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Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette 2023 Murray State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to ...


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after ...


Regional Minimums In The U.S. Beef Complex, Elliott James Dennis, Bradley D. Lubben 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Regional Minimums In The U.S. Beef Complex, Elliott James Dennis, Bradley D. Lubben

Center for Agricultural Profitability

This report shows how the currently proposed policies differ; shows how these policies have aligned with historical market behavior; provides alternative specifications to regional minimums; and suggests policy alternatives to regional minimums.

The main purpose of this report is to show how current and potential alternative specifications of regional minimums would have historically aligned with observed market behavior. However, the fundamental question in the debate of the validity and effectiveness of regional minimums first rests on whether robust price discovery has historically occurred over time and within each USDA-AMS region. If there has been a lack of price discovery during ...


Sdsu Beef Day 2022 Complete Proceedings, Department of Animal Science, SDSU Extension 2022 South Dakota State University

Sdsu Beef Day 2022 Complete Proceedings, Department Of Animal Science, Sdsu Extension

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

This is the complete proceedings of the South Dakota State University, Department of Animal Science Beef Day 2022. The proceedings contain research presented on the following topics:
Feedlot
Herd Management
Meat Science and Nutrition


Impact Of Corn Silage Moisture And/Or Kernel Processing At Harvest On Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Efficiency Of Dietary Net Energy Utilization And Carcass Traits, Thomas G. Hamilton, Warren Rusche, Julie Walker, Zachary K. F. Smith 2022 South Dakota State University

Impact Of Corn Silage Moisture And/Or Kernel Processing At Harvest On Finishing Steer Growth Performance, Efficiency Of Dietary Net Energy Utilization And Carcass Traits, Thomas G. Hamilton, Warren Rusche, Julie Walker, Zachary K. F. Smith

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Red Angus steers (n = 192; initial shrunk BW = 983 ± 62.3 lbs) were used in the 112 d finishing experiment at the Southeast Research Farm (SERF) of the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in Beresford. Steers were from a single source and obtained from a local SD auction facility. Steers were received 2 weeks prior to trial initiation. Steers were offered a common diet containing 60% concentrate upon arrival. Steers were transitioned to a 90% concentrate diet over the course of 14 d. Steers were consuming the finishing diet (Table 1) at the initiation of the experiment. Fresh ...


Evaluation Of Dietary Roughage Inclusion In A Single Or Two-Diet System For Backgrounding And Finishing, Thomas G. Hamilton, Warren Rusche, Zachary K. F. Smith 2022 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Dietary Roughage Inclusion In A Single Or Two-Diet System For Backgrounding And Finishing, Thomas G. Hamilton, Warren Rusche, Zachary K. F. Smith

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Pre-conditioned crossbred beef steers (n = 46; initial shrunk [4%] BW = 621 ± 89.1 lbs) were used in a 210-d grow-finish experiment at the Ruminant Nutrition Center (RNC) in Brookings, SD. Steers were fed once daily, and bunks were managed according to a slick bunk management system. Cattle were fed in 25 × 25 ft concrete surface pens (n = 10 pens; 5 pens/treatment) with 25 linear ft of bunk space and heated, concrete, continuous flow waterers. Treatments included: 1) A single-diet program (targeted a 59 Mcal/cwt NEg diet fed for 210-d; 1D) or 2) two-diet program (targeted a ...


Dose Effects Of Encapsulated Butyric Acid And Zinc On Beef Feedlot Steer Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Dietary Net Energy Utilization, Forest L. Francis, Erin R. Gubbels, Thomas G. Hamilton, Warren Rusche, Doug Lafleur, Jerilyn E. Hergenreder, Zachary K. F. Smith 2022 South Dakota State University

Dose Effects Of Encapsulated Butyric Acid And Zinc On Beef Feedlot Steer Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Dietary Net Energy Utilization, Forest L. Francis, Erin R. Gubbels, Thomas G. Hamilton, Warren Rusche, Doug Lafleur, Jerilyn E. Hergenreder, Zachary K. F. Smith

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Steers (n = 272; shrunk BW = 794 ± 163 pounds) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments in a 143.5 d feedlot finishing trial: 0 g BPZ/ kg diet dry matter (DM) (CON), 1 g BPZ/ kg diet DM (1BPZ), 2 g BPZ/ kg diet DM (2BPZ), or 3 g BPZ/ kg diet DM (3BPZ). Carcass data and liver health outcomes were collected, and feedlot growth performance data and efficiency of dietary net energy utilization were calculated on a carcass-adjusted basis.


