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Effects Of A Noni-Supplemented Diet On Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins And Stress Biomarkers In Heat-Stressed Broiler Chickens, Guillermo Tellez 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of A Noni-Supplemented Diet On Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins And Stress Biomarkers In Heat-Stressed Broiler Chickens, Guillermo Tellez

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Heat stress hampers gut health by impeding its ability to absorb nutrients which leads to a lower feed efficiency and sicker birds. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify mechanism-based strategies to alleviate these effects. Polynesian poultry farmers have been supplementing broiler feed with Morinda Citrifolia (Noni), a medicinal plant high in anti-oxidants, to address this problem. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-supplementation on the expression of tight junction proteins. Male Broilers (Cobb 500, 3 wks, n=480) were subjected to 2 environmental conditions (TN, 24°C vs. HS ...


Mechanistic Understanding Of Leaky Gut Syndrome In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Jennifer Hoover 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mechanistic Understanding Of Leaky Gut Syndrome In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Jennifer Hoover

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Broilers, meat-type chickens, are bred for high growth rate and meat yield. These chickens have specific challenges due to heat stress. The adverse effects that impact these chickens have lead us to study the mechanisms involved. The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression of genes involved in intestinal permeability of heat- stressed broiler chickens. All analyses are on previously collected tissues. A total of 600 one day old Cobb 500 male chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers. Ambient temperature in the chambers was gradually decreased from 32˚C on d 1 to ...


Effect Of Dietary Spirulina Platensis On Stress Levels And Growth Of Female Broiler Chickens, Victoria Tarkington 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Dietary Spirulina Platensis On Stress Levels And Growth Of Female Broiler Chickens, Victoria Tarkington

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study measured the effects of dietary Spirulina platensis supplementation on heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, footpad lesions, and growth performance parameters. One hundred and eighty Ross 708 broiler females were randomly divided evenly into fifteen pens with three dietary treatments for a total of five replications per treatment (twelve birds per replicate) for five weeks. The different treatments were a control diet of 20% crude protein, a diet of 17% crude protein, and a diet of 17% crude protein with 10% S. platensis added to the feed. Body weight, feed intake, and mortality rate was not significantly different between treatments ...


Utah's Own Habitat Guidelines For Sage-Grouse, David K. Dahlgren, Michel Kohl, Eric Thacker, S. Nicole Frey, Terry Messmer 2020 Utah State University

Utah's Own Habitat Guidelines For Sage-Grouse, David K. Dahlgren, Michel Kohl, Eric Thacker, S. Nicole Frey, Terry Messmer

All Current Publications

Those living and working within western North America’s sagebrush landscapes have most likely been exposed to sage-grouse issues for many years now and may have felt anxiety concerning the potential impacts that could result from implementing conservation measures designed to help this iconic species persist. Society’s challenge to seek the delicate balance between the conservation of nature and the growth related to human endeavors exemplifies the need to use the best available science as we move forward. Representative information, especially at the landscape level related to sage-grouse, has been hard to come by. However, due to the vast ...


The North American Swans: Their Biology And Conservation, Paul Johnsgard 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Swans: Their Biology And Conservation, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Among birds, swans are relatively long-lived species and are also among the most strongly monogamous, having prolonged pair and family bonds that strongly influence their reproductive and general social behavior, which, in combination with their beauty and elegance, contribute to the overall high degree of worldwide human interest in them. This volume of more than 59,000 words describes the distributions, ecology, social behavior, and breeding biologies of the four species of swans that breed or have historically bred in North America, including the native trumpeter and tundra swans, the introduced mute swan, and the marginally occurring whooper swan. Also ...


Haplotype-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies For Carcass And Growth Traits In Chicken, Hui Zhang, Lin-Yong Shen, Zi-Chun Xu, Luke M. Kramer, Jia-Qiang Yu, Xin-Yang Zhang, Wei Na, Li-Li Yang, Zhi-Ping Cao, Peng Luan, James M. Reecy, Hui Li 2020 Northeast Agricultural University

Haplotype-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies For Carcass And Growth Traits In Chicken, Hui Zhang, Lin-Yong Shen, Zi-Chun Xu, Luke M. Kramer, Jia-Qiang Yu, Xin-Yang Zhang, Wei Na, Li-Li Yang, Zhi-Ping Cao, Peng Luan, James M. Reecy, Hui Li

Animal Science Publications

There have been several genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported for carcass, growth, and meat traits in chickens. Most of these studies have been based on single SNPs GWAS. In contrast, haplotype-based GWAS reports have been limited. In the present study, 2 Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF) and genotyped with the chicken 60K SNP chip were used to perform a haplotype-based GWAS. The lean and fat chicken lines were selected for abdominal fat content for 11 yr. Abdominal fat weight was significantly different between the 2 lines; however, there was no difference for body ...


