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The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Genetic Variation Of The Dgat1 Gene In Dual-Purpose Dairy Cows And Its Influence On Economically Important Breeding Traits, Mark E. Armitage, Emma Swan, Denise O'Meara 2019 Waterford Institute of Technology

Genetic Variation Of The Dgat1 Gene In Dual-Purpose Dairy Cows And Its Influence On Economically Important Breeding Traits, Mark E. Armitage, Emma Swan, Denise O'Meara

Sure-J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background
Over the last 10 years, the discovery of individual, or candidate, genes that influence economically important traits has revolutionised how the dairy industry selects cows for breeding programmes. One such gene, the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene is significant in dairy production as it is associated with the synthesis of fat in milk, and polymorphisms within the gene can be used for selection purposes. In this study, the variants (genotypes) of the K232A polymorphism of the DGAT1 gene, within a dual-purpose dairy herd, bred for both dairy and beef production, were determined, and compared to the Economic Breeding Index ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2019 Iowa State University

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Jacek A. Koziel

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2019 Iowa State University

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Somchai Rice

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2019 Iowa State University

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Devin L. Maurer

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2019 Iowa State University

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass 2019 Bowling Green State University

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

The beef industry is harmful to the environment and human health and alternative solutions must be implemented in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Water and grain are used in agriculture in abundance despite the negative environmental effects it causes. Cattle are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the sector, also contributing to climate change. Antibiotics are used in large quantities without regard to potential future consequences. One potential solution for this problem is lab-grown beef, which demands very little from the consumer and would take pressure off the environmental issues the beef industry creates. Lab-grown ...


Co-Expression Networks Reveal Potential Regulatory Roles Of Mirnas In Fatty Acid Composition Of Nelore Cattle, Priscila S. N. de Oliveira, Luiz L. Coutinho, Aline S. M. Cesar, Wellison J. da Silva Diniz, Marcela M. de Souza, Bruno G. Andrade, James E. Koltes, Gerson B. Mourão, Adhemar Zerlotini, James M. Reecy, Luciana C. A. Regitano 2019 Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste

Co-Expression Networks Reveal Potential Regulatory Roles Of Mirnas In Fatty Acid Composition Of Nelore Cattle, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Luiz L. Coutinho, Aline S. M. Cesar, Wellison J. Da Silva Diniz, Marcela M. De Souza, Bruno G. Andrade, James E. Koltes, Gerson B. Mourão, Adhemar Zerlotini, James M. Reecy, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Fatty acid (FA) content affects the sensorial and nutritional value of meat and plays a significant role in biological processes such as adipogenesis and immune response. It is well known that, in beef, the main FAs associated with these biological processes are oleic acid (C18:1 cis9, OA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11), which may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we performed differential expression and co-expression analyses, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and partial correlation with information theory (PCIT), to uncover the complex interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs expressed in ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

With the increasing meat demand and awareness of sustainability, concerns have been raised regarding the sustainability of beef production and processing. However, scarce data and inadequate sustainability assessment frameworks for the U.S. beef processing industry limit the ability to develop new technologies and policies comprehensively without shifting sustainability burdens. To fill those gaps, various assessments of the U.S. beef processing industry were conducted from multiple perspectives regarding the environmental, economic, microbial effectiveness of its antimicrobial systems, and human health impacts from foodborne illness, occupational hazards, and environmental pollution.

First, process-level water and energy usage at a typical large-size ...


Beef Production Systems In The Nebraska Sandhills, McKay Erickson 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Beef Production Systems In The Nebraska Sandhills, Mckay Erickson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Four studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of improving production systems of beef cattle in the Sandhills region of Nebraska. These studies were to determine impacts of modified estrus synchronization protocols, genomic testing heifer calves for longevity, and evaluation of 2 differing calving systems (March or May) for improving biological outcome and improved production. Experiment 1 utilized 180 yearling heifers to determine the effectiveness of a second dose of prostaglandin F(PGF) with those females not expressing estrus after an initial 14 d MGA-PG estrus synchronization protocol. The treatment of PGF did increase estrus expression, but did not ...


Role Of Methionine In Fetal Development Of Beef Cattle, Colin D. Chalk 2019 Missouri State University

Role Of Methionine In Fetal Development Of Beef Cattle, Colin D. Chalk

MSU Graduate Theses

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether total amino acids (AA) or methionine have an effect on fetal programming of calves using 108 Angus Brangus cows. Treatments were 1) Control, limpograss hay with molasses plus urea (16% CP as fed basis) at 2.72 kg./hd/d, 2) Fishmeal, Control plus 0.33 kg./hd/d of fishmeal ( methionine 2.85 % of RUP), and 3) Methionine, Control plus 10 g/hd/d of MetaSmart liquid (Addisseo Alpharetta, GA) . Fishmeal and Methionine treatments supplied similar amounts of metabolizable methionine. Weight of cows and calves along with body condition score ...


Selective Harvest Methods And Chemical Treatment Of Baled Corn Residue For Utilization In Growing Calf And Dry Cow Diets, Ashley C. Conway 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Selective Harvest Methods And Chemical Treatment Of Baled Corn Residue For Utilization In Growing Calf And Dry Cow Diets, Ashley C. Conway

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three studies were conducted to evaluate baled corn residue using selective harvest method and anhydrous ammonia treatments to assess utility in growing calf and dry cow diets. Baled corn residue was harvested using conventional rake-and-bale (CONV) method, or harvested using the New Holland Cornrower in which either eight rows (8ROW), or two rows (2ROW) of corn stalks were chopped into the windrow with tailings. Bales were either not treated or ammoniated at 5.5% DM. When fed to wether lambs in a mixed ration (65% residue, 30% wet corn gluten feed) to determine digestibility, the 2ROW residue had greater apparent ...