Evaluation Of A Direct Fed Microbial And/Or An Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Product In Diets Containing Monensin Sodium On Feedlot Phase Growth Performance, Efficiency Of Dietary Net Energy Utilization, And Carcass Characteristics In Newly Weaned Beef Steers Fed In Confinement For 258 Days, Erin Gubbels, Forest Francis, Thomas G. Hamilton, Jason Griffin, Warren Rusche, Tom Rehberger, Elliot Block, Zachary K. F. Smith 2022 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of A Direct Fed Microbial And/Or An Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Product In Diets Containing Monensin Sodium On Feedlot Phase Growth Performance, Efficiency Of Dietary Net Energy Utilization, And Carcass Characteristics In Newly Weaned Beef Steers Fed In Confinement For 258 Days, Erin Gubbels, Forest Francis, Thomas G. Hamilton, Jason Griffin, Warren Rusche, Tom Rehberger, Elliot Block, Zachary K. F. Smith

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Single-sourced, newly weaned steers (n = 256; initial body weight (BW) = 542 ± 3.7 lb) were allotted to 32 pens (n = 8 pens/treatment with 8 steers/pen). Steers were blocked by location in a 2x2 factorial treatment arrangement of DFM (Certillus CP B1801 Dry; Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum; 28 g/steer·d-1) and YCW (Celmanax; 18 g/steer·d-1). Steers were vaccinated and poured at processing and individually weighed on d 1, 14, 42 (end of receiving phase; implanted), 77, 105 (end of growing phase), 133, 161 (implanted), 182, 230 (start ractopamine HCl) and 258. Growth performance and ...


Evaluation Of A Direct Fed Microbial An An Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Product Fed Alone Or In Combination To Beef Steers Administered Ractopamine Hydrochloride 28 Days Prior To Harvest During Summer Months In The Northern Plains, Erin Gubbels, Forest Francis, Thomas G. Hamilton, Jason Griffin, Warren Rusche, Tom Rehberger, Elliot Block, Zachary K. F. Smith 2022 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of A Direct Fed Microbial An An Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Product Fed Alone Or In Combination To Beef Steers Administered Ractopamine Hydrochloride 28 Days Prior To Harvest During Summer Months In The Northern Plains, Erin Gubbels, Forest Francis, Thomas G. Hamilton, Jason Griffin, Warren Rusche, Tom Rehberger, Elliot Block, Zachary K. F. Smith

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Single-sourced, newly weaned steers (n=256; initial BW=542 ± 3.7lb; n=64 steers/treatment; 8 steers/pen) were blocked by location in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of DFM (Certillus CP B1801 Dry; Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum; 28 g/steer·d-1) and YCW (Celmanax; 18 g/steer·d-1). Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as: THI=0.81×ambient temperature+[relative humidity×(ambient temperature-14.40)]+46.40. On d-1 and 2 and d-21 and 22 on RH, respiration rate (RR) and panting scores (PS) were determined before and after AM and PM feedings (0700h, 1100h, 1400h, 1700h). RR ...


Effects Of On-Arrival Application Of A Modified-Live Respiratory And Clostridia Vaccination On Health, Growth Performance, And Antibody Titers Of Newly-Weaned Calves, Erin Gubbels, Santana Hanson, Tommy Norman, Thiago Ribeiro, Thomas G. Hamilton, Forest Francis, Jason Griffin, Warren Rusche, Zachary K. F. Smith 2022 South Dakota State University

Effects Of On-Arrival Application Of A Modified-Live Respiratory And Clostridia Vaccination On Health, Growth Performance, And Antibody Titers Of Newly-Weaned Calves, Erin Gubbels, Santana Hanson, Tommy Norman, Thiago Ribeiro, Thomas G. Hamilton, Forest Francis, Jason Griffin, Warren Rusche, Zachary K. F. Smith

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Single-sourced, newly weaned steers (n=70; initial body weight (BW)=560±12.9lb) were allotted to 10 pens (n=5 pens/treatment with 7 steers/pen). Steers were blocked by BW in a randomized complete block design of VAC [vaccinated for IBR, BVD 1 and 2, PI3, and BRSV (Bovi-Shield Gold 5, Zoetis, Parsippany, NJ) and clostridial (Ultrabec 7/Somubac, Zoetis) upon arrival] or NOVAC (not vaccinated for IBR, BVD 1 and 2, PI3, and BRSV or clostridial species upon arrival). Steers were individually weighed on d 0 (arrival), 1, 21, and 42 for growth performance measures. Whole ...


