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Quality Of Milk From Lactating Dairy Cattle Fed Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Gerui Li, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz 2017 Iowa State University

Quality Of Milk From Lactating Dairy Cattle Fed Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Gerui Li, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz

Stephanie Clark

Healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (n=24) were fed total mixed rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on production parameters and flavor and oxidative stability of milk. Cows were assigned to two groups and fed one of three treatment diets (0% DDGS, 10% DDGS, 25% DDGS by dry matter (DM)) as a total mixed ration. Each group was fed all three of the diets after a wash-out period of 7 days. Milk yield was unaffected by both the 0% and 10 ...


Lactational Performance Of Holstein Dairy Cows Fed Two Levels Of Full-Fat Corn Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Vaishnavi Manimanna Sankarlal, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz 2017 Iowa State University

Lactational Performance Of Holstein Dairy Cows Fed Two Levels Of Full-Fat Corn Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Vaishnavi Manimanna Sankarlal, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz

Stephanie Clark

The lactational performance of 30 healthy multiparous Holstein dairy cows was tested when cows were fed 0, 10, and 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) that contained 13.6% fat on a dry matter (DM) basis. Cows fed 10% DDGS on a DM basis experienced a reduction in milk fat percentage of 0.5 percentage points, but did not perform differently in other measures than did cows not fed DDGS. When cows were fed 20% DDGS on a DM basis, every common measure of feed utilization was impacted negatively.


Feeding Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles: Quality Of Baby Swiss Cheese, Eric Testroet, Mathew R. O'Neil, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark 2017 Iowa State University

Feeding Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles: Quality Of Baby Swiss Cheese, Eric Testroet, Mathew R. O'Neil, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark

Stephanie Clark

In this experiment, feedingreduced-fat distillers grains(RF-DDGS)as 20% DM of a total mixed ration (TMR)supplemented with lysine did not negatively influence flavor attributes of baby Swiss cheese.Eye appearancein all cheeseswas atypical,but was not related to diet. Any defects in appearance of Baby Swiss cheese appeared in both control and RF-DDGS fed cows and therefore the defects observed can be attributed to the make procedure itself rather than to of feeding RF-DDGS. The results indicate that lactating Holstein dairy cows can be fed RF-DDGS as 20% DM of a TMR without negatively affecting usability of milk forproduction ...


Feeding Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles: Milk Composition And Feed Efficiency, Eric Testroet, Mathew R. O'Neil, Andrew L. Mueller, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark 2017 Iowa State University

Feeding Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles: Milk Composition And Feed Efficiency, Eric Testroet, Mathew R. O'Neil, Andrew L. Mueller, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark

Stephanie Clark

In this experiment, feeding reduced-fat distillers grains with solubles (RF-DDGS)as 20% DM of a TMR supplemented with lysine did not negatively influence production parameters related to milk composition or nutritional physiology of the cow. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was, however, decreased,and milk protein percentage was increased. Total milk solids werenot influenced by inclusion of RF-DDGS. Additionally, RF-DDGS did cause a decrease in fat-corrected milk (FCM)efficiency as a result of an increase in DMI. When energy-corrected milk (ECM)efficiency was calculated (accounting for fat, protein, and lactose concentration in milk),no difference in feed efficiency resulted(p > 0 ...


Association Of Calf Growth And Feed Intake Traits With Mature Cow Milk Yield And Body Weight, Denise Beam, Kenneth J. Stalder, Arlyn J. Heinrichs, Chad D. Dechow 2017 Iowa State University

Association Of Calf Growth And Feed Intake Traits With Mature Cow Milk Yield And Body Weight, Denise Beam, Kenneth J. Stalder, Arlyn J. Heinrichs, Chad D. Dechow

Kenneth J Stalder

Data from six different calf trials were compared to 134,469 daily milk records and 37,403 body weights to determine how heifer growth traits are associated with milk yield and mature cow body weight. Animals were classified into 3 categories (low, intermediate and high) according to their body weight, hip height, growth rate and starter feed intake. Calves that were classified in the intermediate body weight category tended to produce more milk during the first ten weeks of lactation than cows classified as having low or high body weights as calves. Additionally, cows classified in the low hip height ...


