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What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon 2018 The University of San Francisco

What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon

Master's Theses

This thesis analyzes the international discourse of greenhouse gas emissions in relation to livestock production. Specific government ministries, research institutes, and multilateral organizations are framing a new strategy to mitigate emissions by using emissions intensity metrics. Emissions intensity is a ratio comparing emissions produced per unit of animal product as oppose to measuring absolute emissions. This research is acknowledged as a win-win scenario which allows for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while continuing production more efficiently. This thesis outlines the emergence of this metric in international discourse and the implications this shift has on the livestock sector globally. Ultimately ...


Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Evaluation Of Single Vs. Pair Housing Holstein Calves On Specific Antibody Concentrations To Klh, Chaney K. Morgan 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Single Vs. Pair Housing Holstein Calves On Specific Antibody Concentrations To Klh, Chaney K. Morgan

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Clinical And Subclinical Mastitis Causing Pathogens In Tennessee Dairy Cattle, Michelle Marie Untch 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Clinical And Subclinical Mastitis Causing Pathogens In Tennessee Dairy Cattle, Michelle Marie Untch

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Milk quality impacts the producers and consumers. Higher milk quality leads to a longer shelf life, improved cheese making ability, and improved taste. Milk quality can be severely impacted by intramammary infections which can result in mastitis. Identifying the common mastitis causing pathogens in milk samples collected from subclinical and clinical mastitis cases can assist the producer in managing mastitis. This can lead to improved milk quality, improved cow health, and reduced need for antibiotics to treat mastitis. This study investigates the prevalence of bacteria causing intramammary infection in dairy cattle of Tennessee. Milk samples were collected from 9 farms ...


Methane From Lactating Dairy Cattle: Studies For Mitigation, Diurnal Variation, And Role In Energy Metabolism, Jared Vern Judy 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Methane From Lactating Dairy Cattle: Studies For Mitigation, Diurnal Variation, And Role In Energy Metabolism, Jared Vern Judy

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Reducing methane production in dairy cattle has received an increased interest due to environmental concerns associated with its potency as a greenhouse gas. Methane represents lost energy in cattle and reduction may increase animal efficiency and productivity. Experiment 1 evaluated strategies of mitigating methane production in lactating dairy cattle with inclusion of dried distillers grains and solubles (DDGS), DDGS with added corn oil, and DDGS with added calcium sulfate and effects on energy and nitrogen balance. Inclusion of DDGS, corn oil, and calcium sulfate, increased DMI and milk yield. Methane production was reduced with addition of corn oil and calcium ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook 2017 Murray State University

Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Farming practices such as no tillage and plowing can institute change on soil physical and chemical characteristics. In this research, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage systems on the selected soil properties were determined in a continuous corn system on a farm with Maury silt loam soil. These samples were taken from University of Kentucky's Research Farm (Spindletop Farm). The field used was tilled in 1969 from bluegrass sod and the first time research was conduced was in 1970. Each plot is 20 ft. by 40 ft. and for many years each plot was split with winter cover ...


Iowa Swiss-Type Cheese, E. F. Goss, V. Nielson, M. Mortensen 2017 Iowa State College

Iowa Swiss-Type Cheese, E. F. Goss, V. Nielson, M. Mortensen

Bulletin

New types of cheese for Iowa have been receiving the attention of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station for a number of years. A previous publication (1) described the method of manufacture which has been used in the production of many thousands of pounds of Iowa Blue Cheese. This publication deals with the process used in the Iowa State College laboratories in manufacturing a Swiss-type cheese. In the course of these experiments a total of 25,136 lbs. of the cheese has been manufactured and marketed, utilizing approximately a quarter of a million pounds of milk.


Standardization Of Iowa Butter, M. Mortensen, D. F. Breazeale, C. H. Meyer, M. B. Michaelian 2017 Iowa State College

Standardization Of Iowa Butter, M. Mortensen, D. F. Breazeale, C. H. Meyer, M. B. Michaelian

Bulletin

It has been a common practice for some years for Iowa creameries to send samples of butter to the Iowa Experiment Station for chemical analysis. These analyses reveal the fact that there is considerable variation in the chemical composition of butter manufactured in the various creameries. At times there are large variations in the composition of butter manufactured in the same creamery.

