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The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This volume, the fourth in a series of books that collectively update and expand P. A. Johnsgard’s 1975 The Waterfowl of North America, summarizes research findings on this economically and ecologically important group of waterfowl. The volume includes the mostly tropical perching duck tribe Cairinini, of which two species, the muscovy duck and the wood duck, are representatives. Both species are adapted for foraging on the water surface, mostly on plant materials, but typically perch in trees and nest in elevated tree cavities or other elevated recesses. This volume also includes the dabbling, or surface-feeding, duck tribe Anatini, a ...


Ammonia And Carbon Dioxide Emissions Of Three Laying-Hen Housing Systems As Affected By Manure Accumulation Time, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hongwei Xin, John P. Stinn, Morgan D. Hayes, Yang Zhao, Hong Li 2017 Iowa State University

Ammonia And Carbon Dioxide Emissions Of Three Laying-Hen Housing Systems As Affected By Manure Accumulation Time, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hongwei Xin, John P. Stinn, Morgan D. Hayes, Yang Zhao, Hong Li

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Laying-hen housing design and management are the most significant factors affecting the generation and release of gaseous ammonia to the atmosphere. Transitioning the hen housing type from traditional high-rise (where manure is stored within the house for about one year) to modern manure-belt style (where manure is removed every 1 to 4 d and placed into long-term storage) has significantly improved in-barn air quality and reduced farm-level ammonia emissions. As a direct result of the advantages, 100% of new construction for U.S. egg production incorporates manure-belt systems that regularly remove manure from the houses. However, manure-belt system designs (e ...


The Effects Of Dietary Omega 3 Fatty Acids On Commercial Broiler Behavior From Hatch To Market Weight, Ella Akin, Zoe Kiefer, Amelia Rangel, Isa Ehr, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Elizabeth Bobeck, Anna Johnson, Nicholas Gabler, Kenneth Stalder, Brian Kerr 2017 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Dietary Omega 3 Fatty Acids On Commercial Broiler Behavior From Hatch To Market Weight, Ella Akin, Zoe Kiefer, Amelia Rangel, Isa Ehr, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Elizabeth Bobeck, Anna Johnson, Nicholas Gabler, Kenneth Stalder, Brian Kerr

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to investigate how different dietary omega-3 sources affect commercial broiler behavior from hatch to market weight. One hundred and twenty male 308 Ross broiler chicks were enrolled into the study. Three dietary treatments were compared; Control, Flaxseed-and Fish-oil. Fifteen pens were randomly selected and onefocal-bird was watched continually for three periods of time. One behavior, two postures,and an unknown category were collected. Week by dietary treatment interaction was not significant for any broiler behaviors (P ≥ 0.49). There was no dietary treatment effect observed for any broiler behaviors (P≥ 0.32). There was ...


The Effects Of Dietary Omega 3 Fatty Acids On Commercial Broiler Lameness And Bone Integrity From Hatching To Market, Bruno Evangelista, Alexandra Kastli, Zoe Kiefer, Amelia Rangel, Isa Ehr, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Cheryl Morris, Elizabeth Bobeck, Anna Johnson, Nicholas Gabler, Kenneth Stalder, Brian Kerr 2017 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Dietary Omega 3 Fatty Acids On Commercial Broiler Lameness And Bone Integrity From Hatching To Market, Bruno Evangelista, Alexandra Kastli, Zoe Kiefer, Amelia Rangel, Isa Ehr, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Cheryl Morris, Elizabeth Bobeck, Anna Johnson, Nicholas Gabler, Kenneth Stalder, Brian Kerr

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to investigate how different dietary ω-3 sources affect lameness and bone integrity of commercial broiler chickens from hatching to finishing.One hundred and twenty male Ross308broiler chicks were assigned to three dietary treatments; control, flaxseed oil and fish oil for 4 consecutive weeks. From week 1 to 4, broilers were visually assigned a lameness score (2 non-lame to 5 non-ambulatory) anda bone integrity score (score 2 normal bones to 5 bird was non-ambulatory and was removed from the trial).There were no observed differences for the dietary treatmentand week interaction for lameness or bone ...


Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Warsaw University of Life Sciences

Genetic Basis Of Resistance To Avian Influenza, Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Janet Fulton, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Two high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks haveseverelyaffected the poultry industryon the American continentwithin the last four years; a 2012 H7N3 outbreak in Mexicoand a 2015 H5N2 outbreak in the US. Blood samples were collectedfrom survivors of each outbreak plus age and genetics matched non-affected controls. As surviving birds could contain natural genetic mutation(s) that make them resistant to HPAI,the goal of the present study was to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to HPAIand to determinewhether resistance regionsare the same fordifferent virus strains.Four genomic regions were identified for the H5N2 outbreak and fivedifferent regions were identified ...


Egg Shell Quality Assessment–Do We Need Multiple Records?, Anna Wolc, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

Egg Shell Quality Assessment–Do We Need Multiple Records?, Anna Wolc, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to estimate repeatability within and between ages for dynamic stiffnessin two lines of layer chickens in order to verify if multiple records are necessary to adequately describe a bird’s genetic merit for egg shell quality.Repeatability was low across ages to moderate within age,which suggests that for accurate evaluation eggs should be collected at different stages of laying cycle,with additional benefit from analyzing more than one egg within age.


Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Identification ofspecific geneor quantitative trait locus that responds to specific stimulus is an important goal for genetic improvementprograms. In a heat stress experiment with 3 distinct chicken lines, we found Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) to be differentially expressed in all 3 lines during acute and chronic heat stress.This outcome suggests the need to further exploreANGPTL4 as a potential candidate gene for selection to improve chicken response to heat stress.


Exposure To Heat Stress And Animmune Stimulus Affectsgene Expression In Chicken Immune Tissues, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Christopher M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Exposure To Heat Stress And Animmune Stimulus Affectsgene Expression In Chicken Immune Tissues, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Christopher M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Gene expression changes after exposure to acute heatstress and/or to bacteriallipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated by measuring globalgene expression in two immune organs,bursa and thymus,from two chicken lines, Fayoumi and broiler. Over 1,600genes had significant expression changes in response to treatment; greaternumberswere identified in bursa for Fayoumi and in thymus forbroilers. Heat stress suppressed gene expression responses to LPS in both tissues.Both Heat and LPS impacted expression of immune cell traffickinggenes; these pathwaysneed to be investigated for potential to improve immune responses in heat-stressed chickens.


Does Gener Impact The Immune Response Of Chicks?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2017 Iowa State University

Does Gener Impact The Immune Response Of Chicks?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Sequencing technology allows us tosee how the gene expression of each genechanges under different treatment conditions. In this study, chicks of two inbred lines were challenged with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), a pathogen with devastating impacts on poultry throughout the world. At each of the three time points post-infection, one-third of the chicks were sacraficed and their lungs were harvested. When comparing males and females infected with NDV, differences in gene expression that were predicted to impact growth and apoptosis were identified. Differences between the response of males and females to viral challenges could be useful information for production operations ...


Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Heat Stress Alters Immune Pathways In Liver Of Divergent Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The liver plays a variety of roles in energy metabolism, digestion, and immune response. During the challenge by anenvironmental stressor, such as heat, the liver is one of the key organs that determines the chicken’s ability to cope with the hostile environment. Sequencing RNA extracted from liver samples from a heat-susceptible broiler line and a heat-resistant Fayoumi line, we have identifieda set of genes that were differentially expressed due to an acuteheat stress challenge. Analysis of these genes in context of the biological pathways showed opposite responsesby the broiler and Fayoumichickens,but there was activation of immune signaling pathways ...


Commercial Layer-Type Chickens And Newcastle Disease Virus Infection:Toward Genetic Selection Of More Resilient Chickens, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Jack Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont 2017 University of California, Davis

Commercial Layer-Type Chickens And Newcastle Disease Virus Infection:Toward Genetic Selection Of More Resilient Chickens, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Jack Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus(NDV)causes major losses due to extremely quickmortalityin chickensafter exposure to the virus. In places where this virusis not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity, people rely heavily on poultry to provideprotein and income.Losses from NDV contributeto worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens thatnot onlyhave a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challengebut also respond better to vaccination. In order for genetic selection to be successful,two major elements are required: differences in immune response between chickens and genetic control of these differences. This ...