The Cost Of Manufacturing Butter: A Study Based On Data From 13 Iowa Creameries, J. R. Frazer, V. H. Nielsen, J. D. Nord 2017 Iowa State College

The Cost Of Manufacturing Butter: A Study Based On Data From 13 Iowa Creameries, J. R. Frazer, V. H. Nielsen, J. D. Nord

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

As part of a broad project designed to determine effective methods of marketing the milk produced on Iowa farms, this study examines the costs of manufacturing butter in Iowa creameries from farm-separated cream. Specifically, the effect of volume of production upon cost of manufacture is studied and analyzed. The costs of assembling the cream and of marketing the butter are excluded. In addition, the costs resulting from butterfat losses and other manufacturing losses are assumed to be constant in all the plants.

Cost data were obtained from an intensive study of the operations in 13 cooperative creameries. Output volume in ...


Bacteriology Of Butter Lx. Salt Distribution In Butter And Its Effect On Bacterial Growth, W. H. Hoecker, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriology Of Butter Lx. Salt Distribution In Butter And Its Effect On Bacterial Growth, W. H. Hoecker, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The distribution of salt in butter is of importance from the standpoints of uniformity of composition and color, distribution of moisture and deterioration through action of micro-organisms. Various investigators, using macro-methods of analysis, have studied the distribution of salt in butter, particularly in connection with controlling the composition and preventing certain color defects. The information obtained is very useful, but it is not adequate in considering the relationship of salt to bacterial changes in butter.

The retarding effect of salt on the activity of many micro-organisms is generally recognized, and various investigators (8) have· noted that addition of salt to ...


Materials-Balance Method For Determining Losses Of Butterfat In The Creamery, M. Mortensen 2017 Iowa State College

Materials-Balance Method For Determining Losses Of Butterfat In The Creamery, M. Mortensen

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Since this project has been carried on primarily with the view of determining what will constitute a fair butter overrun it seems advisable first to explain what is understood by overrun and how it is determined.

Butter overrun is a term used to designate the number of pounds of butter that is made in excess of the pounds of butterfat used for its manufacture. It is generally spoken of as "percent overrun" which is expressed as equal to the number of pounds of butter made in excess of each 100 pounds of fat used for its manufacture, thus if 122 ...


Classification Of The Organisms Important In Dairy Products Iv. Bacterium Linens, J. Oscar Albert, H. F. Long, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Classification Of The Organisms Important In Dairy Products Iv. Bacterium Linens, J. Oscar Albert, H. F. Long, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

During the ripening of certain cheeses a reddish or reddish-brown slimy growth often develops on the surfaces. The material contains various microorganisms, among which Bacterium linens usually is present in relatively large numbers. This organism apparently plays a role in the ripening of certain cheeses, aiding in protein breakdown and flavor development; it also aids in production of color at cheese surfaces.

Despite its probable importance in the ripening of various cheeses and its possible importance in other connections, Bact. linens has been investigated relatively little. Accordingly, studies of it were made, special attention being given to development of an ...


Bacteriology Of Cheese Vii. Calcium And Phosphorus Contents Of Various Cheeses, Including Relationship To Bacterial Action In The Manufacturing Procedures, H. J. Zahrndt, C. B. Lane, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriology Of Cheese Vii. Calcium And Phosphorus Contents Of Various Cheeses, Including Relationship To Bacterial Action In The Manufacturing Procedures, H. J. Zahrndt, C. B. Lane, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Microorganisms play an important role in the changes that go on in the manufacture and ripening of various cheeses. Some of the changes brought about by organisms are closely related to flavor development, and the differences in such. changes in the various types of cheeses largely explain the differences in the flavors. Other changes that occur during the making of cheeses are related to losses, in the whey, of constituents of the original milk that may be important from the nutritional standpoint. They are influenced by variations in the manufacturing procedures, especially variations in the acidities developed by bacteria at ...


