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Sustainable Winter-Feeding Practices For Meat Goats Within The Southeastern United States, Nikisha Ryan, Nar Gurung, Jeremy Byrant, Frank Abrahamsen, Wendell McElhenney 2021 Tuskegee University

Sustainable Winter-Feeding Practices For Meat Goats Within The Southeastern United States, Nikisha Ryan, Nar Gurung, Jeremy Byrant, Frank Abrahamsen, Wendell Mcelhenney

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Winter feeding systems were evaluated on male Kiko meat goats against the traditional practice of raising goats in the winter months. Forty-Five Kiko bucks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; Treatment 1, Treatment 2, and Treatment 3 consisted, respectively, of Cosaque Oats, annual Ryegrass, Crimson Clover mix, and 1.0% of BW concentrate supplementation with free choice hay. Forage clippings were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber. Body weights were monitored over the grazing period. Blood samples were collected during the experiment, and animals were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Data were ...


Incorporation Of Summer Annual Mixtures Into Grazing Systems In Kentucky, Kelly Marie Mercier 2021 University of Kentucky

Incorporation Of Summer Annual Mixtures Into Grazing Systems In Kentucky, Kelly Marie Mercier

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Utilizing summer annual grass-legume forage mixtures has the potential to improve forage yield and nutritive characteristics, and/or animal performance during times when cool-season pasture growth is limited by high temperatures. Legumes can utilize atmospheric nitrogen, which can increase crude protein and forage digestibility in mixtures. As nitrogen application generally improves both the yield and nutritive characteristics of summer annual forages, but can have a negative effect on legume competitiveness, nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for legume-containing summer annual mixtures are not well established.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of utilizing summer annual mixtures in Kentucky, USA. The first ...


Classification Of Small Ruminant Lentivirus Subtype A2, Subgroups 1 And 2 Based On Whole Genome Comparisons And Complex Recombination Patterns, Aaron M. Dickey, Timothy P.L. Smith, Michael L. Clawson, Michael P. Heaton, Aspen M. Workman 2020 USDA-ARS, MARC

Classification Of Small Ruminant Lentivirus Subtype A2, Subgroups 1 And 2 Based On Whole Genome Comparisons And Complex Recombination Patterns, Aaron M. Dickey, Timothy P.L. Smith, Michael L. Clawson, Michael P. Heaton, Aspen M. Workman

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Background: Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause a multisystemic chronic wasting disease in sheep across much of the world. SRLV subtype A2 is prevalent in North America and further classified into multiple subgroups based on variation in the group antigens gene (gag) and envelope (env) genes. In sheep, the ovine transmembrane protein 154 (TMEM154) gene is associated with SRLV susceptibility. Ewes with at least one copy of TMEM154 encoding a fulllength protein with glutamate at position 35 (E35; haplotypes 2 and 3), are highly susceptible to SRLV infection while ewes with any combination of TMEM154 haplotypes which encodes lysine (K35 ...


Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring

Theses and Dissertations

Use of organic waste material by ruminant animals from food processing operations potentially reduces costs and reduces environmental issues from disposal of these residues. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the storage and feeding value of residual from edamame soybean processing for ruminant animals. Two types of waste streams, waste during harvest time and waste from processing stored material, were ensiled (on a laboratory scale) using various methods and effects on post-ensiling nutritive value were examined. Material from both waste streams were ensiled either without wilting or after wilting; each moisture level was ensiled with and without an inoculant ...


Prospects For Enhancing The Market For Goat Meat Products: Analysis Of The 2019 Goat Meat Survey, Ashton M. Light 2020 Missouri State University

Prospects For Enhancing The Market For Goat Meat Products: Analysis Of The 2019 Goat Meat Survey, Ashton M. Light

MSU Graduate Theses

The objective of this study was to identify goat meat product attributes and sociodemographic drivers of consumers’ willingness to buy to goat meat products. To do so the study used a nationwide consumer survey on goat meat preferences. A binary logit model was used to examine the factors affecting willingness to buy. Results show that gender, age, region, primary shopper, and product attribute preference for quality, price, leanness, cholesterol, and freshness significantly affect consumer willingness to buy goat sausage, jerky, burger, and patties.


Postpartum Meloxicam Administration Alters Plasma Haptoglobin, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, And Oxylipid Concentrations In Postpartum Ewes, Katie E. Olagaray, Barry J. Bradford, Lorraine M. Sordillo, Jeffery C. Gandy, Laman K. Mamedova, Turner H. Swartz, Trey D. Jackson, Emma K. Persoon, Caitlin S. Shugart, Curtis R. Youngs 2020 Kansas State University

Postpartum Meloxicam Administration Alters Plasma Haptoglobin, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, And Oxylipid Concentrations In Postpartum Ewes, Katie E. Olagaray, Barry J. Bradford, Lorraine M. Sordillo, Jeffery C. Gandy, Laman K. Mamedova, Turner H. Swartz, Trey D. Jackson, Emma K. Persoon, Caitlin S. Shugart, Curtis R. Youngs

Animal Science Publications

Background: Postpartum inflammation is a natural and necessary response; however, a dysfunctional inflammatory response can be detrimental to animal productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (meloxicam) on ewe postpartum inflammatory response, ewe plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid and oxylipid concentrations, and lamb growth.

