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Genetic Selection For Improved Production Efficiency In The Mature Dairy Herd, Maeve Williams 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Selection For Improved Production Efficiency In The Mature Dairy Herd, Maeve Williams

Theses

Improving dairy cow production efficiency is highly desirable because of its well-documented impact on profitability and sustainability. Long-term gains in dairy cow production efficiency have already been delivered through genetic selection. Nonetheless, achieving further improvements in production efficiency could cement the economic and environmental efficiency of the dairy industry, globally. To date, several components contributing to production efficiency have been overlooked, with many studies focusing on dairy cow production efficiency over short periods rather than lifetime efficiency. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to quantify the genetic variance components of complementary dairy cow efficiency metrics; including dry matter intake, …


Polyphenol Characterization And Antioxidant Capacity Of Multi-Species Swards Grown In Ireland—Environmental Sustainability And Nutraceutical Potential, Samuel Rapisarda, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2022 Technological University Dublin

Polyphenol Characterization And Antioxidant Capacity Of Multi-Species Swards Grown In Ireland—Environmental Sustainability And Nutraceutical Potential, Samuel Rapisarda, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Ruminant production systems are major contributors to greenhouse gases emissions, with animal feeding practices being the main cause for methane and nitrous oxide’s release. Although feeding animals forages has been proven to be more sustainable, traditional ryegrass monocultures still require a lot of input (e.g., fertilisers and pesticides). Multi-species swards, consisting of different swards, such as grasses, forage legumes and herbs, need less management and fertiliser, produce more dry matter, and also add a variety of phytochemicals into the animal diet. In particular, polyphenols have been associated with a positive impact on animal health and productivity. However, data on the …


Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant 2022 USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit

Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant

The Journal of Extension

This study examined economic implications of planting summer annual mixtures of grasses, legumes, and forbs at varying nitrogen rates. No differences in yield occurred between the three mixtures, indicating that mixtures with lowest seed cost will be most economical. Applying N resulted in yield increases of 12.26 lb DM per lb N applied. Although yield responses to N were positive, sensitivity analyses showed that applying N resulted in positive net returns only when hay prices were high and N prices were low. When utilization rates are accounted for, enterprise budgets determined grazing to be 18% cheaper to implement than haying.


Comparison Of Maize Hybrids For Production Of Quality Fodder And Silage In Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, Ali Hamed, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Yaseen 2022 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Comparison Of Maize Hybrids For Production Of Quality Fodder And Silage In Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, Ali Hamed, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Yaseen

Journal of Bioresource Management

Fodder crops have to compete with those of field crops, and the majority of farmers are smallholders in the circumstances of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was planned to search for the best maize hybrid which would serve dual purposes, i.e. for grain production as well as its later usage as fodder and silage. So, seven maize hybrids most commonly grown in the vicinity were selected and compared for their forage production. Maize hybrids were sown on ridges followed by all cultural operations as carried out by farmers. At harvest, plant morphological parameters were measured before ensiling the whole maize plant. …


An Evaluation Of Bovine Reproductive Function From The Microrna Expression In The Female To Performance Testing In The Male, Erin Amiss 2022 Clemson University

An Evaluation Of Bovine Reproductive Function From The Microrna Expression In The Female To Performance Testing In The Male, Erin Amiss

All Theses

Reproductive function is crucial to the success of a beef or dairy herd. Both the female and male play significant roles in the outcome of bovine reproduction. The bull contributes to reproductive success in many ways, such as genetics. The initial role that the bull has in reproductive success is fertilization, whether natural or by artificial insemination. One method of assessing bull performance are central bull test stations, which are traditionally administered by a university, extension center, or are privately owned. Central bull tests assess the performance of bulls from various management systems, breeds, and ages. Some measurements taken during …


Staphylococcal Surface Proteins As Vaccine Candidates For The Control Of Staphylococcal Mastitis In Dairy Cows, Jessica Jean Vidlund 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staphylococcal Surface Proteins As Vaccine Candidates For The Control Of Staphylococcal Mastitis In Dairy Cows, Jessica Jean Vidlund