Water Supplies Of Butter Manufacturing Plants, R. T. Corley, H. F. Long, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Water Supplies Of Butter Manufacturing Plants, R. T. Corley, H. F. Long, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Various defects of butter are due to growth of bacteria in the product. A number of the species involved belong to the genus Pseudomonas, and this genus includes certain species, such as Pseudomonas putrefaciens and Pseudomonas fragi, that are very objectionable from the standpoint of butter deterioration. Pseudomonas organisms and related types commonly are found in moist soil and in water, which suggests that contaminated water used in butter plants may be a source of the organisms in butter.

The general characters of the Pseudomollas organisms indicate that they are important in butter deterioration. A number of them actively attack ...


Chemistry Of Butter And Butter Making V. Methods For Determining The Ph Of Cream With Standardized Acidity And Of Butter Made From This Type Of Cream, C. E. Parmelee, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale 2017 Iowa State College

Chemistry Of Butter And Butter Making V. Methods For Determining The Ph Of Cream With Standardized Acidity And Of Butter Made From This Type Of Cream, C. E. Parmelee, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

It became necessary during studies of pH control of butter made from cream with adjusted acidity, to study methods for determining the pH of cream and butter. serum. The acidity of the cream can be adjusted satisfactorily after the relationships between cream acidity and butter serum pH have been established. The final check of the precision with which the acid reduction of the cream is carried out, however, must be effected by a pH determination of the butter serum. For this reason methods for determining pH in cream and butter serum were studied.

The two objectives in this project were ...


A Factor In Oat Hulls Essential For The Growth Of Chicks, Paul R. Record 2017 The Ohio State University

A Factor In Oat Hulls Essential For The Growth Of Chicks, Paul R. Record

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Experiments were conducted to determine whether or not oat hulls contain a factor or factors essential for the growth of the chick.

When 20 percent of oat hulls was added to a ration composed of oat groats, minerals, cod-liver oil and dried skimmilk or dried buttermilk, an increase in growth resulted.

An increase in growth was obtained by supplementing the alcohol:precipitate factor deficient ration of Schumacher et al (24) with yeast or choline, and the occurrence of perosis was practically eliminated. The addition of 20 percent oat hulls to this basal ration caused an increase in growth.

The results ...


Efficiency Of Dairy Rations Containing Various Quantities Of Grain, K. M. Autrey, C. Y. Cannon, D. L. Espe 2017 Iowa State College

Efficiency Of Dairy Rations Containing Various Quantities Of Grain, K. M. Autrey, C. Y. Cannon, D. L. Espe

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The dairy cow is particularly well adapted for consuming and utilizing large quantities of roughages, though she responds well to grain feeding. The relative quantities of roughage and grain that should be fed are usually determined by the physiologic effects and economic efficiencies of such rations when fed to dairy cattle.

One would hardly expect high.producing cows to maintain a high yield when consuming roughage alone, because such a ration is so bulky that it prevents the intake of sufficient nutrients for maximum production. And yet, very good results have been obtained in certain areas by such a system ...


Diacetyl And Acetylmethylcarbinol Production In The Manufacture Of Unsalted Butter, T. I. Hedrick, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Diacetyl And Acetylmethylcarbinol Production In The Manufacture Of Unsalted Butter, T. I. Hedrick, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

During the ripening of sweet or neutralized sour cream in laboratory and semi-commercial trials there were some irregularities in the effects of various factors on the diacetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol contents of the cream, but generally the contents were increased by an increase in the acidity to which the cream was ripened, by addition of small ·amounts of citric acid to the cream and by agitation (shaking in the laboratory trials and revolving the coils in the semi-commercial trials) during the ripening. In some trials the contents were greatly influenced by the use of certain butter cultures, while in other trials ...


