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Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Impact Of Sire Selection And Breed On Parasite Resistance In Sheep, Andrew Ryan Weaver 2020 West Virginia University

Impact Of Sire Selection And Breed On Parasite Resistance In Sheep, Andrew Ryan Weaver

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Selection within and among breeds are strategies to mitigate the impact of parasitism given failing chemotherapeutics. While Texels have improved marketability compared to other parasite-resistant breeds, the mechanism by which Texels reduce fecal egg count (FEC) is unclear. The immune response to Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was compared in Texel, parasite-resistant St. Croix, and parasite-susceptible Suffolk sheep. Adult worms exposed to St. Croix- and Texel-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum in vitro had greater binding around the reproductive structures than Suffolk and worm egg release tended to be affected by breed (P = 0.09). Resistance in Texels may be caused ...


Effect Of Sire Breed On Grass-Based Lamb Production, Camren L. Maierle 2020 West Virginia University

Effect Of Sire Breed On Grass-Based Lamb Production, Camren L. Maierle

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Improvement of lamb performance in low-input operations may prove vital for the sustainability of eastern US sheep production. Maintaining growth while improving carcass conformation using terminal sire crossbreeding systems may increase value in a pasture-based system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare effects of terminal sire breed on parasitism, growth, marketability of grazing lambs. Suffolk (SU; n = 2) and Texel (TX; n = 2) sires were mated to commercial ewes at the WVU Organic Farm. April-born lambs were managed on pasture as one group until weaning (mid-June), then were separated into 3 replicates per sire breed. Lambs were ...


Genome-Wide Scans Identify Known And Novel Regions Associated With Prolificacy And Reproduction Traits In A Sub-Saharan African Indigenous Sheep (Ovis Aries), Asrat Tera Dolebo, Negar Khayatzadeh, Aberra Melesse, David Wragg, Mourad Rekik, Aynalem Haile, Barbara Rischkowsky, Max F. Rothschild, Joram M. Mwacharo 2019 Southern Agricultural Research Institute (SARI)

Genome-Wide Scans Identify Known And Novel Regions Associated With Prolificacy And Reproduction Traits In A Sub-Saharan African Indigenous Sheep (Ovis Aries), Asrat Tera Dolebo, Negar Khayatzadeh, Aberra Melesse, David Wragg, Mourad Rekik, Aynalem Haile, Barbara Rischkowsky, Max F. Rothschild, Joram M. Mwacharo

Animal Science Publications

Maximizing the number of offspring born per female is a key functionality trait in commercial- and/or subsistence-oriented livestock enterprises. Although the number of offspring born is closely associated with female fertility and reproductive success, the genetic control of these traits remains poorly understood in sub-Saharan Africa livestock. Using selection signature analysis performed on Ovine HD BeadChip data from the prolific Bonga sheep in Ethiopia, 41 candidate regions under selection were identified. The analysis revealed one strong selection signature on a candidate region on chromosome X spanning BMP15, suggesting this to be the primary candidate prolificacy gene in the breed ...


Strategies To Improve Forage Utilization By Sheep Offered Forage Mixtures, Valens Niyigena 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Strategies To Improve Forage Utilization By Sheep Offered Forage Mixtures, Valens Niyigena