A project was initiated in 1980 to determine the extent of such irregularities and at the same time to assist the creameries to manufacture butter of a more uniform chemical composition. Similar work was carried on by the ...


Rapid Acid Tests For Cream, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale 2017 Iowa State College

Rapid Acid Tests For Cream, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale

Bulletin

The Farrington rapid acid test has been employed for many years by the fluid milk industry for grading samples on the borderline of acidity set for their purchase. In performing the test, neutralizing solutions (containing phenolphthalein) used are of such strength that 1 dipper of solution added to 1 dipper (of the same size) of milk gives a pink mixture if the milk is 0.1 percent acid or less; 2 dippers of neutralizing solution grade at the 0.2 percent point and so on. By adjusting the neutralizing strength the grades corresponding to 1 and 2 dippers of neutralizing ...


Tests For Cream Sediment, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale, H. P. Guest 2017 Iowa State College

Tests For Cream Sediment, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale, H. P. Guest

Bulletin

Commercial milk plants have employed the sediment test for milk for many years. In fact, the milk sediment test has its place on the milk score card. The amount of sediment is always determined in scoring milk. The test is extremely simple; it consists of passing 1 pint of milk through a sediment tester and catching the sediment present in the milk on a circular pad 1 inch in diameter.

The application of a sediment test to cream, on the other hand, has been attempted only very recently. A test as simple as that for milk is impossible. The cream ...


Iowa Blue Cheese, E. F. Goss, V. Nielsen, M. Mortensen 2017 Iowa State College

Iowa Blue Cheese, E. F. Goss, V. Nielsen, M. Mortensen

Bulletin

Iowa is an importer of cheese. In 1933 Iowa dairy plants manufactured 1,491,822 pounds of cheese.2 In the same year consumption is estimated to have been 10,254,397 pounds, using the 1933 United States Department of Agriculture figure of 4.15 pounds per capita and 1930 Iowa census figures as a basis of computation. In 1933 Iowa dairy plants produced 14.6 percent of the cheese consumed in the state. If this percentage could be greatly increased it would result in a larger and more diversified market for Iowa milk.

Production of cured cheese in Iowa ...


The Agar Disc Method For Studying The Contamination From Metal Surfaces, H. C. Olsen, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

The Agar Disc Method For Studying The Contamination From Metal Surfaces, H. C. Olsen, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin

A procedure, designated the agar disc method, has been developed at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station2 for the study of the contamination from churns. It consists of allowing a small amount of a special agar medium to solidify in contact with the surface to be studied, the transferring of the disc thus formed to a sterile petri dish and, finally, the counting of the colonies that develop on incubation. The usefulness of the method for the examination of churns, especially when the churns are at some distance from the laboratory3, suggests its application to the study of the ...


The Use Of Water Bowls In The Dairy Barn, C. Y. Cannon, E. N. Hansen, James R. O'Neal 2017 Iowa State College

The Use Of Water Bowls In The Dairy Barn, C. Y. Cannon, E. N. Hansen, James R. O'Neal

Bulletin

1. Dairy cows, watered by means of water bowls, drank approximately 18 percent more water and yielded 3.5 percent more milk and 10.7 percent more butterfat than cows that were watered twice per day at an outside tank.

2. Cows watered with water bowls drank an average of about 10 times in each 24 hours. Approximately two-thirds of the water was consumed in the daytime, that is between 5 a. m. and 5 p. m., and the other one-third at night.

3. Cows watered at the outside tank frequently drank but once per day. This occurred about 30 ...


The Effect Of Processing, Handling And Of Testing Procedures On The Fat Content Of Ice Cream, E. W. Bird, Elgin A. Johnson 2017 Iowa State College

The Effect Of Processing, Handling And Of Testing Procedures On The Fat Content Of Ice Cream, E. W. Bird, Elgin A. Johnson

Bulletin

A number of inquiries received from Iowa ice cream manufacturers shows that they believe that some steps in the processing or handling of ice cream cause a lower fat percentage in the frozen product than in the mix. From a theoretical viewpoint, no such fat lowering should occur in the product. A sufficient number of inquiries has been received, however, to warrant studying the causes of any irregularities which might result from the processing and the handling of the mix and of the frozen ice cream, and likewise, any winch might be introduced by the methods of obtaining and mixing ...


