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Full-Text Articles in Animal Sciences

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette Apr 2023

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to ...


Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz Aug 2022

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food insecurity is a growing issue in developing and developed countries alike, and in countries like Belize, the prevalence of hunger has soared in recent years. Not having access to diets with sufficient calories and nutrients leads to a host of developmental issues, including stunting and cognitive delays. The purpose of this work was to create an all-encompassing manual for small-scale broiler production, with the intention of another honors student overseeing the implementation of the ideas set forth in the manual, in order to provide nourishment for the students and staff of a school in Belize. After determining that the ...


In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi Aug 2022

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


Review Of Orthochiroides Kovařík, 1998 With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe May 2022

Review Of Orthochiroides Kovařík, 1998 With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

The genus Orthochiroides Kovařík, 1998 is reanalyzed. Revised diagnoses and new illustrations for the genus and all four of its species are presented. A new species, O. somalilandus sp. n. from Somaliland is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus with several other similar genera of small buthids are inferred from a parsimony analysis of 43 discrete morphological characters. The recent synonymy of Orthochiroides with Orthochirus is refuted and the genus is revalidated.


Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson May 2022

Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson

2022 Symposium

The Sandwich Bluff Formation of the James Ross Basin of Antarctica has recently yielded a group of five late Cretaceous dinosaurs that lived contemporaneously with each other, a first for Antarctica. These five dinosaurs include fragmentary remains of two differently sized elasmarian ornithopods, a possible megaraptor, a hadrosaur, and a nodosaur. In this study we will construct a model of the ecological relationships of late Cretaceous Antarctica. Additionally, we will look at what specific factors allowed this group of four herbivores and a carnivore to coexist in a restricted locality and what niches were filled by each species. Methods to ...


Trophish: Building A Global Database Of Freshwater Trophic Interactions, Jacob M. Ridgway May 2022

Trophish: Building A Global Database Of Freshwater Trophic Interactions, Jacob M. Ridgway

Honors Thesis

Freshwater management and research frequently use the trophic data of freshwater fishes. Despite this fact, it is difficult to perform a simple search of dietary information for any one fish species. FishBase represents, to our knowledge, the largest compilation of freshwater dietary information to date. However, it excludes a large portion of the ecological literature due to its development taking place prior to the creation of most modern scientific search engines. Our project (TroPhish) is building upon FishBase by digitizing approximately 130 years of data from the fish predation literature. Data from the primary and grey (e.g. theses, dissertations ...


Cache Like A Squirrel: Effects Of Long Term Storage On Crude Fat Content Of Q. Palustris And Q. Alba Acorns, Cheyenne T. Villarosa, Sabrina Volponi, Timothy A. Kreps, Tamara L. Johnstone-Yellin May 2022

Cache Like A Squirrel: Effects Of Long Term Storage On Crude Fat Content Of Q. Palustris And Q. Alba Acorns, Cheyenne T. Villarosa, Sabrina Volponi, Timothy A. Kreps, Tamara L. Johnstone-Yellin

Honors Projects

Quercus palustris and Quercus alba acorns are a primary component in many wild animal diets, particularly during preparation for winter. As such, they provide a natural, easily gathered food staple for wildlife recovering in rehabilitation facilities. We examined whether collection and temperature-controlled storage methods differentially affect the nutritional deterioration of crude fat in acorns to assess both caching by wildlife and to provide recommendations to rehabilitators. We collected acorns from Q. palustris in 2020 (N=8) and Q. alba in 2017 (N=11) in Bridgewater, VA, USA. Acorns were dried for 7 days using a fan or for 30 minutes ...


Using Color To Identify Neotropical Parrots In Early Modern European Art: Recognizing Limitations And Avoiding Pitfalls Through Integration Of Scientific And Artistic Knowledge, Deniz Martinez May 2022

Using Color To Identify Neotropical Parrots In Early Modern European Art: Recognizing Limitations And Avoiding Pitfalls Through Integration Of Scientific And Artistic Knowledge, Deniz Martinez

The Confluence

Colorful Neotropical parrots were amongst the first and most frequent exotic animals to be imported by Europeans from the “New World” of the Americas, becoming key figures in what would become known as the Columbian exchange. There has been an ongoing effort to locate and identify images of Neotropical parrots in the visual record of early modern Europe, with the classification of many remaining unsettled in the scholarship. Proper identification of these images can be valuable data for reconstructing historical biogeography and transatlantic trade; especially compelling is the potential of certain “mystery parrots” in the visual record to support the ...


