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The Effects Of Zinc Supplementation From Two Sources On Egg Quality And Bone Health In Laying Hens, Kelli Marie Martin 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Zinc Supplementation From Two Sources On Egg Quality And Bone Health In Laying Hens, Kelli Marie Martin

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objective of this study was to compare zinc sources and levels of supplementation on laying hen performance. Bovan White Leghorn hens were fed one of six dietary treatments in a 2x3 factorial arrangement consisting of two zinc sources (Availa®Zn or zinc sulfate) and three levels (40, 80, or 120 ppm). Treatments were randomly assigned to 48 cages with five hens/cage. Blocks provided eight replicates/treatment. Hens were housed in a tiered manure belt housing system providing 97.2 cm2/hen. Hens were given 110 g/hen/day of feed ad libitum. Feed intake, egg production, egg ...


The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The eight currently recognized species of North American geese are part of a familiar group of birds collectively called waterfowl, all of which are smaller than swans and generally larger than ducks. They include the most popular of our aquatic gamebirds, with several million shot each year by sport hunters. Our two most abundant waterfowl, the Canada goose and snow goose, have populations collectively totaling about 15 million individuals. Like swans, the lifelong pairbonding of geese, their familial care, and prolonged social attachment to their offspring are legendary. Their seasonal migratory flights sometimes span thousands of miles, and the sight ...


Bone-Associated Gene Evolution And The Origin Of Flight In Birds, Joao P. Machado, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes 2016 Universidade do Porto - Portugal

Bone-Associated Gene Evolution And The Origin Of Flight In Birds, Joao P. Machado, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

Background

Bones have been subjected to considerable selective pressure throughout vertebrate evolution, such as occurred during the adaptations associated with the development of powered flight. Powered flight evolved independently in two extant clades of vertebrates, birds and bats. While this trait provided advantages such as in aerial foraging habits, escape from predators or long-distance travels, it also imposed great challenges, namely in the bone structure.

Results

We performed comparative genomic analyses of 89 bone-associated genes from 47 avian genomes (including 45 new), 39 mammalian, and 20 reptilian genomes, and demonstrate that birds, after correcting for multiple testing, have an almost ...


Cfd Model For Ventilation In Broiler Holding Sheds, Christian Heymsfield 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cfd Model For Ventilation In Broiler Holding Sheds, Christian Heymsfield

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Broiler production in Arkansas was valued at over $3.6 billion in 2013 (University of Arkansas Extension of Agriculture). Consequently, improvement in any phase of the production process can have significant economic impact and animal welfare implications. From the time poultry leave the farm and until they are slaughtered, they can be exposed to harsh environmental conditions, both in winter and in summer. After road transportation, birds are left to wait in holding sheds once they arrive at the processing plant, for periods of approximately 30 minutes to two hours. This project was interested in this holding shed waiting time ...


Population And Morphological Changes In American Kestrels Through Space And Time, Teresa E. Ely 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Population And Morphological Changes In American Kestrels Through Space And Time, Teresa E. Ely

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

A once common raptor, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) has experienced population declines in the last two decades throughout North America. Many hypotheses exist about the decline, including mortality from West Nile virus, rodenticide poisoning, climate change, an increase in predators, and core habitat loss or degradation, which could influence food availability. Food availability is key to raptor survival and reproduction, and changes in food availability throughout the year can have lifelong effects on size and body condition. Here we examine how morphology, specifically mass and wing chord, has changed at seven migration sites throughout North America as kestrel populations ...


Is Diet Selection By Greater Sage-Grouse Influenced By Biomass Availability Or Toxins?, Jacqueline Peña, Marcella Fremgen 2016 Boise State University

Is Diet Selection By Greater Sage-Grouse Influenced By Biomass Availability Or Toxins?, Jacqueline Peña, Marcella Fremgen

McNair Scholars Research Journal

Foraging herbivores must meet nutritional requirements by not only finding enough plant biomass to consume, but also finding plants with high protein content and low concentrations of potentially toxic plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) are sagebrush obligate herbivores that consume relatively high concentrations of PSMs. To meet their nutritional needs and avoid ingesting high amounts of PSMs, sage-grouse may select species of sagebrush for food that have lower concentrations of PSMs than a more abundant species with higher concentration of PSMs. Diet selection by sage-grouse may also be driven by chemical factors at finer scales ...