Principles Of Holistic Resource Management: Investing In Self-Education, Pete Bauman 2022 South Dakota State University

Principles Of Holistic Resource Management: Investing In Self-Education, Pete Bauman

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

First developed as a concept for approaching grazing resources management by Alan Savory in the 1970’s as a means of combating poor grazing practices, the concept of Holistic Management has evolved in the modern era to Holistic Resource Management, or in some cases “Wholistic” Resource Management, suggesting a more inclusive approach to overall planning and assessment beyond developing a sustainable grazing plan.

In simplified terms, a complete Holistic Resource Management plan for an agricultural businesses ultimately embraces a core concept that centers on the original ‘Triple Bottom Line’ accounting philosophy where the three “P’s” of profit ...


Use Of Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins To Determine Fetal Age Throughout Gestation And Clearance Rate In Postpartum Beef Cattle, Adalaide C. Kline, Julie Walker, Taylor N. Andrews, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Lacey K. Quail, Jerica J.J. Rich, Jim R. Rhoades, George Perry 2022 South Dakota State University

Use Of Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins To Determine Fetal Age Throughout Gestation And Clearance Rate In Postpartum Beef Cattle, Adalaide C. Kline, Julie Walker, Taylor N. Andrews, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Lacey K. Quail, Jerica J.J. Rich, Jim R. Rhoades, George Perry

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Previously identified pregnant females from four different herds and postpartum females from one herd were utilized. Blood samples were collected (n = 1,753; study 1) between d 28 and 285 of gestation and (heifers n = 418 and cows n = 657; study 2) once a week for up to 12 weeks after calving. Serum was tested in duplicate using a commercially available blood pregnancy test, IDEXX Alertys Pregnancy Test. In study 1, procedures were modified to allow PAG concentrations to fall within the detectible range of the assay. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with cow ...


Comparison Of Lateral Flow To Other Pregnancy Determination Methods In Order To Determine Accuracy Of Pregnancy Status In Beef Cattle Pre And Postpartum, Adalaide C. Kline, Julie Walker, Taylor N. Andrews, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Lacey K. Quail, Jaclyn N. Ketchum, Jerica J.J. Rich, Jim R. Rhoades, George Perry 2022 South Dakota State University

Comparison Of Lateral Flow To Other Pregnancy Determination Methods In Order To Determine Accuracy Of Pregnancy Status In Beef Cattle Pre And Postpartum, Adalaide C. Kline, Julie Walker, Taylor N. Andrews, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Lacey K. Quail, Jaclyn N. Ketchum, Jerica J.J. Rich, Jim R. Rhoades, George Perry

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Blood samples were collected from six different Bos taurus herds between day 27 and 285 of gestation (heifers n = 1,205 and cows n = 1,539). Blood samples to determine PAG clearance interval were collected weekly postpartum for up to 12 weeks (heifers n = 418 and cows n = 657). Serum was tested using the lateral flow test and were read by two technicians who were blind to pregnancy status. Level of agreement between the tests were determined by Pearson’s correlation coefficients and Kappa scores. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to evaluate the effect of dpp ...


Use Of Sperm In Vitro Capacitation And Flow Cytometry To Estimate Bull Fertility, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Thomas W. Geary, Abigail L. Zezeski, Karl C. Kerns, Joseph C. Dalton, Bo R. Harstine, Matthew D. Utt, Robert A. Cushman, Julie Walker, George Perry 2022 South Dakota State University

Use Of Sperm In Vitro Capacitation And Flow Cytometry To Estimate Bull Fertility, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Thomas W. Geary, Abigail L. Zezeski, Karl C. Kerns, Joseph C. Dalton, Bo R. Harstine, Matthew D. Utt, Robert A. Cushman, Julie Walker, George Perry

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Frozen-thawed semen from five bulls previously identified as high (48.1% and 47.7%, bulls A and B, respectively), intermediary (45.5%, bull C) or low (43.1% and 40.7%, bulls D and E, respectively) fertility, based on pregnancy per AI, were evaluated with several laboratory measures. Measures included total motility, sperm plasma membrane integrity (viability), acrosome integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane energy potential (mito-potential), zinc signatures (signatures 1 to 4), and CD9 protein populations at pre-wash, post-wash, h 0 (diluted with non-capacitation media), and at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h after dilution with ...