Theses and Dissertations

In the first experiment, alfalfa and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue (NE+) forages were harvested after a killing frost, then mixed to formulate 4 different treatments; alfalfa alone, 67% alfalfa +33% fescue, 33% alfalfa + 67% fescue, or 100% fescue. After 3 months of storage as silage, Dorper ewe lambs (n = 20; mean BW = 34.7 ± 6.65 kg) were fed silage for ad libitum consumption, using 5 animals per treatment. Increasing the proportion of NE+ tall fescue improved (P < 0.05) silage total acids and lactic acid concentrations and decreased silage ammonia concentration. Digestible dry matter and organic matter intake and nitrogen utilization parameters decreased with increasing inclusion of NE+ in diet. In the second experiment, 16 Dorper ewe lambs (41.8 ± 4.61 kg BW) were assigned to 4 different treatments; alfalfa silage alone (0 g/kg; CONT) or alfalfa silage mixed with chopped sericea lespedeza (SL) hay to provide 90 (LOW), 180 (MED), or 270 g/kg SL (HIGH) on a dry matter basis in a randomized complete block design experiment with 2 period to provide 4 observations per treatment for each experimental period. Increasing the proportion of sericea lespedeza in the diet decreased dry matter and organic matter digestibility but did not affect feed intake. Fecal nitrogen (g/kg N intake) increased linearly (P < 0.01) while urinary N (g/ day and g/ kg of N intake) tended to decreased linearly and quadratically (P ≤ 0.1) with increasing the proportion of SL in diet. In the third experiments, 16 gestating Dorper ewe lambs (49.1 ± 4.61 kg BW) were allocated to 4 treatments; alfalfa silage alone (0% g/kg; CONT) or alfalfa silage mixed with lablab purpureus(LP) hay to provide 90 (LOW), 180 (MED), or 270 g/kg LP (HIGH) on a dry matter (DM) basis, in a randomized complete block design experiment with a total 8 replication per treatment. Supplementation of LP in diet increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) forage dry matter, organic matter intake, digestible dry matter and digestible organic matter intake (P < 0.05). Nitrogen apparently absorbed and urinary N both decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with adding more LP hay in diet. Harvesting and mixing alfalfa and fescue after a killing frost improved silage fermentation characteristics and supplementation of tannins from SL and polyphenol from LP altered N excretion.

Key words: lablab, sericea lespedeza, alfalfa silage, nitrogen, sheep.


Hunting And Mountain Sheep: Do Current Harvest Practices Affect Horn Growth?, Tayler N. LaSharr, Ryan A. Long, James R. Heffelfinger, Vernon C. Bleich, Paul R. Krausman, R. Terry Bowyer, Justin M. Shannon, Robert W. Klaver, Clay E. Brewer, Mike Cox, A. Andrew Holland, Anne Hubbs, Chadwick P. Lehman, Jonathatn D. Muir, Bruce Sterling, Kevin L. Monteith 2019 Univeristy of Wyoming

Hunting And Mountain Sheep: Do Current Harvest Practices Affect Horn Growth?, Tayler N. Lasharr, Ryan A. Long, James R. Heffelfinger, Vernon C. Bleich, Paul R. Krausman, R. Terry Bowyer, Justin M. Shannon, Robert W. Klaver, Clay E. Brewer, Mike Cox, A. Andrew Holland, Anne Hubbs, Chadwick P. Lehman, Jonathatn D. Muir, Bruce Sterling, Kevin L. Monteith

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The influence of human harvest on evolution of secondary sexual characteristics has implications for sustainable management of wildlife populations. The phenotypic consequences of selectively removing males with large horns or antlers from ungulate populations has been a topic of heightened concern in recent years. Harvest can affect size of horn‐like structures in two ways: 1) shifting age structure toward younger age classes, which can reduce the mean size of horn‐like structures; or 2) selecting against genes that produce large, fast‐growing males. We evaluated effects of age, climatic and forage conditions, and metrics of harvest on horn size ...


Innovative Resources In Small Ruminant Health, Sarah Paluso 2019 The University of Maine

Innovative Resources In Small Ruminant Health, Sarah Paluso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudoTB) that affects small ruminants. This disease has a worldwide prevalence and results in significant economic losses to the sheep and goat industries. Antibiotics have had limited success in treating CL, due to the difficulty of penetrating the dry, thick-walled abscesses that characterize this disease. Essential oils are complex bioactive compounds that have been increasingly explored as sources of antimicrobial activity. Due to the nature of these oils, tissue and wood penetration may be possible, enabling topical and environmental treatment (e.g.; disinfectants of farm surfaces, such ...


Evaluation Of Enzyme Effectiveness At Enhancing Fiber Digestion In Small Ruminants, Rachel Ranells 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Enzyme Effectiveness At Enhancing Fiber Digestion In Small Ruminants, Rachel Ranells

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Feed costs account for up to 70% of total production costs making it vital that livestock producers maximize feed efficiency in a cost-effective manner (Bach, 2012). Producers often utilize feed additives to optimize nutrient absorption and increase productivity (McGrath et al., 2018). This study was conducted to determine the effects of an enzyme supplement containing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake and digestibility by lambs fed ad libitum diets of either alfalfa or bermudagrass hay. The study was set up in a 2 2 ...