Masters Theses

Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is the single most costly disease of dairy cattle. Staphylococci, a major bacteria that cause bovine mastitis, are commonly divided into two major groups: Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), previously known as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CNS). Current mastitis control programs are not fully effective against staphylococcal mastitis and antibiotics are not sustainable due to limited success and the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Non-antibiotic sustainable control tools, such as effective vaccines, are critically needed. Our lab developed and evaluated Staphylococcus aureus surface associated protein (SASP) and Staphylococcus chromogenes surface associated protein …


Corn (Zea Mays L.) Production In Living Mulch Systems, Grazing Potential, And Economic Viability, Marcia Peireira Quinby 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Corn (Zea Mays L.) Production In Living Mulch Systems, Grazing Potential, And Economic Viability, Marcia Peireira Quinby

Doctoral Dissertations

Living mulch (LM) is a practice in which forages are grown simultaneously with the main crop, serving as a living cover throughout the growing season. The LM systems were developed to alleviate concerns of soil depletion and finding ways to reduce tillage negative effects on soil productivity. In addition, when legumes are use can decrease the reliance on N fertilizer. The use of corn in LM have been previously studied due to the crop being a large commodity in the U.S.; In addition, the ability to graze the LM after corn production can increase the land use efficiency. To determine …


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Using Cytoplasmic Biopsies To Determine Bovine Oocyte Quality, Madison Lindsey 2022 Utah State University

Using Cytoplasmic Biopsies To Determine Bovine Oocyte Quality, Madison Lindsey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Embryos resulting from assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), develop with lower efficiencies than embryos resulting from their in vivo counterparts. The reasons behind the developmental discrepancies remain largely unknown. Because the egg is the primary determinant of embryo developmental success, it is reasonable to consider inherent egg quality as a possible cause. The hypothesis for this project is that there are distinct mRNA transcript patterns, or molecular “fingerprints,” that distinguish high- versus low-quality eggs developing within the same environment. In this study, a small cytoplasmic biopsy was removed from 40 eggs …


Microbial, Chemical, And Functional Components In Kefir, Natto, And Feed Ingredients, Dana McCurdy 2022 Clemson University

Microbial, Chemical, And Functional Components In Kefir, Natto, And Feed Ingredients, Dana Mccurdy

All Dissertations

Kefir grains were purchased from online, home kitchen vendors in the United States (n = 22), inoculated into UHT milk, and incubated at 25°C for 22 hours. Results indicated lactobacilli, lactococci and yeast in all samples. Six out of 11 samples contained coliform, and all samples contained pseudomonal and staphylococcal species. Using targeted genome sequencing (16S) of kefir grain samples 1, 2, and 3 revealed that lactobacilli were the predominant genera of bacteria. ITS sequencing revealed different fungal species in each grain. Results indicated potential presence of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

The fermentation of whole and ground soybeans, …


Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

No abstract provided.


The Incidence Of Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis In Maine Dairy Cattle, Morgan Belvin 2022 University of Maine - Main

The Incidence Of Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis In Maine Dairy Cattle, Morgan Belvin

Honors College

This project investigated the factors surrounding the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) mastitis in Maine dairy cattle. This type of mastitis is driven by an antibiotic resistant pathogen that is very contagious among cattle, though farmers are often unaware of how common this type of mastitis is and that it could be present in their herds. My hypothesis was that specific farm factors, like milkers performing other tasks during milking, as well as the act of pre-dipping versus not pre-dipping, would explain the increase in SA mastitis. A thirty-seven-question IRB-approved survey was subsequently distributed to farmers in the University of …


Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin 2022 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis, caused by a wide array of pathogens, results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the bovine’s innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis. Only foundational research has been done on β-defensins’ ability to treat and prevent mastitis. There have been no analytical methods reported in the literature for analyzing β-defensins in bovine milk. This research aims to create an analytical approach to determine β-defensins in bovine milk. It is challenging to determine an analyte in a complex sample matrix, and milk is …


How Weather Affects Total Mixed Rations And Why It Is Significant To Dairy Cattle, Juliana Baranowski 2022 University of Maine - Main

How Weather Affects Total Mixed Rations And Why It Is Significant To Dairy Cattle, Juliana Baranowski

Honors College

The objective of this study was to determine how weather affects the dry matter percentage of a TMR fed to dairy cattle. Daily feed samples were collected from the University of Maine’s J.F. Witter Teaching and Research Center and stored in a freezer until dry matters could be determined. The feed samples were later thawed out, then placed in an oven at 60oC for a minimum of three days. This allowed all the moisture to be evaporated so the DM could be calculated. The maximum, minimum and average temperatures, as well as the precipitation and humidity were obtained daily from …


Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla 2022 Utah State University

Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid and pH on rumen fermentation, fiber digestibility, and bacterial community composition. The two factors in the experiment were palmitic acid treatment and pH treatment. Palmitic acid treatments included a control diet compared to a diet containing 1.5% palmitic acid. pH treatments included normal pH (6.6 to 7.0) compared to low pH (6.0 to 6.4). Rumen fluid from a cow was added to artificial rumens to study the effects of the two treatments relative to fermentation and changes within the microbial community. Results of the study showed …


Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield 2022 Utah state University

Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield

All Current Publications

At calving, nutrient requirements of dairy cows increase to support milk synthesis. Energy and protein requirements are increased at the initiation of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Additionally, calcium requirements increase tremendously to meet the demands of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Calving and subsequent milk synthesis can cause calcium concentrations in the blood to drop. When the demand for calcium exceeds the cow’s ability to mobilize calcium, hypocalcemia (low blood calcium) occurs, which can negatively impact production. This fact sheet reviews hypocalcemia in dairy cows and how to implement hypocalcemia prevention strategies.


The Rise Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Their Effects, And How We Can Stop Their Growth, Andrea Prisco 2022 Penn State Dickinson Law

The Rise Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Their Effects, And How We Can Stop Their Growth, Andrea Prisco

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Dramatic changes in the agricultural industry over the last century have led to the rise of concentrated animal feeding operations– industrial facilities that raise a large number of animals in confined spaces. Animals raised in these facilities suffer from poor quality of life and abuse. For humans, these facilities have had adverse effects on the environment and public health, but they are also associated with high productivity and low food costs. This Comment analyzes the effects of concentrated animal feeding operations on animal well-being, the environment, and public health. This Comment also analyzes current federal legislation that helps combat the …


Improving The Longevity Of Dairy Cattle: An Important Initiative For The Swiss Dairy Industry, Frances McMillan 2022 SIT Study Abroad

Improving The Longevity Of Dairy Cattle: An Important Initiative For The Swiss Dairy Industry, Frances Mcmillan

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Swiss dairy cattle rarely live a productive life of longer than 5 years- sometimes even less, and therefore fail to reach their maximum lactation potential. They are often prematurely culled due to udder diseases, fertility problems, lameness, or the farmer’s need to make room for a calving heifer. However, farmers rarely record the real reasons for removing a cow from the herd, due to a sense of pressure and obligation to produce and a lack of universal standards regarding longevity to assist in this decision. This is a monumental problem, from both an environmental and animal welfare point of view, …


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after activation …


Dairy Digest 2022 : A Hoofprint In Time, South Dakota State University Dairy Club 2022 South Dakota State University

Dairy Digest 2022 : A Hoofprint In Time, South Dakota State University Dairy Club

Dairy Digest

This is the 2022 Dairy Digest. The Diary Digest is published annually by the South Dakota State University Dairy Club. The Digest contains information and news about the activities and members of the SDSU Dairy Club for the academic year 2021 - 2022.


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