors weakened the expression of the black melanic pigment in the presence of two or more doses of buff.

4. Buff color was controlled on a dihybrid basis, the following symbols being used, Bu Bu Bu' Bu'.

5. Three or more doses of the buff genes in the presence of homozygous color factors, CC, were epistatic to ...


Correlation Of Physical Measurements With Egg Production In White Plymouth Rock Hens, C. W. Knox, H. A. Bittenbender 2017 Iowa State College

Correlation Of Physical Measurements With Egg Production In White Plymouth Rock Hens, C. W. Knox, H. A. Bittenbender

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

External characteristics of poultry have been used as criteria of egg production for a number of years. Only within the last few years, however, have attempts been made actually to correlate mathematically certain definite morphological characteristics with egg production. Data also have been published recently, correlating certain physiological characters with egg production.


Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris 2017 Rollins College

Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris

Thesis Projects

Feather plucking (FP) is a maladaptive behavior observed in captive avian species. This self-injurious behavior results in damage to and removal of feathers and skin tissue, resulting in animal welfare and financial consequences. The etiology and maintenance of FP have been hypothesized through medical and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. The current study investigated the environmental variables maintaining the FP of a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), as well as evaluated a function-based treatment for this behavior. The behavior was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. Treatment consisted of ...


Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus subtilis, as probiotic strains compared to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) 50 as the antibiotic growth promotor, supplemented in commercial broiler rations and their influences on performance, yield, and intestinal microbiota. This trial was completed as a randomized-block design with 4,800 birds split into 96, 5’x10’ pens, and randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups. The birds were placed at a stocking density of 1.00 ft2/bird, (50 birds/pen), and reared on used pine shaving for 55 days. Throughout the study ...


Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known that arginine vasotocin (AVT) in birds is involved in physiological homeostasis such as cardiovascular, osmotic regulation as well as reproductive functions. Pertinent to these physiological functions, AVT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus have been found associated with hemorrhage, dehydration, oviposition and other physiological regulation. Evidence, however, suggests that AVT also plays significant roles in modulating behavior, memory, stress, and food intake. This dissertation research addresses the latter two neuroendocrine functions of AVT in detail within the chicken brain. First, the functional role of AVT-ir neurons in conjunction with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-ir neurons in ...


Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry production plays an important role in the food supply and security for billions of people. Poultry meat is considered the most efficient, nutritious source of protein, without religious taboos, and is relatively inexpensive. However, the poultry industry is facing substantial challenges. The global environmental temperature has experienced dramatic changes in the last few years. Modern broilers are not well adapted to environmental challenges (heat and cold stress), which have resulted in heavy economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. In addition, the use of feed restriction regimens in management of breeders as well as the transportation of young chicks ...


The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This volume, the fourth in a series of books that collectively update and expand P. A. Johnsgard’s 1975 The Waterfowl of North America, summarizes research findings on this economically and ecologically important group of waterfowl. The volume includes the mostly tropical perching duck tribe Cairinini, of which two species, the muscovy duck and the wood duck, are representatives. Both species are adapted for foraging on the water surface, mostly on plant materials, but typically perch in trees and nest in elevated tree cavities or other elevated recesses. This volume also includes the dabbling, or surface-feeding, duck tribe Anatini, a ...


The Effects Of Xylanase Or An Algal Sourced Zinc Polysaccharide Complex On The Performance Of Laying Hens Fed A Corn And Soybean Diet, Ashley Bigge 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Xylanase Or An Algal Sourced Zinc Polysaccharide Complex On The Performance Of Laying Hens Fed A Corn And Soybean Diet, Ashley Bigge

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of two different feed additives on the performance of laying hens. Study 1 examined the effects of non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme inclusion in a low energy diet. Study 2 examined the effects of supplementing a paramylon zinc polysaccharide complex at increasing concentrations. Both studies utilized a randomized complete block design for treatment assignment, and data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure in SAS 9.4 for windows.

The first study took place July 2014 to March 2015 and consisted of two phases. Each phase tested a positive control, negative control with lower ...