Different Genetic Resistance Resulted In Distinct Response To Newcastle Disease Virus, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Different Genetic Resistance Resulted In Distinct Response To Newcastle Disease Virus, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

As one of the most severe infectious diseases in the poultry industry, Newcastle disease (ND) causesa significant economic loss worldwideeven with the extensive implementation of vaccine. Tofind targets to improvegenetic resistance to NDto enhanceprotection in chickens, gene expression was analyzedin spleen of two chickenlines which differed in their resistanceto ND. The comparison of gene expression between two treatments(challenged or non-challenged)inthe two chicken lines at 2 and 6 days post-inoculation (dpi) suggeststhat thatt he mostdramatic changes ofgene expression occurredin Leghorn chickens at 2dpi.Theidentifieddifferentially expressed genesthat regulatesplenicresponse toNDVprovidepotential avenuestobreedNDV-resistantchickens in the future.


Cecal Microbiome Characterization For Layers Underheat Stress, John C. F. Hsieh, Nathaniel Barett, Torey Looft, Michael E. Persia, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Cecal Microbiome Characterization For Layers Underheat Stress, John C. F. Hsieh, Nathaniel Barett, Torey Looft, Michael E. Persia, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Animal microbiomeshavegainedattentionin recent years because oftheirrolesin avariety of physiological responses to disease and environment challenges. In this study, we subjected production white egg layers to a 4-week heatstress challenge to measure changes in the cecal microbiome. We found that heat stress altersthe cecal microbial compositionafter 2 weeks of cyclic heat exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate changes in microbiome in heat-stressed layers, and provides an approximatetime course for the microbiome alterations.


Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers 2017 University of Ghana

Estimating Genetic Parameters For Growth And Response To Infection With La Sota Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain In Local Chicken Breeds In Ghana And Tanzania, Esinam Nancy Amuzu-Aweh, Boniface Babore Kayang, Amandus Pachificus Muhairwa, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, Tara Kelly, Susan J. Lamont, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The local chicken industries in Ghana, Tanzania and several other African countries are greatly affected by mortalities due to Newcastle disease (ND). We tested local ecotypes/breeds in Ghana and Tanzania for genetic variation in growth rate and antibody levels after infection with a La Sota lentogenic ND virusstrain.We identifiedheritable variation in ND virus antibody levels, and in pre-, and post-infection growth rates, which implies that with selective breeding, genetic improvement is possible. One of the Ghanaian ecotypes had a faster growth rate than the otherecotypes, both pre-and post-infection. We however did not find significant differences between the Tanzanian ...


Effect Of Dietary Beta-Glucan On The Performance Of Broilers, Sun Hee Moon, Xi Feng, Hyon Yong Lee, Jihee Kim, Dong Uk Ahn 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dietary Beta-Glucan On The Performance Of Broilers, Sun Hee Moon, Xi Feng, Hyon Yong Lee, Jihee Kim, Dong Uk Ahn

Animal Industry Report

A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm ...


The First Whole Genome And Transcriptome Of The Cinereous Vulture Reveals Adaptation In The Gastric And Immune Defense Systems And Possible Convergent Evolution Between The Old And New World Vultures, Oksung Chung, Seondeok Jin, Yun Sung Cho, Jeongheui Lim, Hyunho Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Hak-Min Kim, JeHoon Jun, HyeJin Lee, Alvin Chon, Junsu Ko, Jeremy Edwards, Jessica A. Weber, Kyudong Han, Stephen J. O'Brien, Andrea Manica, Jong Bhak, Woon Kee Paek 2016 Genome Research Foundation - Republic of Korea