Refinement Of An In Vivo Exsheathment Assay Of Haemonchus Contortus In Ruminally Fistulated Ewes, Madison Parks 2019 University of Rhode Island

Refinement Of An In Vivo Exsheathment Assay Of Haemonchus Contortus In Ruminally Fistulated Ewes, Madison Parks

Senior Honors Projects

My honors project examined one aspect of an overarching research project currently happening here at the University of Rhode Island studying the parasite Haemonchus contortus. This project focused on revising the current working assay for in vivo exsheathment of the parasite in cannulated ewes in order to find more cost effective materials and shorten the length of time the assay takes to complete. Haemonchus contortus, commonly known as the barber pole worm, inhabits the digestive tract of sheep and goats. It feeds on the blood in the abomasum, a chamber of the ruminant stomach, and causes anemia and sometimes death ...


Productivity And Meat Quality With Meat Goat Management, Trent Drae Dugas 2019 Louisiana State University

Productivity And Meat Quality With Meat Goat Management, Trent Drae Dugas

LSU Master's Theses

The growth of kid meat goats and their carcass and meat characteristics with monensin sodium or decoquinate coccidiostats in feed were studied. Seventy-three goats of various breeds were divided into six groups with the treatments of control, monensin and decoquinate. Half of the goats were harvested at day 45 and the rest at day 60. The second harvest monensin group had a larger percentage of the goat carcass as the hind leg (P

Supplementation of permanent pasture with sunn hemp forage or concentrate feed were compared for influences on growth, carcass traits, and meat properties of kid meat goats. Goats ...


A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Exposure On Domestic Lamb Growth And Performance, Thomas E. Besser, Jessica Levy, Melissa Ackerman, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Kathleen A. Potter, Jan Busboom, Margaret Benson 2019 Washington State University

A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Exposure On Domestic Lamb Growth And Performance, Thomas E. Besser, Jessica Levy, Melissa Ackerman, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Kathleen A. Potter, Jan Busboom, Margaret Benson

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is a globally distributed pathogen that has been associated with pneumonia in both domestic and wild Caprinae. It is closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, a respiratory pathogen of swine that is associated with decreased growth rates of pigs as well as clinical respiratory disease. In order to assess the effects of M. ovipneumoniae on lamb performance, we generated a cohort of lambs free of M. ovipneumoniae by segregation of test negative ewes after lambing, then compared the growth and carcass quality traits of M. ovipneumoniae-free and -colonized lambs from weaning to harvest. Some signs of respiratory disease ...


Characterization Of Ovine Monocytes In Response To Haemonchus Contortus Larvae In Vitro And A Novel Role Of Interleukin-13 Inducing Larval Paralysis, Elizabeth Shepherd 2019 West Virginia University

Characterization Of Ovine Monocytes In Response To Haemonchus Contortus Larvae In Vitro And A Novel Role Of Interleukin-13 Inducing Larval Paralysis, Elizabeth Shepherd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Haemonchus contortus is a hematophagous, gastrointestinal parasite affecting small ruminants. Parasitism by H. contortus is the greatest concern of sheep producers in the United States and accounts for billions of dollars in economic loss worldwide. However, different breeds of sheep display differences n natural resistance to H. contortus. St. Croix hair sheep have a remarkable ability to clear H. contortus without the aid of anthelmintics and develop a robust T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response, preventing establishment of infective stage 3 larvae (L3), when compared to susceptible Suffolk sheep. However, the mechanism of development of immune response and differences ...


