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Algae-Based Feed Ingredient Protects Intestinal Health During Eimeria Challenge And Alters Systemic Immune Responses With Differential Outcomes Observed During Acute Feed Restriction, K. Fries-Craft, M. M. Meyer, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2021 Iowa State University

Algae-Based Feed Ingredient Protects Intestinal Health During Eimeria Challenge And Alters Systemic Immune Responses With Differential Outcomes Observed During Acute Feed Restriction, K. Fries-Craft, M. M. Meyer, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Compounds in microalgae-derived feed ingredients in poultry diets may improve intestinal physiology and immunity to protect against damage induced by physiological and pathogen challenges, but mechanisms are examined sparingly. The study objective was to evaluate changes to intestinal morphology, permeability, and systemic immunity in broilers fed a proprietary microalgae ingredient during 2 separate challenge studies. In study 1, two replicate 28 d battery cage trials used 200 Ross 308 broilers each (n = 400) fed a control diet ± 0.175% algae ingredient. Half of the birds were subjected to a 12 h feed restriction challenge and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) intestinal ...


Reckless Parenting With A Purpose, Walter H. Piper, Linda Grenzer 2021 Chapman University

Reckless Parenting With A Purpose, Walter H. Piper, Linda Grenzer

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

No abstract provided.


Understanding Corn Variability, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Understanding Corn Variability, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Corn is the most common feed ingredient used in poultry nutrition. Maize contributes with up to 65% of the metabolizable energy and 20% of crude protein in poultry diets (Gehring et al., 2013; Dei, 2017). Its average nutritional value is well-known, but it is accepted that the variability in its composition and energy value is a very common issue with great impact on poultry performance and health (Cowieson, 2005; Gehring et al., 2013; Latham et al., 2016; Montanhini-Neto et al., 2017). Corn variability affects growth, feed conversion, flock uniformity, digestibility, AMEn, digesta viscosity, gut microbiota composition, intestinal health, and efficacy ...


Assessing Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids To Achieve Linear Programming Goals Through Model Extrapolation And Empirical Research, Craig W. Maynard, Ed E. Gbur, Vinh-Loi Ly, Minh-Duc Le, Thi H. Ngan Le Jr, Justina Caldas, Michael T. Kidd 2021 University of Arkansas

Assessing Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids To Achieve Linear Programming Goals Through Model Extrapolation And Empirical Research, Craig W. Maynard, Ed E. Gbur, Vinh-Loi Ly, Minh-Duc Le, Thi H. Ngan Le Jr, Justina Caldas, Michael T. Kidd

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Renewed interest, especially in the United States, has sparked in assessing branched-chain amino acid interactions in practical diets for broilers. Indeed, as L-valine enters formulation bird nitrogen excesses are reduced as diet protein falls to the new first limiting amino acid (e.g., isoleucine, arginine, or tryptophan). For a United States based example, the result is less oilseeds and more gains, which typically result in increased inclusions in corn or corn by-products, coupled with a concomitant increase in dietary leucine. The proceedings outline the foundations of the branched-chain amino acid early research, antagonism studies, and a meta-analysis conducted on publications ...


Sustaining Competitiveness In Times Of Uncertainty And Volatility: A Latin American Perspective, Antonio Kalinowski 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sustaining Competitiveness In Times Of Uncertainty And Volatility: A Latin American Perspective, Antonio Kalinowski

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The poultry industry has dominated the dynamic livestock sector in Latin America during the last decades, doubling production in the last 20 years (Williams and Anderson, 2019). In the future, poultry production in the region is expected to grow at almost twice the annual global rate: 2.5% and 4.0%, respectively. The rapid expansion of the industry has been fueled by the growing consumer demand for chicken meat and eggs, given its price competitiveness and culinary preference in most Latin American countries. Per capita chicken consumption is among the highest in the world (on average ca. 30 kg/person ...


Amino Acid Responses In Conventional And Slow Growing Broilers, Alex Corzo, Marcelo Silva 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Amino Acid Responses In Conventional And Slow Growing Broilers, Alex Corzo, Marcelo Silva

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Conventional and slow-growing broilers are both quite responsive to dietary amino acids. However, when reducing dietary balanced protein (BP), the change in rate of gain on the slower-growing broilers results in a growth curve that is not as steep as it would be if using the current conventional broiler. Amino acid supply and balance, in combination with manipulation of dietary energy density, could enable customers to achieve the desired rate of gain when using slow-growing broilers, depending on the Global Animal Partnership or other certification level the integrator is aiming for.