Avifaunal Community Composition In A Tropical Forest Corridor: A Case Study From The Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Don Jones 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Avifaunal Community Composition In A Tropical Forest Corridor: A Case Study From The Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Don Jones

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bird communities in tropical forest ecosystems are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. Replanted corridors connecting isolated forest remnants are a popular method of ameliorating certain negative impacts of habitat fragmentation. Such linkages can theoretically facilitate greater dispersal, increase gene flow, and reduce the risk of local extinctions in forest birds. However, relatively few studies have examined the utilization of reforested corridors by birds, and little hard data exists to support claims that this type of resource and time intensive project is the best use of often scarce funding for conservation. This study examined the avifaunal community present in ...


Density And Abundance Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore 2016 Iowa State University

Density And Abundance Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore

Tyler Harms

A decrease in wetland habitats throughout North America has caused a decline in populations of marsh birds. The objective of this study was to estimate population densities and abundances of secretive marsh birds in Iowa. Call-broadcast surveys were conducted in conjunction with distance sampling for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in three regions of Iowa during 2009 and 2010. Regions were defined by observed microhabitat characteristics which also corresponded to physiographic regions. Region-specific density estimates were obtained using Program Distance for four species of marsh birds for which sufficient detections existed (Pied-billed Grebe [Podilymbus podiceps], Least Bittern [Ixobrychus ...


Gene Expression Response To Heat Stress In Two Broiler Lines, Jibin Zhang, Carl Schmidt, Susan Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Response To Heat Stress In Two Broiler Lines, Jibin Zhang, Carl Schmidt, Susan Lamont

Jibin Zhang

The fast growth rate and increased body weight of modern broilers makes them susceptible to heart failure and sensitive to heat stress. To find the genetic causes of these problems, gene expression was measured in hearts of two broiler lines that differed in their response to heat stress. Each line was separated into two groups that were kept under heat stress or at ambient temperature. The comparison of gene expression between the two lines and heat treatments suggests that expression of 325 genes were significantly changed in modern broilers under heat stress, while only 3 genes changed their expression in ...


Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa Monson, Michael Kaiser, Susan Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa Monson, Michael Kaiser, Susan Lamont

Melissa Monson

Colonization levels in five tissues after avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) inoculation were investigated in chickens to generate phenotypic data for a genome wide association study (GWAS). Bacterial loads were measured in 370 birds and varied among individuals and tissues. Mean bacterial levels were significantly different between tissues (right lung > spleen > left lung and liver > blood). There were also significant correlations in bacterial load between tissues. These data suggest that colonization levels could be used as phenotypes in GWAS and could help identify markers associated with poultry resistance to APEC infections. After verification, these markers could be used for genetic ...


Swans: Their Biology And Natural History, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Swans: Their Biology And Natural History, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The seven species of swans of the world are an easily and universally recognized group of waterfowl, which have historically played important roles in the folklore, myths and legends in many of the world’s cultures. Among the largest of all flying birds, they have also almost universally been used as symbols of royalty, grace and beauty, and largely for these reasons swans have only rarely been considered acceptable as targets for sport hunting. Swans occur on all the continents except Africa, although most species are associated with the temperate and arctic zones of North America and Eurasia. Among birds ...


A Comparison Of The Singing Activity Of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus Ludovicianus)) In Urban And Rural Settings, Shannon Trimboli 2016 Western Kentucky University

A Comparison Of The Singing Activity Of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus Ludovicianus)) In Urban And Rural Settings, Shannon Trimboli

Shannon Trimboli

As the earth’s landscape becomes increasingly urbanized, local wildlife must adapt to urban conditions or migrate to areas that are more rural. Urban wildlife face challenges such as direct loss of habitat, competition with non-native species, disturbance due to anthropogenic noise, and micro-climatic changes. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and noise affect the acoustical environment and may affect the ability of many animals, including birds, to communicate.

Understanding how urbanization affects birds’ singing behavior is critical because singing often plays a vital role in attracting mates and defending territories. In addition, as global climate change occurs it will ...


Identification Of Species In Ground Meat Products Sold On The U.S. Commercial Market Using Dna-Based Methods, Dawn Kane, Rosalee S. Hellberg 2016 Chapman University

Identification Of Species In Ground Meat Products Sold On The U.S. Commercial Market Using Dna-Based Methods, Dawn Kane, Rosalee S. Hellberg

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The objective of this study was to test a variety of ground meat products sold on the U.S. commercial market for the presence of potential mislabeling. Forty-eight ground meat samples were purchased from online and retail sources, including both supermarkets and specialty meat retailers. DNA was extracted from each sample in duplicate and tested using DNA barcoding of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. The resulting sequences were identified at the species level using the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Any samples that failed DNA barcoding went through repeat extraction and sequencing, and due to the possibility of ...