Alternative Treatment Options For Controlling Anthelmintic-Resistant Haemonchus Contortus Populations In South Dakota Sheep Herds, Adam Sarah 2019 South Dakota State University

Alternative Treatment Options For Controlling Anthelmintic-Resistant Haemonchus Contortus Populations In South Dakota Sheep Herds, Adam Sarah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Haemonchus contortus is a common economically important gastrointestinal nematode that obliges the survival and productivity of small ruminants, especially sheep and goats. Anthelmintic resistance is a primary challenge in ruminant health management programs in preventing and controlling the H. contortus populations; therefore, there is a great necessity in finding and developing natural plant products for use as alternatives to commercial anthelmintics for controlling H. contortus in pastured sheep and goats. This dissertation has three major aims conducted in three separate studies: the first in vivo one was to evaluate the extended effect of a springtime, combined-treatment with 3 anthelmintics having ...


The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. McGranahan, Robert M. Timm 2019 University of California - Cooperative Extension

The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Robert M. Timm

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Predation by wild carnivores challenges livestock producers worldwide. To reduce or offset losses due to predation, a variety of predator control methods and compensation schemes have been developed. In 2001, Marin County, California, USA replaced its U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services (WS) cooperative predator damage management program with a county-run program that emphasized nonlethal methods for preventing and controlling coyote (Canis latrans) predation on domestic sheep (Ovis aries). This new Livestock Protection Program (LPP) cost-shared with livestock producers’ efforts to improve fencing, obtain and maintain guard animals, and other such nonlethal methods, and initially it compensated producers for ...


Smart Sheep Need More Protection, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Smart Sheep Need More Protection, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

The target article unequivocally establishes that sheep are far more intelligent and cognitively sophisticated than is generally acknowledged. For this reason, the authors advocate for significantly more stringent regulation of agricultural and research practices when sheep are used. I briefly review the existing US regulations governing the use of sheep in research and discuss the extent to which they are applied to sheep. I then discuss weaknesses in the current regulations, concluding that they should be changed to mandate housing all research animals in environments that accommodate the psychosocial needs of each species.


Predicting Kidding Date Using Prepartum Milk Calcium Concentrations And Comparing Kid Growth To Colostrum Quality In Goats, Justin Hamm 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Predicting Kidding Date Using Prepartum Milk Calcium Concentrations And Comparing Kid Growth To Colostrum Quality In Goats, Justin Hamm

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Goats have a very long history with mankind and are commonly used as a nutritious red meat source around the world. The supply of goat meat in the United States does not meet the growing demand from ethnic consumers. This provides an economic opportunity in Arkansas agriculture because goats are uniquely adapted to the Ozark environment. There is a wide gap in caprine research which facilitated the conception of the study’s objectives to determine whether prepartum milk in goats showed a sudden rise in calcium levels within 24 to 48 hours of kidding and to ascertain whether an ...


Signatures Of Selection And Environmental Adaptation Across The Goat Genome Post-Domestication, Francesca Bertolini, Bertrand Servin, Andrea Talenti, Estelle Rochat, Eui Soo Kim, Claire Oget, Isabelle Palhière, Alessandra Crisà, Gennaro Catillo, Roberto Steri, Marcel Amills, Licia Colli, Gabriele Marras, Marco Milanesi, Ezequiel Nicolazzi, Benjamin D. Rosen, Curtis P. Van Tassell, Brent Guldbrandtsen, Tad S. Sonstegard, Gwenola Tosser‑Klopp, Alessandra Stella, Max F. Rothschild, Stéphane Joost, Paola Crepaldi, AdaptMap consortium 2018 Iowa State University

Signatures Of Selection And Environmental Adaptation Across The Goat Genome Post-Domestication, Francesca Bertolini, Bertrand Servin, Andrea Talenti, Estelle Rochat, Eui Soo Kim, Claire Oget, Isabelle Palhière, Alessandra Crisà, Gennaro Catillo, Roberto Steri, Marcel Amills, Licia Colli, Gabriele Marras, Marco Milanesi, Ezequiel Nicolazzi, Benjamin D. Rosen, Curtis P. Van Tassell, Brent Guldbrandtsen, Tad S. Sonstegard, Gwenola Tosser‑Klopp, Alessandra Stella, Max F. Rothschild, Stéphane Joost, Paola Crepaldi, Adaptmap Consortium

Animal Science Publications

Background: Since goat was domesticated 10,000 years ago, many factors have contributed to the differentiation of goat breeds and these are classified mainly into two types: (i) adaptation to different breeding systems and/or purposes and (ii) adaptation to different environments. As a result, approximately 600 goat breeds have developed worldwide; they differ considerably from one another in terms of phenotypic characteristics and are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. In this work, we analyzed the AdaptMap goat dataset, which is composed of data from more than 3000 animals collected worldwide and genotyped with the CaprineSNP50 BeadChip ...