The Pasteurization Efficiencies Secured With Milk From Individual Farms, R. V. Hussong, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

The Pasteurization Efficiencies Secured With Milk From Individual Farms, R. V. Hussong, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin

The pasteurized milk coming from certain of the Iowa market milk plants contains larger numbers of bacteria than would be expected from the numbers present in the raw milk. These large numbers are sometimes due to contamination following pasteurization, but comparatively high counts are also encountered with carefully pasteurized milk taken directly from the pasteurizer so that there is no opportunity for contamination from the cooler, bottler, etc.

In order to determine whether or not certain milk supplies contain comparatively large percentages of heat resistant organisms, the pasteurization efficiencies1 secured with milk coming from different farms were studied. The ...


Observations On The Counting Of Bacteria In Ice Cream By The Plate Method, N. E. Fabricius, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Observations On The Counting Of Bacteria In Ice Cream By The Plate Method, N. E. Fabricius, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin

The development of official or standard methods for various types of laboratory examinations represents a distinct advance from the standpoint of the usefulness of the results obtained. The standard methods for the bacteriological analysis of milk have made it possible to compare, on a satisfactory basis, the results secured in different laboratories and, undoubtedly, have been a factor in extending the use of bacterial counts for the control of milk supplies. The procedure at present required by Standard Methods of Milk Analysis1 for the macroscopic colony count on milk has been developed over a period of years. It is ...


Creamery Organization And Construction, Henry Giese, M. Mortensen 2017 Iowa State College

Creamery Organization And Construction, Henry Giese, M. Mortensen

Bulletin

Since 1910 the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station has taken an active part in assisting the farmers in the organization and erection of creameries.

The early creameries planned by the Iowa station in cooperation with the various creamery organizations were satisfactory at that time. Emphasis was placed primarily on sanitation, convenience, durability and economy in construction. These factors are not ignored today but are rather more strongly emphasized . In addition, much emphasis is placed on the appearance of the building, since the creamery of today is often centrally located in the town and is one of the important business institutions of ...


A Simple Linebreeding Program For Poultry Breeders, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

A Simple Linebreeding Program For Poultry Breeders, C. W. Knox

Bulletin

It is practically impossible to increase egg production beyond a certain point in any flock of chickens without proper regard to mating and breeding. The old adage that it is impossible to squeeze blood out of a turnip also holds true in poultry keeping for, no matter how much care is given the birds, they cannot lay eggs beyond their HEREDITARY capacity.

As with egg production, hatchability, egg size and body weight cannot be increased beyond certain limits unless some constructive breeding program is followed. Altho this bulletin will deal with linebreeding for higher egg production, the same principles will ...


Influence Of Environment And Breeding In Increasing Dairy Production-Iii, Earl Weaver, C. A. Matthews, H. H. Kildee 2017 Iowa State College

Influence Of Environment And Breeding In Increasing Dairy Production-Iii, Earl Weaver, C. A. Matthews, H. H. Kildee

Bulletin

The constant growth of the dairy industry constitutes a notable phase in the history of American agriculture. That the industry will continue to grow is beyond question. The wider knowledge of the food value of dairy products, the increasing demands in America for intensive and economical production, to which demands dairying is especially adapted, and the more general recognition of . the financial possibilities that lie in dairy farming all attest the view that the greatest development of the industry is yet to be realized.

Good dairy cows are indisputably the foundation upon which this development will depend and what is ...


The Economy And Efficiency Of A Milking Machine, Charles A. Matthews, John M. Shaw, Earl Weaver 2017 Iowa State College

The Economy And Efficiency Of A Milking Machine, Charles A. Matthews, John M. Shaw, Earl Weaver

Bulletin

Industry has progressed considerably in substituting mechanical appliances for hand labor, thereby vastly reducing unit production costs. In more recent years agriculture has been making wider uses of mechanical equipment with the result that production has been increased, altho the proportion of agricultural laborers has markedly declined. Kinsman1 states that within the last 75 years a man's ability as a field worker on the farm has been trebled. As the future of agriculture is studied it seems likely that the greatest opportunity for reducing production costs is to increase the output per man thru mechanical equipment. It is ...


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