Relationship Of Dag1 And Serpina5 Sperm Proteins With Bull Fertility, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Julie Walker, Jerica J. J. Rich, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Taylor N. Andrews, Adalaide C. Kline, Jessica Nora Drum, M. Sofia Ortega, George Perry 2022 South Dakota State University

Relationship Of Dag1 And Serpina5 Sperm Proteins With Bull Fertility, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Julie Walker, Jerica J. J. Rich, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Taylor N. Andrews, Adalaide C. Kline, Jessica Nora Drum, M. Sofia Ortega, George Perry

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Semen from 22 dairy bulls was used to evaluate the presence, localization, and quantification of DAG1 and SERPINA5 on sperm. Sperm motility parameters and viability was also evaluated for semen from each bull. Semen from 19 out of the 22 dairy bulls was used for in vitro embryo production (two Low-SCR and one High-SCR were not available for in vitro embryo production). Bulls were classified based on their sire conception rates (SCR) values as High-SCR (SCR > 1.0) or Low-SCR fertility (SCR < -4.0). Low fertility bulls were subdivided based on their blastocyst rate (BL) as High-BL (Low-SCR/High-BL BL ≥ 31%) or Low-BL (Low-SCR/Low-BL BL ≤ 26%), and High-SCR bulls were not subdivided. The GLM procedure in SAS was used with bull as a fixed effect to determine if variance was greater between bulls compared to within bull. Correlations were determined among DAG1 and SERPINA5 concentrations, percentage of tail labeled for SERPINA5, SCR, sperm total motility, progressive motility, and viability, and in vitro embryo produced cleavage rate (CL) and BL. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used to evaluate the relationship of bull field fertility (High- and Low-SCR), and field and in vitro fertility (High-SCR, Low-SCR/High-BL, Low-SCR/Low-BL) classifications with sperm total (TMOT) and progressive (PROG) motility, viability, CL, BL, DAG1 and SERPINA5 relative concentration, and proportion of sperm tail labeled for SERPINA5. Both SERPINA5 and DAG1 were localized on the sperm head; however, SERPINA5 was also localized on the sperm tail. There was greater variance in concentration among bulls compared to within bull for both DAG1 (P < 0.01; 69.4 vs 49.1, respectively) and SERPINA5 (P < 0.01; 325.8 vs 285.4, respectively). There was a positive correlation between concentration of DAG1 and SERPINA5 (P = 0.01; r = 0.54). Concentrations of SERPINA5 were also correlated with CL (P = 0.04; r = 0.48), and percentage of sperm tail labeled for SERPINA5 was correlated with viability (P = 0.05; r = 0.44) and tended to be correlated with CL (P = 0.10; r = 0.39). There was no relationship between SCR or BL rate classifications and DAG1 (P ≥ 0.66), SERPINA5 (P ≥ 0.54), or percentage of sperm tail labeled for SERPINA5 (P ≥ 0.48).


Proteomic Analysis Of Epididymal And Ejaculated Sperm And Respective Fluids, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Emmalee J. Northrop-Albrecht, Julie Walker, Robert A. Cushman, George Perry 2022 South Dakota State University

Proteomic Analysis Of Epididymal And Ejaculated Sperm And Respective Fluids, Saulo Menegatti Zoca, Emmalee J. Northrop-Albrecht, Julie Walker, Robert A. Cushman, George Perry

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Ejaculated and epididymal semen was collected from mature Angus bulls (n = 9), and then centrifuged to separate sperm and fluid. Fluids were collected and sperm pellets were resuspended in a high ionic solution and vortexed to remove loosely attached proteins. Sperm samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was collected. Samples collected for protein analysis were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 ºC. Protein analysis was performed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). Yearling Angus cross bulls (n = 40) were used for sperm cultures. Ejaculated (n = 20) and epididymal (n = 20) sperm were ...