Determining The Relationship Among Cattle Genotype, Hair Coat Score, And Productivity Through The Investigation Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within Prolactin, Dopamine Receptor D2, And Melatonin Receptor 1a, Erin Davis 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Relationship Among Cattle Genotype, Hair Coat Score, And Productivity Through The Investigation Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within Prolactin, Dopamine Receptor D2, And Melatonin Receptor 1a, Erin Davis

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Prolactin (PRL), melatonin (MTN), and dopamine (DA) are all hormones that are believed to play a role in the regulation and growth of hair in beef cattle. There are also single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with each of these hormones or their receptors, indicating that the investigation of these polymorphisms could allow them to serve as genetic markers for the future productivity of an animal. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships among cattle genotype, hair coat score, and productivity through the investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within prolactin, dopamine receptor D2, and melatonin receptor 1A. Body weights ...


Evaluation Of Two Implants For Steers On Early-Intensively Grazed Tallgrass Native Range, J. K. Farney, M. E. Corrigan 2019 Kansas State University

Evaluation Of Two Implants For Steers On Early-Intensively Grazed Tallgrass Native Range, J. K. Farney, M. E. Corrigan

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: To evaluate the effect of two implants that have different lengths of effective use on stocker cattle gains within an intensive early double-stocked native tallgrass prairie grazing system.

Study Description: Stocker steers (n = 281) were implanted with Revalor-G (Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ) or Synovex One Grass (Zoetis, Inc., Kalamazoo, MI) and grazed on tallgrass native range for 90 days during the summer. The steers were individually weighed, after an overnight shrink, on the day of implanting, at midpoint of grazing, and the end of the grazing period. Total gains and average daily gain were evaluated.

The Bottom Line ...


Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2019 Kansas State University

Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

One hundred ninety-two yearling steers grazing tall fescue pastures were used to evalu­ate the effects of fescue cultivar and interseeding ladino clover on available forage, grazing gains, and subsequent finishing performance in 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fescue cultivars evaluated were high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ low-endophyte Kentucky 31, ‘HM4,’ and ‘MaxQ.’ In 2016 and 2018, steers that grazed pastures of low-endophyte Kentucky 31, HM4, or MaxQ gained significantly more (P < 0.05) and produced more (P < 0.05) gain/a than those that grazed high-endophyte Kentucky 31 pastures. Gains of cattle that grazed low-endophyte Kentucky 31, HM4, or MaxQ were similar (P > 0.05). In 2017, steer gains were similar (P > 0.05) among all cultivars. High-endo­phyte Kentucky 31 pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage than low-endophyte Kentucky 31, HM4, or MaxQ pastures during both 2016 and 2017. Steer gains and gain/acre were similar (P > 0.05) between pastures fertilized with nitrogen (N) in ...


Consumer Evaluation Of The Degree Of Doneness Of Beef Strip Loin Steaks Cooked To Six End-Point Temperatures, L. L. Prill, L. N. Drey, J. L. Vipham, M. D. Chao, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn 2019 Kansas State University

Consumer Evaluation Of The Degree Of Doneness Of Beef Strip Loin Steaks Cooked To Six End-Point Temperatures, L. L. Prill, L. N. Drey, J. L. Vipham, M. D. Chao, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess consumers’ degree of doneness practices in addition to their ability to identify beef steak degrees of doneness.

Study Description: Beef strip loins (n = 24) from 12 animals representing five quality treatments [Prime, Top Choice, Low Choice, Select, and Select Enhanced (108%)] were collected. Steaks were cooked to an end-point temperature of very-rare (130°F), rare (140°F), medium-rare (145°F), medium (160°F), well-done (170°F), or very well-done (180°F). Cooked steaks were cut in half, perpendicular to the long axis of the steak, and photographs were taken immediately on ...


Quality Grade Has No Effect On Top Sirloin Steaks Cooked To Multiple Degrees Of Doneness, B. A. Olson, E. A. Rice, J. M. Gonzalez, J. L. Vipham, M. D. Chao, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn 2019 Kansas State University

Quality Grade Has No Effect On Top Sirloin Steaks Cooked To Multiple Degrees Of Doneness, B. A. Olson, E. A. Rice, J. M. Gonzalez, J. L. Vipham, M. D. Chao, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cooking top sirloin steaks from four quality grades to multiple degrees of doneness (rare, medium, well-done) on beef palatability traits.

Study Description: Beef top sirloin butts (n = 60; 15/quality grade) from four U.S. Department of Agriculture quality grades [Prime, Top Choice (Modest and Moderate marbling), Low Choice, and Select] were selected from a Midwest beef processor. Top butts were transported to the Kansas State University Meat Laboratory, fabricated into 1-in steaks, vacuum packaged, and aged for 28 days at 39.2°F. Following aging, steaks were ...


Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2019 Kansas State University

Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 360 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheat-bermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0 ...


Including Legumes In Wheat-Bermudagrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2019 Kansas State University

Including Legumes In Wheat-Bermudagrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Use of legumes in wheat-bermudagrass pastures did not affect summer cow gains in 2018. Forage availability was greater (P < 0.05) where nitrogen (N) alone was used than where crimson clover and ladino clover were used in the Legume system. Estimated for­age crude protein (CP) was similar (P > 0.05) for the Legume and Nitrogen systems.


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