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Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter 2017 University of Minnesota - Duluth

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Histomonas meleagridis is a protozoan parasite of avians and is the causative agent in Histomonosis, commonly known as Blackhead Disease. Current methods for diagnosing the presence of H. meleagridis are limited to parasite culture or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify target DNA. This project aims to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for faster and more sensitive diagnosis of Histomonas infections. Cultures of H. meleagridis parasites were purified, and surface antigens were extracted using a spectrum of chemical solutions. The various antigen solutions were subjected to an ELISA, with serum from birds immunized for H. meleagridis as positive controls ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter 2017 University of Minnesota - Duluth

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Peter Wolter

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook 2017 Murray State University

Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Farming practices such as no tillage and plowing can institute change on soil physical and chemical characteristics. In this research, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage systems on the selected soil properties were determined in a continuous corn system on a farm with Maury silt loam soil. These samples were taken from University of Kentucky's Research Farm (Spindletop Farm). The field used was tilled in 1969 from bluegrass sod and the first time research was conduced was in 1970. Each plot is 20 ft. by 40 ft. and for many years each plot was split with winter cover ...


Growth And Development Of Two Broiler Strains With Low Protein And Crystalline Amino Acid Supplemented Diets, Chaoyang Li 2017 Louisiana State University

Growth And Development Of Two Broiler Strains With Low Protein And Crystalline Amino Acid Supplemented Diets, Chaoyang Li

LSU Master's Theses

The objective of this research was to compare the growth performance of broilers from two commercial breeds with control, low protein and low protein supplemented with crystalline amino acids diets. This was a randomized block design, and identical experiments were conducted on successively in two years. In each experiment, day-old chicks, Ross 708 broilers and Cobb 405 broilers, were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments: 1) positive control, 2) low crude protein (LP), and 3) LP + crystalline amino acids (CAA). A three phase feeding program was used. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. On d 12, 19, 26, 33, 40 ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


Effect Of Macrolide Usage On Emergence Of Erythromycin-Resistant Campylobacter Isolates In Chickens, Jun Lin, Meiguan Yan, Orhan Sahin, Sonia Pereira, Yun-Juan Chang, Qijing Zhang, Qijing Zhang 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effect Of Macrolide Usage On Emergence Of Erythromycin-Resistant Campylobacter Isolates In Chickens, Jun Lin, Meiguan Yan, Orhan Sahin, Sonia Pereira, Yun-Juan Chang, Qijing Zhang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

In this work we conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the development and mechanisms of erythromycin (Ery) resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In vitro plating revealed that both Campylobacter species had similar but low spontaneous mutation frequencies (3 × 10−9 to −10) for Ery resistance. Chickens infected with C. jejuni or C. coli were subjected to single or multiple treatments with medicated water containing tylosin (0.53 g/liter), which transiently reduced the level of Campylobacter colonization but did not select for Ery-resistant (Eryr) mutants in the treated birds. However, when tylosin was given ...


Value Of Some Of The Glass Substitutes In Growing Chicks, R. L. Cochran, H. A. Bittenbender 2017 Iowa State College

Value Of Some Of The Glass Substitutes In Growing Chicks, R. L. Cochran, H. A. Bittenbender

Bulletin

During the last few years considerable interest has been shown in the production of broiler chicks to the age of 10 to 12 weeks. During the late winter and early spring months, difficulties, such as leg weakness have been frequently encountered and remedies, such as cod liver oil, egg yolks, quartz mercury vapor lamp, glass substitutes or direct sunlight have been advocated to provide the antirachitic vitamin, which is necessary to insure success and obtain maximum growth.

Variability in potency, supply and cost of cod liver oil and egg yolks have been limiting factors in their use by the practical ...


The Nesting Habits Of The Hen, Geo. M. Turpin 2017 Iowa State College

The Nesting Habits Of The Hen, Geo. M. Turpin

Bulletin

Suitable nesting equipment is essential for the successful management of laying hens. It should be planned to minimize the labor required in gathering eggs, in keeping nests clean and in supplying suitable nesting material. It is also important that the nests be made attractive and satisfactory to the hens. The tendency of hens to lay their eggs on the poultry house floor, in the poultry yard or in “stolen” nests causes serious losses to poultry keepers. It increases the labor of finding and gathering the eggs; it causes the entire loss of many eggs and a deterioration in the quality ...


Trussing And Boning Chicken For Fancy Trade, W. A. Lippincott 2017 Iowa State College

Trussing And Boning Chicken For Fancy Trade, W. A. Lippincott

Bulletin

A chicken sold on the general market as dressed has been killed, bled and picked. To be in the best condition for keeping it should be killed by piercing the brain with a sharp knife, bled through the mouth by severing the jugular vein, and dry picked. Such a bird is shown in Fig. 1. It is now ready to be transformed from common chicken into an extra fancy product that often retails as high as 50 cents a pound.

The first thing to do in bringing about this transformation is to singe off the hair-like feathers that cannot be ...


Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Broiler Chickens During Transportation Using Heat Index And Simulated Electronic Chickens, Kaushik Luthra

Theses and Dissertations

Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, Broilers experience high physiological stress during pre-slaughter transport, especially under extremes of thermal environment. Characterization of thermal environment on the trailer is crucial to identify stress-prone regions during transportation. At the same time, quantification of heat loss of the broilers loaded on trailers is important in understanding the well-being of the broilers. We have developed four electronic chickens (E-chickens) to simulate the sensible heat loss of live ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Feed And Environmental Factors On Broiler Growth In The United States, Alexandra Gulli 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparative Analysis Of Feed And Environmental Factors On Broiler Growth In The United States, Alexandra Gulli

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler production in the United States has become an important industry within the last half century. As the demand for poultry continues to increase and the concern of climate change also increases, it will become an important part of the industry to become more sustainable. This study uses a feed optimization model, a broiler growth model, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine how feed ingredients and the barn environment can affect the broiler’s growth and production emissions. A multi-criteria ration optimization model is used to produce feeds based on carbon footprint and cost. A growth model is ...