The Effects Of Dietary Omega 3 Fatty Acids On Commercial Broiler Behavior From Hatch To Market Weight, Ella Akin, Zoe Kiefer, Amelia Rangel, Isa Ehr, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Elizabeth Bobeck, Anna Johnson, Nicholas Gabler, Kenneth Stalder, Brian Kerr 2017 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Dietary Omega 3 Fatty Acids On Commercial Broiler Behavior From Hatch To Market Weight, Ella Akin, Zoe Kiefer, Amelia Rangel, Isa Ehr, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Elizabeth Bobeck, Anna Johnson, Nicholas Gabler, Kenneth Stalder, Brian Kerr

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to investigate how different dietary omega-3 sources affect commercial broiler behavior from hatch to market weight. One hundred and twenty male 308 Ross broiler chicks were enrolled into the study. Three dietary treatments were compared; Control, Flaxseed-and Fish-oil. Fifteen pens were randomly selected and onefocal-bird was watched continually for three periods of time. One behavior, two postures,and an unknown category were collected. Week by dietary treatment interaction was not significant for any broiler behaviors (P ≥ 0.49). There was no dietary treatment effect observed for any broiler behaviors (P≥ 0.32). There was ...


Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Identification ofspecific geneor quantitative trait locus that responds to specific stimulus is an important goal for genetic improvementprograms. In a heat stress experiment with 3 distinct chicken lines, we found Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) to be differentially expressed in all 3 lines during acute and chronic heat stress.This outcome suggests the need to further exploreANGPTL4 as a potential candidate gene for selection to improve chicken response to heat stress.


Effect Of Dietary Beta-Glucan On The Performance Of Broilers, Sun Hee Moon, Xi Feng, Hyon Yong Lee, Jihee Kim, Dong Uk Ahn 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dietary Beta-Glucan On The Performance Of Broilers, Sun Hee Moon, Xi Feng, Hyon Yong Lee, Jihee Kim, Dong Uk Ahn

Animal Industry Report

A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm ...


Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The liver plays a variety of roles in energy metabolism, digestion, and immune response. During the challenge by anenvironmental stressor, such as heat, the liver is one of the key organs that determines the chicken’s ability to cope with the hostile environment. Sequencing RNA extracted from liver samples from a heat-susceptible broiler line and a heat-resistant Fayoumi line, we have identifieda set of genes that were differentially expressed due to an acuteheat stress challenge. Analysis of these genes in context of the biological pathways showed opposite responsesby the broiler and Fayoumichickens,but there was activation of immune signaling pathways ...


Egg Shell Quality Assessment–Do We Need Multiple Records?, Anna Wolc, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

Egg Shell Quality Assessment–Do We Need Multiple Records?, Anna Wolc, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to estimate repeatability within and between ages for dynamic stiffnessin two lines of layer chickens in order to verify if multiple records are necessary to adequately describe a bird’s genetic merit for egg shell quality.Repeatability was low across ages to moderate within age,which suggests that for accurate evaluation eggs should be collected at different stages of laying cycle,with additional benefit from analyzing more than one egg within age.


Does Gener Impact The Immune Response Of Chicks?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

Does Gener Impact The Immune Response Of Chicks?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Sequencing technology allows us tosee how the gene expression of each genechanges under different treatment conditions. In this study, chicks of two inbred lines were challenged with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), a pathogen with devastating impacts on poultry throughout the world. At each of the three time points post-infection, one-third of the chicks were sacraficed and their lungs were harvested. When comparing males and females infected with NDV, differences in gene expression that were predicted to impact growth and apoptosis were identified. Differences between the response of males and females to viral challenges could be useful information for production operations ...


Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Warsaw University of Life Sciences

Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Two high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks haveseverelyaffected the poultry industryon the American continentwithin the last four years; a 2012 H7N3 outbreak in Mexicoand a 2015 H5N2 outbreak in the US. Blood samples were collectedfrom survivors of each outbreak plus age and genetics matched non-affected controls. As surviving birds could contain natural genetic mutation(s) that make them resistant to HPAI,the goal of the present study was to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to HPAIand to determinewhether resistance regionsare the same fordifferent virus strains.Four genomic regions were identified for the H5N2 outbreak and fivedifferent regions were identified ...


Commercial Layer-Type Chickens And Newcastle Disease Virus Infection:Toward Genetic Selection Of More Resilient Chickens, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Jack Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont 2017 University of California, Davis

Commercial Layer-Type Chickens And Newcastle Disease Virus Infection:Toward Genetic Selection Of More Resilient Chickens, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Jack Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus(NDV)causes major losses due to extremely quickmortalityin chickensafter exposure to the virus. In places where this virusis not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity, people rely heavily on poultry to provideprotein and income.Losses from NDV contributeto worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens thatnot onlyhave a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challengebut also respond better to vaccination. In order for genetic selection to be successful,two major elements are required: differences in immune response between chickens and genetic control of these differences. This ...


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