Results: After lambing, 36 Hampshire and Hampshire × Suffolk ewes were sequentially assigned within type of birth to control (n = 17) or meloxicam orally administered on d 1 and 4 of lactation (MEL; 90 mg, n = 19). Milk and blood samples were collected on d 1 (prior to treatment ...


Livestock Preference For Endophyte-Infected Or Endophyte-Free Oxytropis Sericea, Ipomoea Carnea, And Ipomoea Asarifolia, James Pfister, Daniel Cook, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner, Franklin Riet-Correa 2020 PPRL

Livestock Preference For Endophyte-Infected Or Endophyte-Free Oxytropis Sericea, Ipomoea Carnea, And Ipomoea Asarifolia, James Pfister, Daniel Cook, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner, Franklin Riet-Correa

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Fungal endophyte-infected forages have been shown to alter herbivore feeding preferences. The objective of this experiment was to compare the preference of cattle, sheep, and goats for plants containing (E+) and not containing (E-) fungal endophytes using freshly harvested Oxytropis sericea, Ipomoea carnea, and Ipomoea asarifolia. Goats and sheep rejected all forage choices regardless of endophyte status except for grass and alfalfa hay. Endophyte status had no influence on cattle forage preferences. Cattle rejected all Oxytropis sericea E+ and E- choices. Cattle discriminated between Ipomoea species, preferring Ipomoea carnea to Ipomoea asarifolia (P = 0.004). In all comparisons, Ipomoea carnea ...


Saturday Night Live Club Lamb Sale, Tyler P. Wilkerson 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Saturday Night Live Club Lamb Sale, Tyler P. Wilkerson

Agricultural Education and Communication

“Competition is said to be the backbone of the stock show industry,” (Davis, 1998). A statement spoken in a 1998 thesis paper on the junior livestock industry still holds water in today’s world. Youth livestock exhibition, especially in California, continues to grow in the number of youth participants and the number of livestock entries at shows (Switzer, 2019).

It is the responsibility of livestock breeders to breed, raise, and sell their livestock to maximize the opportunity for youth to acquire livestock to show. In his research, Wendt discusses the capabilities of purchasing livestock through online platforms. He speaks to ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Poor Maternal Nutrition During Gestation Alters Placental Igf-I, Igf-Ii, And Igfbp-3 Mrna Expression In Sheep, Caitlyn Splaine 2020 University of Connecticut

Poor Maternal Nutrition During Gestation Alters Placental Igf-I, Igf-Ii, And Igfbp-3 Mrna Expression In Sheep, Caitlyn Splaine

Honors Scholar Theses

Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) modulate placental and fetal growth and development through nutrient sensing and endocrine signaling. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter IGF-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2, and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression in the ovine placenta, but would not affect IGF-II mRNA expression. Pregnant ewes (n=57) were individually fed: 60% (restricted fed; RES), 100% (control fed; CON), or 140% (over fed; OVER) of National Research Council requirements for TDN starting at day 30±0.2 of gestation. Ewes were euthanized and cotyledon and caruncle samples were collected at days 45, 90, and 135 of ...


Preface, 2020 Tuskegee University

Preface

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

No abstract provided.


Suitable Breed And Animal Selection For Production Efficiency, Niki Whitley 2020 Fort Valley State University

Suitable Breed And Animal Selection For Production Efficiency, Niki Whitley

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract Several goat breeds are available in the U.S. Selection of the breed should consider farm goals, production systems, markets and resources. Animal selection for breeding stock production and marketing needs to focus on breed characteristics, animal conformation, show winnings and animal pedigrees. Establishing at least one consistent market to include in a business/marketing plan that results in farm profitability prior to animal purchase is critical. After determining breed, animal selection will be critical, including choosing sellers, productive males and females with performance records, show animals, and animals with parasite resistance. For many farms, purchasing healthy, productive animals ...


Buying Healthy Goats And Keeping Them That Way, Susan Kerr 2020 Washington State University

Buying Healthy Goats And Keeping Them That Way, Susan Kerr

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Starting a goat herd with healthy animals prevents expense and effort eliminating infectious diseases. Pre-purchase testing and examinations are worth their cost because of the savings realized through fewer animal illnesses, increased production, lower medication costs, and reduced culling. Key management practices such as hoof trimming, vaccinating, body condition scoring, and assessing parasite loads are needed to maintain herd health. Biosecurity practices must become routine to prevent the introduction and/or spread of contagious diseases. Several goat diseases are contagious to humans, so biosecurity measures must address this concern. Excellent record-keeping helps producers monitor health and production trends, document ...


Grazing System And Management For Goat Production, Steve Hart 2020 Langston University

Grazing System And Management For Goat Production, Steve Hart

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract Grazing system management is for supplying inexpensive, adequate nutrition for the goat enterprise. This involves managing forages to facilitate dry matter production and managing grazing so forage quality is adequate and harvest efficiency is high while avoiding consuming internal parasites. Since nutrient costs are greatest for winter, the grazing system should be planned to provide some grazing during winter. The forage system should be managed to provide the greatest proportion of nutrients possible during kidding and lactation. The base forage species can be overseeded with cool-season or leguminous species to improve forage production, quality or the seasonal distribution of ...