Characterization Of The Thermal Environment During Transport Of Commercial Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of The Thermal Environment During Transport Of Commercial Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge

Theses and Dissertations

Transport of commercial broiler chickens from the farm to the processing plant is perceived to compromise welfare under some circumstances. Research has been conducted using European standard equipment to characterize the environment experienced by poultry during broiler transport. In contrast no studies have been reported on the environment experienced by broilers under United States standard industry practices during transport. Moreover, microenvironment temperatures within industry trailers have not been reported.

The present study characterized the thermal micro-environment experienced by broiler chickens during transport across different seasons. The temperatures were influenced by temperature mitigation practices (plastic wrap, double side board, single side ...


Evaluating The Impact Of An All-Vegetable Protein Supplement Containing Fat Emulsifiers And Probiotics On Broiler Performance, Jordan Weil 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating The Impact Of An All-Vegetable Protein Supplement Containing Fat Emulsifiers And Probiotics On Broiler Performance, Jordan Weil

Theses and Dissertations

Currently, several niche markets, such as organic and “all natural”, are marketed within the poultry industry. However, little research has been undertaken to determine the cost-effectiveness of poultry diets used to produce chicken within these markets. Specifically, the economics and resulting profits associated with raising chicken with antibiotic-free, all-vegetable (AV) diets are not evaluated. As national chain restaurants such as Chick-fil-A and Panera Bread begin to mandate poultry suppliers raise chicken without antibiotics and use AV diets, it becomes increasingly important to evaluate the economics for integrators. Given the rapidly changing feeding strategies necessary to respond to consumers’ and wholesalers ...


Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop 2017 Western Kentucky University

Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Circadian rhythms are commonplace in organisms and are normally controlled by a master clock. More recent evidence suggests that autonomous clocks operate in various systems in the body, including the immune system. This study looks for such a connection between the circadian rhythm and the immune system. In this study, captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to different light and dark cycles and blood samples were taken every six hours. Birds were exposed to 12 hours of light and then 12 hours of darkness (LD), 24 hours of darkness (DD), or 48 hours of DD. After collecting whole blood ...


Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Bone marrow antigen presenting cells (BM-APC), from Fayoumis (disease resistant and heat tolerant) and Leghorn (disease susceptible) chicken lines were evaluated for response to an inflammatory stimulus and heat stress. BM-APC from Fayoumis produced more nitric oxide (NO) and had higher Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II cell surface expression compared to those from Leghorn, indicating that BM-APC studied in vitro may be a useful tool to evaluate molecular effects of disease and/or heat tolerance in chickens.


Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Body Temperature, Body Weight, Breast Yield, And Digestibility In An Advanced Intercross Line Of Chickens Under Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Kevin J. Bolek, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Body Temperature, Body Weight, Breast Yield, And Digestibility In An Advanced Intercross Line Of Chickens Under Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Kevin J. Bolek, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Background: Losses in poultry production due to heat stress have considerable negative economic consequences. Previous studies in poultry have elucidated a genetic influence on response to heat. Using a unique chicken genetic resource, we identified genomic regions associated with body temperature (BT), body weight (BW), breast yield, and digestibility measured during heat stress. Identifying genes associated with a favorable response during high ambient temperature can facilitate genetic selection of heat-resilient chickens. Methods: Generations F18 and F19 of a broiler (heat-susceptible) × Fayoumi (heat-resistant) advanced intercross line (AIL) were used to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Six hundred and thirty-one birds were ...


Transcriptome Response To Heat Stress In A Chicken Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, Liang Sun, Susan J. Lamont, Amanda M. Cooksey, Fiona M. McCarthy, Catalina O. Tudor, K. Vijay-Shanker, Rachael M. DeRita, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt 2017 University of Delaware

Transcriptome Response To Heat Stress In A Chicken Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, Liang Sun, Susan J. Lamont, Amanda M. Cooksey, Fiona M. Mccarthy, Catalina O. Tudor, K. Vijay-Shanker, Rachael M. Derita, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Carl J. Schmidt

Susan J. Lamont

Heat stress triggers an evolutionarily conserved set of responses in cells. The transcriptome responds to hyperthermia by altering expression of genes to adapt the cell or organism to survive the heat challenge. RNA-seq technology allows rapid identification of environmentally responsive genes on a large scale. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify heat stress responsive genes in the chicken male white leghorn hepatocellular (LMH) cell line. The transcripts of 812 genes were responsive to heat stress (p < 0.01) with 235 genes upregulated and 577 downregulated following 2.5 h of heat stress. Among the upregulated were genes whose products function as chaperones, along with genes affecting collagen synthesis and deposition, transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and genes modulating the WNT and TGF-beta pathways. Predominant among the downregulated genes were ones that affect DNA replication and repair along with chromosomal segregation. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously implicated in the heat stress response. These data extend our understanding of the transcriptome response to heat stress with many of the identified biological processes and pathways likely to function in adapting cells and organisms to hyperthermic stress. Furthermore, this study should provide important insight to future efforts attempting to improve species abilities to withstand heat stress through genome-wide association studies and breeding.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Identification ofspecific geneor quantitative trait locus that responds to specific stimulus is an important goal for genetic improvementprograms. In a heat stress experiment with 3 distinct chicken lines, we found Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) to be differentially expressed in all 3 lines during acute and chronic heat stress.This outcome suggests the need to further exploreANGPTL4 as a potential candidate gene for selection to improve chicken response to heat stress.


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