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J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Delbert Kruger 2017 University of Wyoming

J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Delbert Kruger

David Delbert Kruger

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Condition On Maintenance Requirements Of Dairy Cattle, A. C. McCandlish, W. G. Gaessler 2017 Iowa State College

Influence Of Condition On Maintenance Requirements Of Dairy Cattle, A. C. Mccandlish, W. G. Gaessler

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The ration of the dairy cow is used for maintenance, growth, the formation of body fat, the building up of the foetus and milk production, so the problem of feed utilizaton is a complicated one. 'rhe maintenance ration is more easily studied than are the requirements for growth and productive purposes and yet many of the factors controlling it are not thoroly understood.

Condition in dairy cattle has received little attention in investigational work and its influence on the maintenance requirements of animals has not been studied. In fact, the influence of condition on the maintenance requirements of all classe ...


The Volatile Acid Production Of Starters And Of Organisms Isolated From Them, B. W. Hammer, D. E. Bailey 2017 Iowa State College

The Volatile Acid Production Of Starters And Of Organisms Isolated From Them, B. W. Hammer, D. E. Bailey

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The introduction of starters represents one of the distinct advances made in the field of dairying. Altho starters have been widely used their careful study has been very much neglected and the men who handle them extensively are often unable to explain the results obtained. The increasing use that is being made of starters in the manufacture of butter, various types of cheese, and fermented milk drinks makes it essential that they be studied with the idea of securing information regarding the reasons for the variations that occur in the quality. The present paper gives the results secured in a ...


Studies On Formation Of Gas In Sweetened Condensed Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Studies On Formation Of Gas In Sweetened Condensed Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In foods treated in various ways for their preservation, microorganisms that can resist conditions that the great majority of micro-organisms cannot withstand, occasionally develop and bring about undesirable changes. These changes are common in foods that have been subjected to heat and are the results of the presence of organisms that have the ability to resist temperatures that usually effectively sterilize the product in question. In sweetened condensed milk, which is presumably preserved by the addition of high percentages of sucrose, abnormal changes sometimes occur as a result of the presence of organisms that have the ability to develop in ...


Studies On Abnormal Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Studies On Abnormal Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Evaporated milk, which depends for its keeping quality on the destruction of the con tamed micro-organisms by heat, occasionally spoils because of the presence of one or more organisms that resist the exposure employed in the sterilizer. The milk may undergo coagulation, gas formation or various other changes depending on the organism or organisms present. In this paper an unusual type of spoiling, mainly evident as an abnormal flavor and odor, altho there sometimes was coagulation, is reported and the organism causing it is described.


Appetite As A Guide In Feeding Dairy Calves, A. C. McCandlish 2017 Iowa State College

Appetite As A Guide In Feeding Dairy Calves, A. C. Mccandlish

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Appetite, as an indicator of physiological needs, has been minimized by many investigators in the field of human and animal nutrition. From the beginning the whole animal kingdom h.as been controlled in its feeding problems only by appetite and environmental limitations of the food supply. Consequently, even tho the role of appetite be not of great importance under artificial experimental conditions, yet, if the broad facts of the case, the continued existence and multiplication of man and other animals, after countless aeons of feeding with appetite as their sole guide, be taken into consideration, it must be recognized as ...


Milk As The Sole Diet Of Ruminants, A. C. McCandlish 2017 Iowa State College

Milk As The Sole Diet Of Ruminants, A. C. Mccandlish

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

From time imemmorial milk has been regarded as the food best adapted to the complete nourishing of mammalia. It is the sole diet of all mammals during the earlier part of their postnatal development and is recognized as an excellent staple in the diet of the adult human, especially in the case of invalids. On the farm it is used extensively in the feeding of young animals, and in the case of the hog it is fed in large quantities to more mature individuals.

Within the last decade many investigations have been made concerning the nutritive value of milk and ...


Studies On The Clarification Of Milk—Ii, B. W. Hammer, A. J. Hauser 2017 Iowa State College

Studies On The Clarification Of Milk—Ii, B. W. Hammer, A. J. Hauser

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In a former publication of this station the results obtained in a study of the clarification of milk with the DeLaval clarifier are presented. The data show: first that commonly, altho by no means constantly, the plates poured from clarified milk contained a larger number of colonies than plates poured from Unclarified milk of the same lot; this was undoubtedly due to a breaking up of the clumps of organisms and should be spoken of as an 'apparent increase since the large number of bacteria in the slime indicates that there was actually an elimination of organisms; second, that there ...


A Rapid Volumetric Method For The Approximate Estimation Of Chlorine In Milk, B. W. Hammer, D. E. Bailey 2017 Iowa State College

A Rapid Volumetric Method For The Approximate Estimation Of Chlorine In Milk, B. W. Hammer, D. E. Bailey

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In work carried out at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment station on the variations in the flavor and odor of milk of individual animals, it was found that certain flavors, described by different judges as bitter or salty, were accompanied by a comparatively high chlorine content, as determined by a tit.ration of the milk with silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate as an indicator. Before studying in detail the correlation between a high chlorine content and certain abnormal flavors and odors, it seemed advisable to compare the results obtained by the titration of milk, using silver nitrate, with the results ...