The First Whole Genome And Transcriptome Of The Cinereous Vulture Reveals Adaptation In The Gastric And Immune Defense Systems And Possible Convergent Evolution Between The Old And New World Vultures, Oksung Chung, Seondeok Jin, Yun Sung Cho, Jeongheui Lim, Hyunho Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Hak-Min Kim, Jehoon Jun, Hyejin Lee, Alvin Chon, Junsu Ko, Jeremy Edwards, Jessica A. Weber, Kyudong Han, Stephen J. O'Brien, Andrea Manica, Jong Bhak, Woon Kee Paek

Stephen O'Brien

Background: The cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus, is the largest bird of prey and plays a key role in the ecosystem by removing carcasses, thus preventing the spread of diseases. Its feeding habits force it to cope with constant exposure to pathogens, making this species an interesting target for discovering functionally selected genetic variants. Furthermore, the presence of two independently evolved vulture groups, Old World and New World vultures, provides a natural experiment in which to investigate convergent evolution due to obligate scavenging.

Results: We sequenced the genome of a cinereous vulture, and mapped it to the bald eagle reference genome ...


Bone-Associated Gene Evolution And The Origin Of Flight In Birds, Joao P. Machado, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes 2016 Universidade do Porto - Portugal

Bone-Associated Gene Evolution And The Origin Of Flight In Birds, Joao P. Machado, Warren E. Johnson, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes

Stephen O'Brien

Background

Bones have been subjected to considerable selective pressure throughout vertebrate evolution, such as occurred during the adaptations associated with the development of powered flight. Powered flight evolved independently in two extant clades of vertebrates, birds and bats. While this trait provided advantages such as in aerial foraging habits, escape from predators or long-distance travels, it also imposed great challenges, namely in the bone structure.

Results

We performed comparative genomic analyses of 89 bone-associated genes from 47 avian genomes (including 45 new), 39 mammalian, and 20 reptilian genomes, and demonstrate that birds, after correcting for multiple testing, have an almost ...


The North American Sea Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Sea Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The 21 species of sea ducks are one of the larger subgroups (Tribe Mergini) of the waterfowl family Anatidae, and the 16 species (one historically extinct) that are native to North America represent the largest number to be found on any continent, and also the largest number of endemic sea duck species native to any continent.

Although generally not important as game birds, the sea ducks include some economically important birds such as the eiders, the basis for the Arctic eiderdown industry and a historically important food source for some Native American cultures. They also include what is probably the ...


Uncommon/Rare Avian Species Decline And Extirpation In Nested Assemblages Of Northeastern Illinois Wetlands, James M. McAley 2016 Governors State University

Uncommon/Rare Avian Species Decline And Extirpation In Nested Assemblages Of Northeastern Illinois Wetlands, James M. Mcaley

All Capstone Projects

Baisa found that avian assemblages are highly nested in palustrine emergent wetlands in northeastern Illinois. He measured nestedness by constructing a binary matrix of species presence and absence across sites. Nestedness was also quantified using the Mann-Whitney U-test in his study.

The goal of this project was to sample the wetlands as Baisa had done in his study. By doing so, we will have 2 sampling events, approximately 10 years apart. Nestedness of the wetland communities will be checked, and data compared to that of Baisa. Emergent wetlands in northeastern Illinois were found by Baisa to contain highly nested avian ...


Harpy Eagle (Harpia Harpyja) Conservation: Juvenile Behavior And Diet At A Nest Near Pijibasal, Darien, Hannah Rodgers 2016 SIT Study Abroad

Harpy Eagle (Harpia Harpyja) Conservation: Juvenile Behavior And Diet At A Nest Near Pijibasal, Darien, Hannah Rodgers

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja), the largest and most powerful bird of prey in the Americas, is declining throughout its range in Neotropical forests. Hunting and deforestation threaten populations in the most important remaining eagle habitat in Central America, the Darien province of Panama. These eagles may have the longest postfledging juvenile dependency of any raptor, though juvenile behavior during this period is poorly studied. This study monitored an 11-month-old juvenile for 7 days at a nest near the indigenous community of Pijibasal in order to study behavior and diet. Researchers recorded the juvenile’s location and behavior, studied prey ...


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