Adaptmap: Exploring Goat Diversity And Adaptation, Alessandra Stella, Ezequiel Luis Nicolazzi, Curtis P. Van Tassell, Max F. Rothschild, Licia Colli, Benjamin D. Rosen, Tad S. Sonstegard, Paola Crepaldi, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp, Stephane Joost, Francesca Bertolini, Jim Reecy, AdaptMap Consortium 2018 Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Adaptmap: Exploring Goat Diversity And Adaptation, Alessandra Stella, Ezequiel Luis Nicolazzi, Curtis P. Van Tassell, Max F. Rothschild, Licia Colli, Benjamin D. Rosen, Tad S. Sonstegard, Paola Crepaldi, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp, Stephane Joost, Francesca Bertolini, Jim Reecy, Adaptmap Consortium

Animal Science Publications

International initiatives on goat genetics and genomics

Goats are bred worldwide and present in a wide variety of production environments. Local breeds, which are well adapted to a range of agro-ecological conditions, contribute to ensuring the sustainability of livestock farming in marginal and difficult areas in both developed and developing countries. Compared to other livestock species, goats have been domesticated in a single region and subject to a limited amount of hybridization between breeds, thus they represent one of the best species for the study of genetic diversity and adaptation.


Patterns Of Homozygosity In Insular And Continental Goat Breeds, Taina F. Cardoso, Marcel Amills, Francesca Bertolini, Max Rothschild, Gabriele Marras, Geert Boink, Jordi Jordana, Juan Capote, Sean Carolan, Jón H. Hallsson, Juha Kantanen, Agueda Pons, Johannes A. Lenstra, The AdaptMap Consortium 2018 Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Patterns Of Homozygosity In Insular And Continental Goat Breeds, Taina F. Cardoso, Marcel Amills, Francesca Bertolini, Max Rothschild, Gabriele Marras, Geert Boink, Jordi Jordana, Juan Capote, Sean Carolan, Jón H. Hallsson, Juha Kantanen, Agueda Pons, Johannes A. Lenstra, The Adaptmap Consortium

Animal Science Publications

Background: Genetic isolation of breeds may result in a significant loss of diversity and have consequences on health and performance. In this study, we examined the effect of geographic isolation on caprine genetic diversity patterns by genotyping 480 individuals from 25 European and African breeds with the Goat SNP50 BeadChip and comparing patterns of homozygosity of insular and nearby continental breeds.

Results: Among the breeds analysed, number and total length of ROH varied considerably and depending on breeds, ROH could cover a substantial fraction of the genome (up to 1.6 Gb in Icelandic goats). When compared with their continental ...


Genome-Wide Patterns Of Homozygosity Provide Clues About The Population History And Adaptation Of Goats, Francesca Bertolini, Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Gabriele Marras, Ezequiel L. Nicolazzi, Max F. Rothschild, Marcel Amills, AdaptMap consortium 2018 Iowa State University

Genome-Wide Patterns Of Homozygosity Provide Clues About The Population History And Adaptation Of Goats, Francesca Bertolini, Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Gabriele Marras, Ezequiel L. Nicolazzi, Max F. Rothschild, Marcel Amills, Adaptmap Consortium

Animal Science Publications

Background: Patterns of homozygosity can be influenced by several factors, such as demography, recombination, and selection. Using the goat SNP50 BeadChip, we genotyped 3171 goats belonging to 117 populations with a worldwide distribution. Our objectives were to characterize the number and length of runs of homozygosity (ROH) and to detect ROH hotspots in order to gain new insights into the consequences of neutral and selection processes on the genome-wide homozygosity patterns of goats.

Results: The proportion of the goat genome covered by ROH is, in general, less than 15% with an inverse relationship between ROH length and frequency i.e ...


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