Fishiness In Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Fishiness In Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Among the abnormal dairy products brought to the dairy section of the Iowa State College for examination was a can of evaporated milk that had developed a very fishy odor and flavor. Since fishiness is of very great importance in butter, of considerable interest in milk, and in neither product is thoroly understood, an investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of the abnormality and the results obtained are presented below.


Studies On The Creaming Ability Of Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Studies On The Creaming Ability Of Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Along with the general interest in better methods of marketing all kinds of food products has come an interest in the methods used in marketing milk. A realization of the necessity of protecting milk from contamination during handling has resulted in a wide use of the common milk bottle. Because of the defects inherent in the ordinary bottle, other types of packages have been introduced in an attempt to secure a container that absolutely protects the milk and at the same time offers no serious problems in its use.

With the present competition among dealers, 110WeVer, in addition to the ...


Studies On The Numbers Of Bacteria In Milk Showing Various Changes, B. W. Hammer, R. H. Hix 2017 Iowa State College

Studies On The Numbers Of Bacteria In Milk Showing Various Changes, B. W. Hammer, R. H. Hix

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The relationship between bacteria and the changes that occur in milk has been recognized since the middle of the last century. Certain of the milk abnormalities are almost characteristic of micro-organisms while others, such as abnormal flavors and odors, quite commonly result from causes other than bacterial. Recently the dairy section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station in working with samples of milk from various parts of the state found that milk sometimes received low flavor scores when the number of contained bacteria was exceedingly small, while samples with high flavor scores sometimes contained large numbers of bacteria. This suggested ...


Studies Of The Formation Of Gas In Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Studies Of The Formation Of Gas In Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The gassy fermentation of milk has recently been observed a number of times in the Iowa State College creamery, particularly in the milk set for the manufacture of various types of soft cheese. The isolation and study of the causal organism or organisms was undertaken in several cases and the results obtained, together with a brief statement of the cases investigated, are herein presented.


Slimy And Ropy Milk, R. E. Buchanan, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Slimy And Ropy Milk, R. E. Buchanan, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A study of slimy and ropy milk sent for examination to the dairy bacteriological laboratories of Iowa State College has shown the following:

1. Cultures of organisms secured from slimy starters, apparently typical Streptococcus lacticus forms, sometimes showed marked capacity to produce ropiness when inoculated into sterile milk. This slime producing power is evidently a variable characteristic, appearing and disappearing without apparent cause.

2. Associative action of organisms in some cases is responsible for ropiness. Two organisms, neither of which alone can cause ropiness, may, when grown together, cause the medium to become slimy.

3. Bacterium (lactis) viscosum is one ...


Bacteriological Studies On Two Yellow Milk Organisms, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On Two Yellow Milk Organisms, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The different milk constituents vary greatly in their susceptibility to the action of the bacteria that make up the flora commonly found in milk. At ordinary temperatures in raw milk, the lactose is soon attacked and acid formed, but if the acid producing organisms are destroyed by some such procedure as heating, pronounced changes soon take place in the casein. The fat is one of the milk constituents that is more resistant to bacterial action, yet even in it striking changes are observed under certain conditions. Some of the common milk organisms, even some of the acid producing types, are ...


Bacteriological Studies On The Coagulation Of Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On The Coagulation Of Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The value of milk as a food has led to many attempts at its preservation until at the present time various kinds of dried and canned milks are manufactured. The canned milks, because of the water contained in them, are open to bacteriological changes unless the action of microorganisms is overcome by either killing those present or by making the conditions unsuited to their growth.


A Bacteriological Study Of Blue Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of Blue Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In October, 1913, the receipt of a sample of blue milk by the dairy section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station prompted an investigation of this uncommon phenomenon. Careful study of the organism involved proved it to be Bac. cyanogenes, the same organism that has been isolated in other instances of blue milk. As far as is known, this organism is entirely harmless and milk which is turned blue by it is objectionable only on account of its color.


The Specific Heat Of Milk And Milk Derivatives, B. W. Hammer, A. R. Johnson 2017 Iowa State College

The Specific Heat Of Milk And Milk Derivatives, B. W. Hammer, A. R. Johnson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In a great many dairy processes where heat is used, the amount and intensity of the energy necessary to gain a certain end-product are very important. These factors are important not only because heat, like material commodities, is an item of expense, but also, because too great an intensity of temperature, or too prolonged an application, may cause serious chemical and physical changes in the substance worked with.


Making And Keeping Your Cattle Herd Safe From Bovine Viral Diarrhea (Bvd), Kerry A. Rood, C Kim Chapman, Allen Young 2017 Utah State University Extension

Making And Keeping Your Cattle Herd Safe From Bovine Viral Diarrhea (Bvd), Kerry A. Rood, C Kim Chapman, Allen Young

C. Chapman

This publication provides steps for keeping cattle herds safe from Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD).


Dairy Research 2016, Full Report, B. Bradford 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Dairy Research 2016, Full Report, B. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kansas State University is pleased to present the 2016 Dairy Research Report of Progress.


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