Heat Damage, Maillard Reactions, And Measurement Of Reactive Lysine In Feed Ingredients And Diets, Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Charmaine D. Espinosa, Hans H. Stein 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Heat Damage, Maillard Reactions, And Measurement Of Reactive Lysine In Feed Ingredients And Diets, Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Charmaine D. Espinosa, Hans H. Stein

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Feed cost represents 70% of the total cost of poultry and pork production (Patience et al., 2015); therefore, a number of processing techniques have been developed to maximize utilization of nutrients in feed ingredients and diets for optimum animal growth performance. Oilseed meals are commonly exposed to varying degrees of heat to remove solvents used during oil extraction, increase nutrient digestibility, improve storage life, and to reduce anti-nutritional factors (Liener, 1994; Rehman and Shah, 2005; Goebel and Stein, 2011). Heat is also applied in the production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from dry grind ethanol facilities during the ...


Practical Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, David J. Burnham 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Practical Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, David J. Burnham

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Modern meat chicken breeding stock have been selected for extremely efficient conversion of feed into protein and rapid growth. As a result, it has become increasingly more difficult to rear pullets and breeders to achieve the healthy chick numbers needed to supply the ever-expanding poultry meat market. There are many factors involved in producing a healthy pullet and breeder chicken. These include; housing, lighting, temperature and air control, health, animal husbandry, feed management and nutrition. This presentation is titled, Practical Pullet and Breeder Nutrition. Feed nutrient composition is important, but feed management is critical to make the nutrition effective. The ...


Dietary Fiber From Crude To Refined: Unraveling Its Value On Animal Performance, Gilson Gomes, Tara York, Xavière Rousseau 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dietary Fiber From Crude To Refined: Unraveling Its Value On Animal Performance, Gilson Gomes, Tara York, Xavière Rousseau

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Fiber, although a simple five letter word, is like an onion. It is only once you begin to peel back the layers that you discover the complexity within. As nutritionists we are used to thinking in terms of ‘crude fiber’, but as we move into a world without antibiotics and the need to sometimes select alternative ingredients, we are now beginning to separate fiber into its chemical components and functional properties. To understand the functional properties, such as solubility and fermentability, we first need to ensure we can accurately measure the chemical composition of fiber for a wide variety of ...


Free Fatty Acid Removal From Oil Using Magnetic Nanoparticles, Daniel Sabo 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Free Fatty Acid Removal From Oil Using Magnetic Nanoparticles, Daniel Sabo

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Unprocessed crude oils consist of some amount of triglycerides as well as free fatty acids (FFAs). FFAs are virtually absent in oils from living tissue. They are formed by enzymatic action after the animal has been slaughtered. Hydrolysis of ester bonds in lipids, which results in the formation of FFA from the triglycerides, may be caused by enzymatic action, heat, or moisture. This release of short-chain fatty acids is the reason for rancid flavor and odor. Furthermore, the presence of FFAs can self-catalyze and release more FFAs from triglycerides. FFAs are susceptible to oxidation, which leads to oxidative rancidity. This ...


Nutrition And Coccidiosis, Po-Yun Teng, Fernanda Castro, Woo Kyun Kim 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Nutrition And Coccidiosis, Po-Yun Teng, Fernanda Castro, Woo Kyun Kim

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Coccidiosis is the most common parasitic disease caused by Eimeria spp., leading to over $14 billion economic loss worldwide annually. The most prevalent Eimeria spp. in poultry include E. tenella, E. maxima, E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. necatrix, E. praecox, and E. mitis and have different level of pathogenicity and specific infection sites in the intestine. Eimeria spp. invade intestinal epithelial tissues and induce intestinal damage, causing inflammation, oxidative stress, hemorrhage, and diarrhea. Furthermore, coccidiosis causes reduction of growth performance, intestinal integrity, nutrient digestibility, and increase of mortality and mobility in poultry. Nutrition strategies have been evaluated to mitigate detrimental ...


Every Part Of Yeast Is The Best Part, Matthieu Baulez, Bruno Bertaud, Lisa Saibi 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Every Part Of Yeast Is The Best Part, Matthieu Baulez, Bruno Bertaud, Lisa Saibi

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Yeasts are single-cell, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the fungi kingdom. They are generally around 10μm in size, have a nuclear membrane, a cell wall, and a cytoplasmic content. Yeasts are characterized as heterotrophs, which means they rely on organic material as sources of energy and nutrients. Not all yeasts are equal. There are about 60 genera and about 1,500 species of yeasts. Only a few are used commercially. Thanks to its exceptional fermentative capacities and nutritional properties, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main yeast used in food, beverage and baking as well as in animal nutrition. The main types of ...


Mineral Nutrition In Broilers: Where Are We At?, Rick J. Kleyn, Mariana Ciacciariello 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mineral Nutrition In Broilers: Where Are We At?, Rick J. Kleyn, Mariana Ciacciariello

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Mineral nutrition remains an essential consideration for broiler nutritionists. The complex interactions between different minerals sources, other ingredients, and the broiler itself, coupled with their relatively low costs, have led to the current status of elevated levels of minerals in broiler diets. New perspectives on sustainability have brought about a rethink of the way we formulate practical diets. There are considerable opportunities for reducing macro minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, particularly for older birds. Our understanding of attaining an ideal dietary cation-anion balance is confused by the lack of clarity in measuring the balance and the bird’s ability ...