"Ex-Ovo Chicken Culturing: The Effect Ethanol And Vessel Shape Have On The Development Of The Chick Embryo", Tyson Kauffman, Margot Coomes 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

"Ex-Ovo Chicken Culturing: The Effect Ethanol And Vessel Shape Have On The Development Of The Chick Embryo", Tyson Kauffman, Margot Coomes

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Scientists have been growing chicks outside of eggshells (ex-ovo) for decades. Our goal is to use the chick embryo model to serve as a platform for testing the ability of tissue engineering scaffolds to support blood vessel innervation for sustaining growth after implantation. While growing chick embryos ex-ovo, we noted a failure in closure of the midline of the chick which we now refer to as a ventral body wall deformation (VBWD). Within this study, we propose a hypothesis to the cause of the VBWD being seen in the chick embryos which we are culturing within ex ovo culture vessels ...


Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney 2020 University of Montana

Effects Of Slope Upon Hind Limb Kinematics In Chukar Partridge (Alectoris Chukar), Anna T. Kenney

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Ground dwelling birds must scale all kinds of complex terrain in order to survive in their natural environments. For instance, Alectoris chukar live on steep hillsides with slopes of up to 60° or 172.3% slope. We undertook the present study to improve understanding of how birds successfully traverse such complex terrain. Using a high speed camera, we analyzed the hind limb kinematics of chukars during normal locomotion on a 10° and 35° incline, decline, and level slope. We compared the data collected from the video recordings, which we had used to identify and digitize the bony landmarks, between all ...


Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell 2020 University of Kentucky

Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The commercial production of pasture and free-range eggs in the United States is expanding rapidly. According to the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Management Assistance, in May of 2019 there were 2.6M pasture hens and 4.5M free-range hens representing 1.9% of the nation’s laying flock. There is little industry and/or academic experience with this style of production in the United States. Programs such as the European Layer Training Initiative (ELTI), which emerged in 2019, have tried to fill this void but participation from the US was low. The principal sources for guidance of commercial ...


Incorporation Of Hempseed In The Broiler Chicken Diet, Mallorie Alexzandra Snider 2020 Murray State University

Incorporation Of Hempseed In The Broiler Chicken Diet, Mallorie Alexzandra Snider

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Hempseed has become a popular supplement alternative due to the confounding nutritional benefits it possesses; however, the legality of hempseed, and other hemp products, prevents the use in animal feeds. Particularly, broiler chickens that grow fairly quickly in a short amount of time. Evaluation of hempseed in the broiler chicken diet is needed to conclude if it is a possible replacement for other broiler nutrient sources, such as soybean meal (SBM). Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hempseed (HS) on the growth, feed conversion and carcass yield of broilers. This study consisted of 48 ...


Evaluating Inorganic Feed Phosphate Type And Further Potential Of Phytase Supplementation Using A Commercial Broiler Model, Angela Elsie Lamp 2020 West Virginia University

Evaluating Inorganic Feed Phosphate Type And Further Potential Of Phytase Supplementation Using A Commercial Broiler Model, Angela Elsie Lamp

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Optimizing feed formulation of poultry diets may be achieved by proper utilization of nutrients and feed additives. This will provide a less expensive and nutrient efficient diet to the bird. An experiment was conducted to evaluate early broiler performance, tibia mineralization, and mineral digestibility of broilers fed diets that differed in inorganic feed phosphates (IFP) but that were formulated to be either similar in dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) and calcium to phosphorus ratio (Ca:P), total mineral content, or calculated prececal digestible phosphorus (CPDP). Dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monodicalcium phosphate (MDP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and defluorinated phosphate were used in formulations ...


Extreme Offspring Ornamentation In American Coots Is Favored By Selection Within Families, Not Benefits To Conspecific Brood Parasites, Bruce E. Lyon, Daizaburo Shizuka 2020 University of California, Santa Cruz

Extreme Offspring Ornamentation In American Coots Is Favored By Selection Within Families, Not Benefits To Conspecific Brood Parasites, Bruce E. Lyon, Daizaburo Shizuka

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Offspring ornamentation typically occurs in taxa with parental care, suggesting that selection arising from social interactions between parents and offspring may underlie signal evolution. American coot babies are among the most ornamented offspring found in nature, sporting vividly orange-red natal plumage, a bright red beak, and other red parts around the face and pate. Previous plumage manipulation experiments showed that ornamented plumage is favored by strong parental choice for chicks with more extreme ornamentation but left unresolved the question as to why parents show the preference. Here we explore natural patterns of variation in coot chick plumage color, both within ...


Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington

Theses and Dissertations

Trace minerals, particularly copper, zinc and manganese, play a role in ensuring optimal immune function. To examine the effects of diets containing different levels and sources of trace minerals on the inflammatory response, Cobb 500 broilers were fed four experimental diets containing 5 mg/kg Cu and 45 mg/kg of Zn and Mn or 10 mg/kg Cu and 90 mg/kg Zn and Mn in either the sulfate or hydroxychloride form. When the broilers were 5 weeks of age, 16 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the pulp of growing feathers (GF; 16 GF per chicken; 1 ...