Poultry Products Research: A Guide For Research Workers, Including A List Of Some Problems In Project Form, George Franklin Stewart 2017 Iowa State College

Poultry Products Research: A Guide For Research Workers, Including A List Of Some Problems In Project Form, George Franklin Stewart

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The term "Poultry Products" is comparatively new. Dairy products, corn products, and soybean products are subjects for rather elaborate research and are manufactured for a multitude of uses. Egg products also have many potential uses.

In the case of poultry only about half of the live weight is edible flesh as commonly served at the table. The other parts are of value and some of them may have medicinal and/or food-fortifying value as is the case with the byproducts of heavy livestock.

Before progress will be certain in this field of research, as in all worth-while research, there must ...


Bacteriology Of Cheese Vi. Relationship Of Fat Hydrolysis To The Ripening Of Cheddar Cheese, C. B. Lane, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriology Of Cheese Vi. Relationship Of Fat Hydrolysis To The Ripening Of Cheddar Cheese, C. B. Lane, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Cheese made from raw homogenized cream mixed with skimmilk (raw or pasteurized) commonly developed a rancid flavor early in the ripening, but the condition tended to disappear as ripening progressed, and eventually the cheese was not rancid and was more satisfactory in flayor than cheese made from pasteurized milk or from pasteurized homogenized cream mixed with pasteurized skimmilk. In some cases it was more satisfactory in flavor than cheese made from raw milk. Cheese made from pasteurized milk had very low fat acidities and lacked flavor, whereas cheese having definitely higher fat acidities commonly had more flavor. Raw milk cheese ...


Flavor Development In Salted Butter By Pure Cultures Of Bacteria Preliminary Results, W. H. Hoecker, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Flavor Development In Salted Butter By Pure Cultures Of Bacteria Preliminary Results, W. H. Hoecker, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Pure cultures of various streptococci produced relatively large amounts of diacetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol in milk containing added citric acid. These included S. citrovorus or S. paracitrovorus, S. diacetilactis, S. citrophilus and an unidentified organism H28. S. aromaticus, which does not ferment citric acid, produced diacetyl and small amounts of acetylmethylcarbinol in milk. With each of the species the ratios of diacetyl to acetylmethylcarbinol varied in the different trials; frequently, the diacetyl was much higher in proportion to the acetylmethylcarbinol than with butter cultures.

The diacetyl contents of cream plus culture immediately after mixing were both higher and lower than the ...


Classification Of The Organisms Important In Dairy Products Iii. Pseudomonas Putrefaciens, H. F. Long, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Classification Of The Organisms Important In Dairy Products Iii. Pseudomonas Putrefaciens, H. F. Long, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A special gelatin agar containing an iron salt is very useful in the isolation of Ps. putrefaciens because of the luxuriant growth and high color production with it. Even on this medium, however, isolated cells may not initiate growth readily. With certain materials enrichment in litmus milk at 3°C., followed by smearing on the special medium, aids in isolating the organism, while with other materials direct smears are more frequently successful. In attempting isolations from butter, the serum is more satisfactory than the butter itself, and enrichment in laboratory churnings of butter (as well as in litmus milk) held ...


The Quality Of Butter Made From Vacuum-Pasteurized And Vat-Pasteurized Lots Of The Same Creams, N. E. Fabricius, E. W. Bird 2017 Iowa State College

The Quality Of Butter Made From Vacuum-Pasteurized And Vat-Pasteurized Lots Of The Same Creams, N. E. Fabricius, E. W. Bird

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

During the past few years a large amount of butter manufactured in the Middle West has been criticised for weedy flavors. This increase in weedy flavors unquestionably has resulted from a number of successive dry years. Some of the most common weed defects in this section are wild onion (Allium cernuum) , ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) and dog fennel (Anthemis cotula L.). The defects resulting from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus (L.)), french weed (Thalaspi arvense L.) and peppergrass (Lepidium verginicum L.) (2) are apparently less common.

Feed flavors are more important than weed flavors in this section. It has been recognized ...


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