Many Questions Remain Unanswered About The Role Of Microbial Transmission In Epizootic Shell Disease In American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus), A Perspective Article, Suzanne Ishaq, Sarah M. Turner, M. Scarlett Tudor, Jean Macrae, Heather Hamlin, Joelle Kilchenmann, Grace Lee, Deborah A. Bouchard May 2022

Many Questions Remain Unanswered About The Role Of Microbial Transmission In Epizootic Shell Disease In American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus), A Perspective Article, Suzanne Ishaq, Sarah M. Turner, M. Scarlett Tudor, Jean Macrae, Heather Hamlin, Joelle Kilchenmann, Grace Lee, Deborah A. Bouchard

Journal Articles

Despite decades of research on lobster species’ biology, ecology, and microbiology, there are still unresolved questions about the microbial communities which associate in or on lobsters under healthy or diseased states, microbial acquisition, as well as microbial transmission between lobsters and between lobsters and their environment. There is an untapped opportunity for metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics to be added to the existing wealth of knowledge to more precisely track disease transmission, etiology, and host-microbe dynamics. Moreover, we need to gain this knowledge of wild lobster microbiomes before climate change alters environmental and host-microbial communities more than it likely already has ...


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn May 2022

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert May 2022

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Using Community Science To Assess The Effect Of Wing Pattern And Weather On Butterfly Behavior, Abbigail Merrill May 2022

Using Community Science To Assess The Effect Of Wing Pattern And Weather On Butterfly Behavior, Abbigail Merrill

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Signaling in insects is used as communication and for attraction of mates. The physical appearance of the insect as well as conditions such as weather can play a role in visual signaling, by influencing the wavelengths of light available, and subsequent signal detection. We do not know, however, whether signals butterflies present broadly correlate with how they behave. In this study, we looked at the wing patterns and behavior of butterflies in Northwest Arkansas over a 3.5-year period to assess the relationship between wing pattern, weather, and behavior. We used observational data collected by hundreds of University of Arkansas ...


Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color And Oxidation Of Previously Frozen Ground Beef Patties, Devin Elaine Whiteside May 2022

Effects Of Retail Case Environment And Led Lighting Temperature On Color And Oxidation Of Previously Frozen Ground Beef Patties, Devin Elaine Whiteside

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate different environments of retail cases and LED lighting temperatures to observe how these conditions affect oxidation of previously frozen ground beef patties. Coarse ground beef (85% lean) was purchased from a commercial beef processor, fine ground through a 10 mm grinder plate, and then formed into 1/3-pound patties with an automatic patty forming machine. Patties were then randomly assigned to four different treatments: open-front display cases with 3000 K lighting (OPEN3000), open-front cases 3500 K lighting (OPEN3500), reach-in door display with 3000 K lighting (CLOSED3000), and reach-in door display at 3500 ...


Broiler Efficiency As Affected By Dietary Protein Supply And Grain Source, Victoria Reid May 2022

Broiler Efficiency As Affected By Dietary Protein Supply And Grain Source, Victoria Reid

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of different diet compositions on performance and carcass yield of male broilers from 15 to 36 days of age. In total, 593 male birds were divided across a randomized design that consisted of 6 dietary treatments, each with 8 replications. The treatments included pelleted diets that varied in grain type and crude protein (CP) value: 3 sorghum-based diets at 20%, 18.75%, and 17.5% CP and 3 corn-sorghum blended diets at the same CP levels. CP amounts impacted only body weight gain and feed conversion rate while feed intake only differed ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet May 2022

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Sabrina Cox May 2022

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Sabrina Cox

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The first cases of coronavirus reported in the United States came in January 2020 (World Health Organization, 2020). In the two years since then, countries around the world have been affected by COVID-19 and the subsequent social, economic, and mental health issues. Previous research shows that the animal healthcare field is already overrun with burnout, substance abuse, depression, and increased levels of stress (Gardner & Hini, 2006), and the pandemic has only compounded these issues (Mair et al., 2020). Observing a lack of meaningful reporting on the issues affecting veterinary staff led the researchers to investigate staff members’ practices, day- to-day ...


Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini May 2022

Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cattle are known to have an effect on water quality in various bodies of water. Studying how cattle impact water quality along various streams and tributaries is important to understanding how certain water parameters may be affected at the individual farm level. It is known that unrestricted access to a cattle crossing has been shown to increase the occurrence of downstream pollutants such as E. coli, ammonium, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and turbidity. However, many studies focus on large-scale operations and neglect the individual farm level. In this study, samples were collected twice for each parameter ...


Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan May 2022

Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Feral hogs are an invasive species found in 35 U.S. states without an effective control method to limit their population growth. According to a 2019 survey of 467 landowners in Arkansas, feral hogs caused an estimated $12 million in damages (Cook, 2019). While there are current control methods such as hunting and trapping, 65% of the feral hog population must be eliminated in a specific area to prohibit population growth (Cook, 2019). It is theorized that gossypol, a phenolic compound known to negatively impact reproductive function in other species, could cause sterility in boars. In this preliminary research study ...


A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese May 2022

A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

The Great Plains were once a vast grassland ecosystem, but, due to agricultural and human development, are one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America. What remains is generally fragmented, threatened by invasive species, and lacks the natural ecosystem processes that shaped these grasslands such as periodic wildfire and bison grazing. Since 1978, the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc. (dba “Crane Trust”) has worked to maintain the function of grassland and riparian habitats to benefit endangered Whooping Cranes, Sandhill Cranes, and other migratory bird species. They protect ~8,100 acres, including the largest contiguous portion of lowland ...


Targeting Inflammation In Heat-Stressed Wethers Improves Growth And Efficiency And Alters Body Composition; A Brief Exploration And Application Of Extension Principles, Micah Most May 2022

Targeting Inflammation In Heat-Stressed Wethers Improves Growth And Efficiency And Alters Body Composition; A Brief Exploration And Application Of Extension Principles, Micah Most

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objective of our first study was to determine how administering anti-inflammatory dexamethasone and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich fish oil affects growth efficiency and body composition in heat-stressed finishing lambs. Commercial wethers were randomly assigned to be fed under heat stress (35°-40℃) or thermoneutral (19℃, n = 10) conditions for 30 d, and controls were pair-fed to eliminate differential feed intake. Heat-stressed wethers were randomly assigned to receive clinical-dose dexamethasone IM injections every 72 h, twice daily fish oil capsule oral boluses, or placebos. Heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) growth and efficiency, but dexamethasone and fish oil supplementation recovered these performance measures. Heat stress also decreased (P < 0.05) predictive body composition metrics that were at least partially improved by administration of dexamethasone and fish oil. Proximate analyses of muscles showed that heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) percentage of protein and increased (P < 0.05) percentage of intramuscular fat, neither of which was improved by dexamethasone or fish oil. Immunohistochemistry revealed that heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) myoblast differentiation and muscle fiber size, but anti-inflammatory supplementation recovered differentiation only. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations were not different among groups throughout the study. These findings demonstrate how heat stress-induced inflammation contributes to impaired growth, efficiency, and body composition observed in heat-stressed feeder lambs. However, targeting inflammation with dexamethasone or fish oil recovers many of these deficits.

The Cooperative Extension Service, created in ...


Evaluation Of Corn Processing Method And Sweet Bran Inclusion On Beef Cattle Performance And Nutrient Digestion And Individual Sweet Bran Components On Nutrient Digestion, Rebecca L. Sjostrand May 2022

Evaluation Of Corn Processing Method And Sweet Bran Inclusion On Beef Cattle Performance And Nutrient Digestion And Individual Sweet Bran Components On Nutrient Digestion, Rebecca L. Sjostrand

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

One feedlot trial (Exp. 1) and one digestion trial (Exp. 2) were conducted to evaluate the interaction of corn processing method and Sweet Bran inclusion on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation parameters, and feedlot performance. In Exp. 1 when no Sweet Bran was fed, cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) had greater ADG, HCW and a 12.4% improvement in feed efficiency compared to cattle fed a high-moisture corn/ dry-rolled corn (HMC/DRC) blend. However, as Sweet Bran increased in the diet to 40%, cattle fed HMC/DRC had greater improvements in ADG and HCW than cattle fed SFC resulting in similar ...


The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley May 2022

The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the effect of temperature on physiological and digestive processes, such as voluntary consumption rate, is critical for assessing the impact of climate change. Food consumption is required for lizard survival and reproduction and its rate is dependent on temperature. For ectotherms, as temperatures increase, the amount of food consumed to meet the energy requirements related to survival and reproduction must also increase. Information on the amount of food voluntarily consumed may aid in determining if lizards can meet energy requirements. Such information could also aid in predicting survival of lizard populations, through construction of predictive climate change models. In ...


Evaluation Of Selected Nuproxa Feed Additives For Protection Against Lameness And Improving The Wellbeing Of Broilers In A Lameness Challenge Model, Jaren Hernandez May 2022

Evaluation Of Selected Nuproxa Feed Additives For Protection Against Lameness And Improving The Wellbeing Of Broilers In A Lameness Challenge Model, Jaren Hernandez

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

A common concern in commercial industries profiting from broiler chickens is their inability to yield a completely healthy flock. Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis poses a threat to these companies by impairing the birds' proximal and distal tibial and femoral heads. In 2000, roughly 17.3% of broiler chickens were affected by Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis which caused a substantial economic loss in the industry (McNammee et al., 2000). BCO cannot be tied to a particular bacterial species; this experiment focuses on evaluating the efficacy of certain commercial feed additives while determining the bacterial species causing BCO in this set of ...


