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Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla 2022 Utah State University

Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid and pH on rumen fermentation, fiber digestibility, and bacterial community composition. The two factors in the experiment were palmitic acid treatment and pH treatment. Palmitic acid treatments included a control diet compared to a diet containing 1.5% palmitic acid. pH treatments included normal pH (6.6 to 7.0) compared to low pH (6.0 to 6.4). Rumen fluid from a cow was added to artificial rumens to study the effects of the two treatments relative to fermentation and changes within the microbial community ...


Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin 2022 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis, caused by a wide array of pathogens, results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the bovine’s innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis. Only foundational research has been done on β-defensins’ ability to treat and prevent mastitis. There have been no analytical methods reported in the literature for analyzing β-defensins in bovine milk. This research aims to create an analytical approach to determine β-defensins in bovine milk. It is challenging to determine an analyte in a complex sample matrix, and milk ...


Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield 2022 Utah state University

Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield

All Current Publications

At calving, nutrient requirements of dairy cows increase to support milk synthesis. Energy and protein requirements are increased at the initiation of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Additionally, calcium requirements increase tremendously to meet the demands of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Calving and subsequent milk synthesis can cause calcium concentrations in the blood to drop. When the demand for calcium exceeds the cow’s ability to mobilize calcium, hypocalcemia (low blood calcium) occurs, which can negatively impact production. This fact sheet reviews hypocalcemia in dairy cows and how to implement hypocalcemia prevention strategies.


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after ...


Dairy Digest 2022 : A Hoofprint In Time, South Dakota State University Dairy Club 2022 South Dakota State University

Dairy Digest 2022 : A Hoofprint In Time, South Dakota State University Dairy Club

Dairy Digest

This is the 2022 Dairy Digest. The Diary Digest is published annually by the South Dakota State University Dairy Club. The Digest contains information and news about the activities and members of the SDSU Dairy Club for the academic year 2021 - 2022.


Modeling The Flow And Creep Compliance Properties Of Ice-Cream Mixes, Hiran Ranaweera 2022 South Dakota State University

Modeling The Flow And Creep Compliance Properties Of Ice-Cream Mixes, Hiran Ranaweera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work documented the influence of the protein source (MPC80 and WPC80), protein content (4-12%), and temperature (5-35ºC) on the rheological behavior (flow curve, frequency sweep, and creep-recovery) of ice-cream mixes (ICM). For each protein source, the viscosity of the ICM was satisfactorily modeled (𝑅2>0.98, 𝑅2 𝑎𝑑𝑗>0.98, and E0.99), while the recovery phase was represented by an empirical model. The percentage of recovery (%R) of the ICM significantly decreased with the protein content.


Production Of Calcium Reduced Micellar Casein Concentrate Powders And Their Use In Process Cheese Products, Anil Kommineni 2022 South Dakota State University

Production Of Calcium Reduced Micellar Casein Concentrate Powders And Their Use In Process Cheese Products, Anil Kommineni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein is an essential dietary component, and sufficient intake is vital in a healthy and balanced diet. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of and knowledgeable about the role of protein in the diet. Two of the next-generation dairy protein ingredients isolated from milk are micellar casein (MCC) and milk-derived whey protein, isolated from skim milk using microfiltration (MF). Membrane filtration has been used extensively by the dairy industry to produce a variety of dairy ingredients from milk. MCC manufactured from freshly pasteurized milk can be directly consumed or as a supplement to fortify and enhance nutritional qualities in processed food ...


Impact Of Natural Cheese Composition On Proteolysis And Its Effects On Process Cheese Functionality, Natasha Scherber 2022 South Dakota State University

Impact Of Natural Cheese Composition On Proteolysis And Its Effects On Process Cheese Functionality, Natasha Scherber

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cheddar cheese is a commodity and a top-selling cheese in the United States. Enhanced flavors of cheddar cheese requires aging, which will allow proteolysis increase. Proteolysis is the most complex process that happens in cheese manufacturing and can be difficult to control because of environmental factors and compositional characteristics. The ripening process, which is the most timely and costly procedure in cheese manufacturing, can also be unpredictable when aspects, such as cheese composition, are changed. The coagulant is responsible for the first stage in proteolysis, which will produce large peptides. Small peptides are subsequentially produced during the second stage by ...