Effect Of Estrous Synchronization With Natural Service Or Fixed-Timed Artificial Insemination Using Conventional Or Gender-Kkewed Semen In Beef Females On Calving Distribution And Post Weaning Calf Performance, Julie Walker, Jerica J.J. Rich, Warren Rusche, Matthew Diersen, George Perry 2022 South Dakota State University

Effect Of Estrous Synchronization With Natural Service Or Fixed-Timed Artificial Insemination Using Conventional Or Gender-Kkewed Semen In Beef Females On Calving Distribution And Post Weaning Calf Performance, Julie Walker, Jerica J.J. Rich, Warren Rusche, Matthew Diersen, George Perry

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Within 10 herds, beef females (n = 1,620) were either: 1) not synchronized (NonSyn) and mated to bulls, 2) synchronized (7-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR)) and mated to bulls (SynNS) 3) synchronized (7-d CO-Synch plus CIDR) and artificially inseminated with conventional semen (SynAI), or 4) synchronized (7-d CO-Synch plus CIDR) and artificially inseminated with SEXED semen. Calving distributions (calves born from d 1 to 14, 1 to 21, 22 to 42, and 43 and greater) were determined by actual birthdates and calf gender was determined at birth. Over a two-year period, a subset of calves (n = 508 ...


Improving Heifer Development Programs Using Precision Technology And Ddgs, Anna Dagel, Hector Menendez III, Jameson R. Brennan 2022 South Dakota State University

Improving Heifer Development Programs Using Precision Technology And Ddgs, Anna Dagel, Hector Menendez Iii, Jameson R. Brennan

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Heifers were stratified into two groups based on initial body weight and each group was randomly assigned to one of two treatments: a control group (n=30) and a precision group (n=30). Treatment groups are separated into different pastures to graze dormant native range from November to April. Groups are rotated monthly to reduce individual pasture influence. Heifers in the control group are supplemented as a group and bunk fed 5lb/head/day with dried distiller grain pellets (DDGS). Heifers within the precision group will be supplemented individually using the SmartFeed system (C-Lock Inc. Rapid City, SD ...


Factors Influencing Price Of South Dakota Feeder Calves Fall 2021 And Winter 2022, Adele Harty, Olivia Amundson, Robin Salverson, Kiernan Brandt, Heather Gessner, Julie Walker, Hossein Moradi Rekabdarkolaee 2022 South Dakota State University

Factors Influencing Price Of South Dakota Feeder Calves Fall 2021 And Winter 2022, Adele Harty, Olivia Amundson, Robin Salverson, Kiernan Brandt, Heather Gessner, Julie Walker, Hossein Moradi Rekabdarkolaee

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Data was collected at Faith, Philip, Hub City (Aberdeen), Mitchell, and Ft. Pierre Livestock Auctions during the weeks of October 4, 11, 18, and November 1, 2021. Data was collected and analyzed on the approximately 116,000 head of calves that were marketed during that time frame. Data collected included: auction barn, date, seller id, sex, number of head per lot, average weight, hide color, uniformity information, vaccination data, creep feed, implants, branded programs, weaned, horns, mud score, price per hundredweight, price per head, and additional comments. Uniformity score and weighted average price per hundredweight was calculated for ...


Comparing The Impact Of Continuous And Virtually Fenced Rotational Grazing On Animal Behavior And Distribution, Logan Vandermark, Jameson Brennan, Krista Ehlert, Hector Menendez III 2022 South Dakota State University

Comparing The Impact Of Continuous And Virtually Fenced Rotational Grazing On Animal Behavior And Distribution, Logan Vandermark, Jameson Brennan, Krista Ehlert, Hector Menendez Iii

SDSU Beef Day 2022 Summary Publication

Study Description:

Six herds of yearling steers (n=127) will graze native summer pastures from May to August at the Cottonwood Field Station near Philip, South Dakota. Six pastures are divided into two groups: a continuous grazing (CG) treatment with a low, moderate, and high stocking density and a virtually fenced rotational (VFR) grazing system with the same stocking densities. VenceTM virtual fence collars were placed on all animals within the study and collected GPS data at 5-minute intervals. The CG collars are not actively managed. The VFR system is actively managed through the collars and rotated based on the ...


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