Parasite Infections In Poultry Environments (Case Report On Gallus Domesticus Endoparasite), Phebe Amadea Tanuwijaya, David Febraldo 2021 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Parasite Infections In Poultry Environments (Case Report On Gallus Domesticus Endoparasite), Phebe Amadea Tanuwijaya, David Febraldo

Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development

Infection of nematode and cestode worms in chickens can cause decreased egg production, weight loss, growth problems, weakness. The objective of this case study is to look at how an epidemiological approach, clinical symptoms, anatomical pathology investigation, and laboratory testing might help with disease diagnosis. The chicken was found from Banjar Tanggahan Tengah, Bangli, Bali with the type of native chicken (Gallus domesticus), at least 3 months old with the protocol number 369 / N / 20. Samples taken were brain, trachea, lungs, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, proventriculus, intestines, and feces. Laboratory examinations carried out include histopathology, microbiology, and parasitology. The results ...


Neurotranscriptomic Changes Associated With Chick-Directed Parental Care In Adult Non-Reproductive Japanese Quail, Patricia C. Lopes, Robert de Brujin 2021 Chapman University

Neurotranscriptomic Changes Associated With Chick-Directed Parental Care In Adult Non-Reproductive Japanese Quail, Patricia C. Lopes, Robert De Brujin

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

For many species, parental care critically affects offspring survival. But what drives animals to display parental behaviours towards young? In mammals, pregnancy-induced physiological transformations seem key in preparing the neural circuits that lead towards attraction (and reduced-aggression) to young. Beyond mammalian maternal behaviour, knowledge of the neural mechanisms that underlie young-directed parental care is severely lacking. We took advantage of a domesticated bird species, the Japanese quail, for which parental behaviour towards chicks can be induced in virgin non-reproductive adults through a sensitization procedure, a process that is not effective in all animals. We used the variation in parental responses ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


Effects Of Lactobacillus Reuteri And Streptomyces Coelicolor On Growth Performance Of Broiler Chickens, Sarayu Bhogoju, Collins N. Khwatenge, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden, Gabriel Oluwamuyiwa Akerele, Boniface M. Kimathi, Joseph Donkor, Samuel N. Nahashon 2021 Tennessee State University

Effects Of Lactobacillus Reuteri And Streptomyces Coelicolor On Growth Performance Of Broiler Chickens, Sarayu Bhogoju, Collins N. Khwatenge, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden, Gabriel Oluwamuyiwa Akerele, Boniface M. Kimathi, Joseph Donkor, Samuel N. Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

There are well documented complications associated with the continuous use of antibiotics in the poultry industry. Over the past few decades, probiotics have emerged as viable alternatives to antibiotics; however, most of these candidate probiotic microorganisms have not been fully evaluated for their effectiveness as potential probiotics for poultry. Recent evaluation of a metagenome of broiler chickens in our laboratory revealed a prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) and Actinobacteria class of bacteria in their gastrointestinal tract. In this study Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) were selected as probiotic bacteria, encapsulated, and added into broiler feed at a ...


Comparison Of Naturally Occurring Vs. Experimental Infection Of Staphylococcus Aureus Septicemia In Laying Hens In Two Different Age Groups, Meaghan Meyer, Elizabeth Bobeck, Yuko Sato, Mohamed El-Gazzar 2021 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Naturally Occurring Vs. Experimental Infection Of Staphylococcus Aureus Septicemia In Laying Hens In Two Different Age Groups, Meaghan Meyer, Elizabeth Bobeck, Yuko Sato, Mohamed El-Gazzar

Animal Science Publications

In April and November of 2018, multiple commercial laying hen flocks within the same company presented with a sharp increase in mortality and drop in egg production that persisted for several days. These flocks showed striking necropsy lesions consistent with systemic infection and responded to antimicrobial treatment in the feed. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) was the most frequently isolated organism from multiple tissues including comb and wattle lesions, lungs, liver, ovary, spleen, and bone marrow. Given such an uncommon presentation of SA, which is known as a secondary opportunistic pathogen, a challenge study was conducted to evaluate its role in these ...


Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system health is an important aspect of broiler production, especially with the reduction of the use of antibiotics. Nutritional aspects, like crude protein percentage, and natural alternatives to antibiotics are being investigated to see the effect they have on immunity. Spirulina is an alternative proteinaceous ingredient that producers are looking into, not only due to its high nutritional value, but also its immune boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein diet (LCP) and a Spirulina-supplemented low crude protein (LCP-SP) diet on broiler blood cell measurements, including, concentrations and proportions ...


Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels

Accounting Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the summer of 2019, I, along with 8 other students from the University of Arkansas departed the United States for the Central American country of Belize. Despite our limited knowledge of what Belize held in store for us, we were enthusiastic about the coming months. While we had different projects, we all set out with the same universal question in mind. How can we use the knowledge we have gained through education to make a positive impact on the lives of people living in an impoverished town? Some of the members of our team worked alongside local businesses to ...


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