Greater Sage-Grouse Brood Responses To Livestock Grazing In Sagebrush Rangelands, Hailey Peatross Wayment May 2022

Greater Sage-Grouse Brood Responses To Livestock Grazing In Sagebrush Rangelands, Hailey Peatross Wayment

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The distribution and abundance of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) have declined in the last 60 years. Range contractions and population declines have been attributed to loss and fragmentation of their sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats. Grazing by livestock remains the predominant anthropogenic land-use across sagebrush ecosystems in North America, occurring on 87% of remaining sage-grouse habitat. Most of the peer-reviewed literature reports the potential for negative impacts of sagebrush reduction treatments, to increase livestock forage, on sage-grouse habitat. However, few studies have linked livestock grazing at the landscape level to vital rates (e.g., nest initiation rates, nest success ...


Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls May 2022

Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls

Theses and Dissertations

There are many costs associated with increased body size and longevity in animals, including the accumulation of genotoxic and cytotoxic damage that comes with having more cells and living longer. Yet, some species have overcome these barriers and have evolved remarkably large body sizes and long lifespans. Organisms with these unique phenotypes have come under recent genomic scrutiny to discover mechanisms of healthy aging and tumor suppression but little physiological work to validate these mechanisms has been conducted outside of mammals. Here I propose that reptiles, especially testudines (turtles), would be an excellent system to investigate the topics of size ...


Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla May 2022

Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid and pH on rumen fermentation, fiber digestibility, and bacterial community composition. The two factors in the experiment were palmitic acid treatment and pH treatment. Palmitic acid treatments included a control diet compared to a diet containing 1.5% palmitic acid. pH treatments included normal pH (6.6 to 7.0) compared to low pH (6.0 to 6.4). Rumen fluid from a cow was added to artificial rumens to study the effects of the two treatments relative to fermentation and changes within the microbial community ...


The Relationship Between People And The Tegu: A Review Of The Literature, Jordan Haley May 2022

The Relationship Between People And The Tegu: A Review Of The Literature, Jordan Haley

Honors College Theses

This thesis will explore the relationship humans have had with tegu lizards and how it has evolved over time, from their historical use as a source of leather and bushmeat in South America to their more recent rise in the pet trade and consequential establishment as an invasive species in the United States.


Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald May 2022

Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive mice (Mus spp.) can negatively impact island species and ecosystems. Because fewer island rodent eradications have been attempted for mice compared to rats (Rattus spp.), less is known about efficacy and palatability of rodenticide baits for mouse eradications. We performed a series of bait acceptance and efficacy cage trials using a standard formulation of brodifacoum-based rodenticide on wild-caught mice from Sand Island, Midway Atoll, to help inform a proposed eradication there. Mice were offered ad libitum brodifacoum pellets along with various alternative food sources, and a “no choice” treatment group received only bait pellets. Mortality in the no choice ...


A Most Unusual Tail: Scoliosis In A Wild Australian Skink, And Reported Incidences And Suggested Causes Of Similar Malformations Amongst Squamates, Philip W. Bateman, Robyn Benken, Ryan Glowacki, Robert A. Davis May 2022

A Most Unusual Tail: Scoliosis In A Wild Australian Skink, And Reported Incidences And Suggested Causes Of Similar Malformations Amongst Squamates, Philip W. Bateman, Robyn Benken, Ryan Glowacki, Robert A. Davis

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Malformations of vertebrae potentially occur across many taxa, particularly in Testudines, which are susceptible to kyphosis (dorsoventral curvature of the spine). Such malformations may stem from either genetic or environmental origins, and their prevalence and associated impacts on survival remain poorly understood. However, scoliosis (sideways curvature of the spine) is rarely reported and especially so in wild lizards. We report here on the first known case of scoliosis in a wild Australian lizard, the skink Ctenotus fallens, from Perth, Western Australia. This occurrence is the first of 805 individuals captured in a natural population monitored annually for the past 11 ...


Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin May 2022

Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis, caused by a wide array of pathogens, results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the bovine’s innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis. Only foundational research has been done on β-defensins’ ability to treat and prevent mastitis. There have been no analytical methods reported in the literature for analyzing β-defensins in bovine milk. This research aims to create an analytical approach to determine β-defensins in bovine milk. It is challenging to determine an analyte in a complex sample matrix, and milk ...