Coccidiosis Vaccination And Nutrient Utilization In Broiler Chickens, Alyson Elaine Gautier 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Coccidiosis Vaccination And Nutrient Utilization In Broiler Chickens, Alyson Elaine Gautier

Theses and Dissertations

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the interrelationships among coccidiosis vaccination and nutrient utilization in floor-reared broiler chickens. Experiment 1 longitudinally compared the effects of coccidiosis vaccination and a chemical coccidiostat on broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology. Coccidiosis vaccination had no significant impact on morphology, overall body weight gain and feed intake of vaccinated birds, although vaccination impaired overall FCR. Vaccination elicited a transient reduction in digestibility of energy and nutrients, particularly for lipids, but vaccinated birds were able to recover from these reductions by 20 d. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of vaccination in digestibility of different ...


Investigating Growth Performance And Intestinal Barrier Integrity In Heat-Stressed Modern Broilers And Their Ancestor Jungle Fowl, Travis Tabler 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Growth Performance And Intestinal Barrier Integrity In Heat-Stressed Modern Broilers And Their Ancestor Jungle Fowl, Travis Tabler

Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) has a negative effect on poultry production sustainability due to its adverse consequence on bird welfare, health, growth, and mortality. Although modern broilers have greater gut mass and higher energy use efficiency than unselected birds, they are more vulnerable to HS that induces “leaky gut syndrome,” or increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of HS on growth performance and gut barrier integrity in three modern broiler lines and their ancestor the Jungle Fowl. Four chicken populations including Giant Jungle Fowl (JF), Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), 1995 Arkansas Random ...


The Efficacy Of Litter Management Strategies To Prevent Morbidity And Mortality In Broiler Chickens: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Dapeng Hu, Catherine M. Logue, Shannon Meadows, Carly Moody, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Yuko Sato, Chong Wang, Charlotte B. Winder 2019 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Litter Management Strategies To Prevent Morbidity And Mortality In Broiler Chickens: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Dapeng Hu, Catherine M. Logue, Shannon Meadows, Carly Moody, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Yuko Sato, Chong Wang, Charlotte B. Winder

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of litter management strategies to reduce morbidity, mortality, condemnation at slaughter, or total antibiotic use in broilers?’ Eligible studies were clinical trials published in English evaluating the efficacy of litter management in broilers on morbidity, condemnations at slaughter, mortality, or total antibiotic use. Multiple databases and two conference proceedings were searched for relevant literature. After relevance screening and data extraction, there were 50 trials evaluating litter type, 22 trials evaluating litter additives, 10 trials comparing fresh to re-used litter, and six trials evaluating ...


Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in poultry research continue to add knowledge and understanding to an already technical industry. Such information has led to new developments in early feeding strategies which provide nutrients to broiler chicks while in the egg or during transport. This wealth of knowledge in poultry research extends beyond chickens and is utilized for other species, such as quail and pheasants, including how fertile eggs are stored and incubated. However, methods of early feeding broilers have not been investigated in industry relevant approaches to understand its effects, including how timing of feed access interacts with the hatch window. As well, quail ...


The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Control Colibacillosis In Broiler Poultry: A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Catherine M. Logue, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Charlotte B. Winder 2019 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Control Colibacillosis In Broiler Poultry: A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Catherine M. Logue, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Charlotte B. Winder

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics to prevent or control colibacillosis in broilers. Studies found eligible were conducted controlled trials in broilers that evaluated an antibiotic intervention, with at least one of the following outcomes: mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), condemnations at slaughter, or total antibiotic use. Four electronic databases plus the gray literature were searched. Abstracts were screened for eligibility and data were extracted from eligible trials. Risk of bias was evaluated.

Seven trials reported eligible outcomes in a format that allowed data extraction; all reported results for FCR and one also ...


Vultures And Kites From Marala Wetlands, Zahid Bhatti, Fida Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Asif Gondal 2019 Center for Bioresource Research (CBR), Islamabad, Pakistan

Vultures And Kites From Marala Wetlands, Zahid Bhatti, Fida Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Asif Gondal

Journal of Bioresource Management

The family Accipitridae consists of approximately 254 known living species that include eagles, hawks, vultures and kites. Forty species from this family are extant in Pakistan, of which 24 are resident. Only six species from the Accipitridae family were observed at Marala Head; Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Pariha Kite (Milvus migrans), White-Backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus), Shikra (Accipiter badius) and Black-Winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus). The highest number of any species from this family observed was of Gyps bengalensis (23) in December. Elanus caeruleus was the most sparsely populated species observed at the study site. No specific study ...


"Our Trip...Will Long Be Remembered:" Following The Trail Of A Bird Watching Road Tri, Erin Anderson, Amy Bishop 2019 Iowa State University

"Our Trip...Will Long Be Remembered:" Following The Trail Of A Bird Watching Road Tri, Erin Anderson, Amy Bishop

Special Collections Exhibit Catalogs

This exhibition is somewhat non-traditional in its subject matter and approach. It does not cover a major global or regional event or explore the life of someone famous. This is the story of two friends on an adventure, and it is a story that, as with much archival research, required disparate pieces to be assembled.


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