Cranberry Lake Biological Station Research Symposium, Session C, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry 2016 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Cranberry Lake Biological Station Research Symposium, Session C, Suny College Of Environmental Science And Forestry

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

Ecological Monitoring and Biodiversity Assessment (EFB202) is the one of the keystone courses in the Environmental and Forest Biology curriculum. Students enrolled in this immersive course live at the Cranberry Lake Biological Station for three weeks. During the first two weeks of the course, students study a wide variety of taxonomic groups of organisms, and are introduced to a broad range of field, laboratory and analytical methods. Students then complete a group research project during the third and final week of the course. The research projects require proficiency in field sampling methods, basic experimental design and statistical analysis, and the ...


Specialty Poultry Production: Impact Of Genotype, Feed Strategies, Alternative Feedstuffs, And Dietary Enzymes On The Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Heritage Breed Chickens, Tatijana Fisher 2016 University of Kentucky

Specialty Poultry Production: Impact Of Genotype, Feed Strategies, Alternative Feedstuffs, And Dietary Enzymes On The Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Heritage Breed Chickens, Tatijana Fisher

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

There is a growing market for specialty poultry production using alternative genotypes and management systems. However, producers interested in specialty poultry production face several challenges. One challenge is that little published data exists regarding the growth and production parameters for alternative genotypes like slow-growing meat strains and heritage breeds. To address this challenge, research at the University of Kentucky examined the effect of feed strategies, alternative feedstuffs, and dietary enzymes on the growth and performance of heritage breeds of chicken used for either egg- or meat-production. The first trial documented the growth and nutrient intake of pullets from three heritage ...


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Separation Of Ovotransferrin And Ovomucoid From Chicken Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn 2016 Iowa State University

Separation Of Ovotransferrin And Ovomucoid From Chicken Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

Ovotransferrin and ovomucoid were separated using two methods after extracting ovotransferrin- and ovomucoid-containing fraction from egg white. Diluted egg white (2x) was added with Fe3+ and treated with 43% ethanol (final conc.). After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected and treated with either a high-level ethanol (61%, final conc.) or an acidic salt combination (2.5% ammonium sulfate and 2.5% citric acid) to separate ovotransferrin and ovomucoid. For the high-level ethanol method, ovotransferrin was precipitated using 61% ethanol. After centrifugation, the precipitant was dissolved in 9 vol. distilled water and the residual ethanol in the solution was removed using ultrafiltration ...


Cytotoxic And Antigenotoxic Activities Of Phosvitin From Egg Yolk, Sunhee Hoon, Dong U. Ahn 2016 Iowa State University

Cytotoxic And Antigenotoxic Activities Of Phosvitin From Egg Yolk, Sunhee Hoon, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and thus has a strong metal-binding ability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of phosvitin in vitro. Using the MTT assay, the cytotoxicity of phosvitin was evaluated in human cancer cell lines of various tissue origins, including the cervix (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), stomach (AGS), lung (A549 and SK-MES-1), liver (HepG2), and larynx (Hep-2). The growth of all cancer cell lines was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by phosvitin. Among the cancer cell lines tested, MCF-7 and SK-MES-1 were the least sensitive ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Sequential Separation Of Lysozyme, Ovomucin, Ovotransferrin And Ovalbumin From Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn 2016 Iowa State University

Sequential Separation Of Lysozyme, Ovomucin, Ovotransferrin And Ovalbumin From Egg White, Sandun Abeyrathne, Hyunyong Lee, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to develop a simple, sequential separation method for multiple proteins from egg white. Separated proteins are targeted for human use, and thus any toxic compounds were excluded. The methods for individual components and the sequential separation were practiced in laboratory scale first, and then tested for scale-up. Lysozyme was separated first using a cation exchange resin and then ovomucin using isoelectric precipitation. Ovalbumin and ovotransferrin were separated from the lysozyme- and ovomucin-free egg white by precipitating ovotransferrin twice using (NH4)2SO4 and citric acid combination. After centrifugation, the supernatants were used for ovalbumin separation ...


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