Hotline Number To Reach And Offer Agricultural Information To Plain Anabaptists During The Covid-19 Workplace Closures, Emily Shoop, Carly Becker, Nathan Glenn Briggs, Danielle Smarsh 2021 Pennsylvania State University

Hotline Number To Reach And Offer Agricultural Information To Plain Anabaptists During The Covid-19 Workplace Closures, Emily Shoop, Carly Becker, Nathan Glenn Briggs, Danielle Smarsh

Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies

The Penn State Extension Animal Systems Team developed a toll-free hotline phone number to convey short educational messages to maintain contact and outreach to Pennsylvania’s animal producing Amish, Mennonite, and other plain Anabaptist populations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Penn State Extension’s programming went largely online via webinars, online courses, and emails. This change in programming excluded a large sector of Pennsylvania farmers who do not use or have access to the internet and, as such, were liable to miss important best management practice reviews and timely updates in animal agriculture. The Animal Systems Hotline offered callers the choice ...


Effects Of Cashew Nut Shell Extract On Nutrient Digestibility And Ruminal Fermentation Under In Vitro Batch Culture And Continuous Culture Conditions, Chandler Compton 2021 Clemson University

Effects Of Cashew Nut Shell Extract On Nutrient Digestibility And Ruminal Fermentation Under In Vitro Batch Culture And Continuous Culture Conditions, Chandler Compton

All Theses

The overall objective of this research was to determine the effects of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE; 59% anacardic acid and 18% cardol) on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation profile under in vitro batch culture (Chapter 2) and continuous culture conditions (Chapter 3). The second objective was to determine an optimal supplementation dosage for dairy cows. The batch culture study was organized as a randomized complete block design with 15 replicates per treatment incubated for 24 h during four incubation runs. Each incubation was inoculated with rumen contents collected from ruminally fistulated cows fed either a close-up (CU; 15.1 ...


To Know The Land With Hands And Minds: Negotiating Agricultural Knowledge In Late-Nineteenth-Century New England And Westphalia, Justus Hillebrand 2021 University of Maine

To Know The Land With Hands And Minds: Negotiating Agricultural Knowledge In Late-Nineteenth-Century New England And Westphalia, Justus Hillebrand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ever since the eighteenth century, experts have tried to tell farmers how to farm. The agricultural enlightenment in Europe marked the beginning of a long arc of new experts aiming to change agricultural knowledge and practice. This dissertation analyzes the pivotal period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in Germany and the United States when scientists, improvers, and market agents began to develop comprehensive ways to communicate agricultural innovation to farmers. In a functional approach to analyzing the negotiation of agricultural knowledge through its communication in things, words, and practices, this dissertation argues that the process of change ...


Primary Industries Development Research Highlights 2021, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Tim Scanlon 2021 DPIRD

Primary Industries Development Research Highlights 2021, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development, Tim Scanlon

Books & book chapters

The Primary Industries Development Research Highlights 2021 showcases the breadth and depth of the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development’s research and development activities over the past several years.

Stories featured in Research Highlights 2021 stem from about 60 (of 140) current and recently-completed projects undertaken by the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development’s (DPIRD) 1100 scientists, technical experts and economists throughout the State.

Explore our Research Highlights 2021.

The publication demonstrates the innovative and applicable research that DPIRD and its collaborators and investment partners deliver to Western Australia.

Download the Research Highlights 2021 here. Alternatively ...


Comparison Of Bovine Mammary Involution And Intramammary Infections Following Intramammary Treatment With Casein Hydrolysate And Other Conventional Treatments At Dry-Off, Justine E. Britten, Kerry A. Rood, David J. Wilson 2021 Utah State University

Comparison Of Bovine Mammary Involution And Intramammary Infections Following Intramammary Treatment With Casein Hydrolysate And Other Conventional Treatments At Dry-Off, Justine E. Britten, Kerry A. Rood, David J. Wilson

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Student Research

Alternatives to routine antibiotic treatment of dairy cattle during the dry period before their next calving are of interest. This was a preliminary study of whether intramammary infusion of casein hydrolysate, administered alone or combined with standard dry treatment, accelerated the rate of mammary involution early in the dry period. Four treatments were studied in a split udder design. One udder half was assigned a treatment, and the contralateral half was administered dry cow treatment + internal teat sealant as a control. Treatments were casein hydrolysate, casein hydrolysate + dry cow treatment, casein hydrolysate + teat sealant and casein hydrolysate + dry cow treatment ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2019, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2019, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, leading to economic activity in other parts of the economy.

This report is the fourteenth in a series that examines agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on value added, employment ...


Understanding Milk Consumption Habits Among College Students In Order To Redesign Outreach, Stacey F. Stearns, Adam N. Rabinowitz 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Understanding Milk Consumption Habits Among College Students In Order To Redesign Outreach, Stacey F. Stearns, Adam N. Rabinowitz

The Journal of Extension

College students consume less dairy milk than in the past. Increased competition in the beverage aisle influences their choices. However, much of the population is not meeting the recommended intake guidelines for calcium. A survey of undergraduate college students with university dining plans focused on milk consumption habits, beverage choices, and student attitudes toward healthful foods and nutrition. Results are guiding Extension program educational outreach campaigns to college students. By focusing on the healthful and nutritional benefits of milk, Extension educators could increase consumption among college age consumers, and their long-term healthful outcomes.


Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin 2021 Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin

Journal of Bioresource Management

Mastitis is highly prevalent infection in cattle causing cost-effective loss in dairy milk production. Escherichia coli is the most frequently isolated bacteria causing mastitis worldwide. The current study was performed to investigate the mastitis prevalence and effect of different antibiotics against pathogens causing it. In sum, 216 milk samples were collected randomly including 108 each from both cows and buffaloes. These samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test for prevalence of mastitis that found 18.50% and 23.14% in buffaloes and cows respectively. Mastitis was more prevalent both in buffaloes and cows at the age of 9-10 years ...


Effects Of Probiotic Supplementation On Growth And Health Of Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves, Lily Bello 2021 University of Connecticut

Effects Of Probiotic Supplementation On Growth And Health Of Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves, Lily Bello

Honors Scholar Theses

Dairy calf immune development leaves calves susceptible to illness during the pre-weaned stage of life. Previous studies have shown that the use of probiotics during this time may result in increased growth rates and decreased incidence of illness, particularly diarrhea and scours. We hypothesized that by providing probiotics during the time from birth until weaning, calves on study would experience similar growth and health benefits. Neonatal calves (N=32) were provided milk replacer three times daily, with half of the calves receiving Probios® supplements mixed in with their first morning feeding. Growth and health measurements were collected weekly. Probiotic administration ...


Investigation Of Methionine And Lysine Derivatives As A Source Of Rumen-Protected Amino Acids For Lactating Dairy Cows, Mark Avila Fagundes 2021 Utah State University

Investigation Of Methionine And Lysine Derivatives As A Source Of Rumen-Protected Amino Acids For Lactating Dairy Cows, Mark Avila Fagundes

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cows have a protein requirement for growth, maintenance, and lactation. In order to meet those protein requirements, dairy farmers can supplement or feed cattle with specific amino acids, the building blocks that make-up protein. However, in order for the amino acid product to be effective it must avoid degradation in the rumen and be delivered in the small intestine for absorption. Lysine and methionine have traditionally been recognized as the most limiting amino acids for lactating dairy cows. Therefore, nutrition companies have focused on finding ways to encapsulate or protect lysine and methionine from rumen microbes. The N-acetyl-L-methionine and N-acetyl-L-lysine ...


The Effects Of Trace Mineral Supplementation On Performance, Health, And Carcass Quality Of At-Risk Mineral Deficient Feedlot Cattle, Tevan J. Brady 2021 Utah State University

The Effects Of Trace Mineral Supplementation On Performance, Health, And Carcass Quality Of At-Risk Mineral Deficient Feedlot Cattle, Tevan J. Brady

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Morbidity in feedlot cattle due to disease is a common economical loss for feedlot producers. Utah is not typically considered a ‘feedlot state’, but there are several producers in the southern part of the state that specialize in receiving at-risk cattle. These cattle are at-risk because they are coming from areas known to be mineral deficient. Areas such as the western US, are known to be deficient in several trace minerals important in immune response. Therefore, it is critical that producers have an adequate plan to decrease the negative effects that this has on economic viability of their beef operations ...


Lymphocyte Soluble Factors From Pregnant Cows Modulate Mrna Transcript Abundances Encoding For Proteins Associated With Trophoblast Growth And Development, Kelsy A. Leppo, Preston Collins, Kira Morgado, Ana C. Silva, Aaron Thomas, Heloisa M. Rutigliano 2021 Utah State University

Lymphocyte Soluble Factors From Pregnant Cows Modulate Mrna Transcript Abundances Encoding For Proteins Associated With Trophoblast Growth And Development, Kelsy A. Leppo, Preston Collins, Kira Morgado, Ana C. Silva, Aaron Thomas, Heloisa M. Rutigliano

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

This study was conducted to determine whether T cell populations are responsible for modulating placental development during gestation in cattle. It was hypothesized that CD4+CD25+ and γ/δ+ T cells modulate gene expression, based on mRNA transcript abundances, and promote proliferation and survival of trophoblast cells. Peripheral blood was collected from cows at 160 to 180 days of gestation and non-pregnant cows, T cell populations CD8+, CD4+, CD4+CD25+, CD24+CD25-, and γ/δ+ T cells were isolated, cultured for 48 h, and supernatant was collected. Placental samples were digested, and trophoblast cells were cultured for 24 h. Trophoblast ...


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