Year-Round Forage Production For Sustainable Goat Farming, Uma Karki 2020 Tuskegee University

Year-Round Forage Production For Sustainable Goat Farming, Uma Karki

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Goat farming in the U.S. is based on grazing lands. Forages available for grazing throughout most of the year are essential for supplying required nutrition for goats and minimizing production costs. Most goat farmers do not have pastures productive for an extended period. This situation results in poor performing animals and high production costs. Forage availability can improve by enhancing the productivity, quality, and production duration of pastures. The inclusion of browse species in grazing systems will also improve diet variety, minimize internal parasite problems, and better utilize the soil resources. Grazing opportunity can be extended by developing ...


Nutritional Requirements Of Different Classes Of Meat Goats, Nar Gurung 2020 Tuskegee University

Nutritional Requirements Of Different Classes Of Meat Goats, Nar Gurung

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Feeds provide nutrients to animals. Feeds can be grains, crop by-products or forages. Forages can form the basis of feeds for goats in the southeastern US because year-round forage production is possible. Since goats are classified as browsers, the forage program should consist of browse and pasture. Managing browse species as feed resources is challenging, and there is limited information relative to managing browse species. Hay is the main forage feed for goats in the region and average quality hay can meet nutrient requirements for maintenance. However, nutrient requirements for late-pregnancy, lactation, and growing goats cannot be met with ...


Marketing Toward The Future, Niki Whitley, Susan Schoenian 2020 Fort Valley State University

Marketing Toward The Future, Niki Whitley, Susan Schoenian

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

United States goat producers face many challenges with regards to marketing. Although the demand for goat products is increasing, the market is fractured. There is a general lack of infrastructure and many producers do not sell their animals or products for fair or profitable prices. Production costs are too high, and there is a need to improve production efficiency. Imports pose a challenge to US goat producers, as domestic production cannot compete with the availability and lower cost of imports. Government regulations hinder market development because non-commercial slaughter is an important aspect of goat marketing, and regulations keep many ...


Comparison Of Productivity Of Different Breeds Of Meat Goats Under Low-To-Moderate-Input Systems In The United States, Richard Browning Jr., Maria L. Leite-Browning 2020 Tennessee State University

Comparison Of Productivity Of Different Breeds Of Meat Goats Under Low-To-Moderate-Input Systems In The United States, Richard Browning Jr., Maria L. Leite-Browning

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Boer and Kiko goats were imported in the 1990s to enhance the productivity of the US base population of Spanish meat goats. Successful breed introductions require adaptation to the destination environment. Well-planned, low-input management is a good route to meat goat enterprise profitability using proper goat genetics. Reproduction drives profit more than growth and carcass traits. Results of breed evaluation studies on doe reproductive and health traits, the Boer goat influence tended to be negative compared with Kiko and Spanish goat influences. Reduced doe herd reproductive output suggests reduced enterprise profitability. Differences in growth or carcass traits among sire ...


Evaluación De Dos Métodos Para Estimar Engrasamiento Corporal En Ovejas Hampshire En Trópico Alto Colombiano, Astrid Carolina Diaz Marin, Johan Alejandro Rodriguez Jimenez 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Evaluación De Dos Métodos Para Estimar Engrasamiento Corporal En Ovejas Hampshire En Trópico Alto Colombiano, Astrid Carolina Diaz Marin, Johan Alejandro Rodriguez Jimenez

Zootecnia

En el manejo de las ovejas lactantes se ha considerado importante el monitoreo de la condición corporal, siendo este el método más usado. Estudios recientes han sugerido métodos alternativos para evaluar el engrasamiento de las ovejas. El propósito del estudio fue estimar el engrasamiento corporal usando dos metodologías en ovejas Hampshire. Se realizo un estudio para comparar dos metodologías: puntaje de condición corporal (PCC) e índice de masa corporal (IMC= P/A/L/10), calculado a través de medidas morfométricas en un grupo de ovejas (n=17) durante la lactancia en una granja de trópico alto colombiano ubicado en el ...


Haemonchus Contortus Antigen Identification And Use Of Tropomyosin In Ovine Vaccine Development, Brynnan P. Russ 2020 West Virginia University

Haemonchus Contortus Antigen Identification And Use Of Tropomyosin In Ovine Vaccine Development, Brynnan P. Russ

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Globally, the small ruminant industry loses hundreds of millions of dollars due to parasitism by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. This parasite feeds on blood in the host’s abomasum leading to disease including anemia, hypoproteinemia, lethargy, and death. There have been exhaustive efforts to manage this parasite including different management applications, anthelmintic treatment, and now integration of resistance genetics into a flock. Like antibiotics, overuse of anthelmintics has led to resistance of H. contortus to these drugs. Therefore, other methods of control are the main focuses of many research initiatives. St. Croix are a resistant breed of sheep that ...


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