Dorr And Fielder 2017 Dcco Too Much Of A Good Thing Fsh.Pdf, 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center
Dorr And Fielder 2017 Dcco Too Much Of A Good Thing Fsh.Pdf, Brian S. Dorr, David G. Fielder
Brian S Dorr
Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, 2017 The University of San Francisco
Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau
Master's Projects and Capstones
There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...
Common Birds Of The Brinton Museum And Bighorn Mountains Foothills, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Common Birds Of The Brinton Museum And Bighorn Mountains Foothills, Jackie Canterbury, Paul Johnsgard
Part I. The Brinton Museum and Its Birds
Part II. Profiles of 48 Common Local and Regional Birds: Ring-necked Pheasant, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Great Blue Heron, Turkey Vulture, Osprey, Bald Eagle, Cooper’s Hawk, Red-tailed Hawk, Rough-legged Hawk, Sandhill Crane, Killdeer, Eastern Screech-Owl, Great Horned Owl, Broad-tailed Hummingbird, Calliope Hummingbird, Belted Kingfisher, Downy Woodpecker, Red-naped Sapsucker, Northern Flicker, American Kestrel, Western Wood-Pewee, Say’s Phoebe, Eastern Kingbird, Black-billed Magpie, American Crow, Common Raven, Tree Swallow, Cliff Swallow, Black-capped Chickadee, Mountain Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, House Wren, American Dipper, Mountain Bluebird, Cedar Waxwing, Yellow Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Spotted Towhee, Vesper Sparrow ...
Spatial Models To Account For Variation In Observer Effort In Bird Atlases, 2017 Gettysburg College
Spatial Models To Account For Variation In Observer Effort In Bird Atlases, Andrew M. Wilson, Daniel W. Brauning, Caitlin Carey, Robert S. Mulvihill
Environmental Studies Faculty Publications
To assess the importance of variation in observer effort between and within bird atlas projects and demonstrate the use of relatively simple conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for analyzing grid-based atlas data with varying effort. Pennsylvania and West Virginia, United States of America. We used varying proportions of randomly selected training data to assess whether variations in observer effort can be accounted for using CAR models and whether such models would still be useful for atlases with incomplete data. We then evaluated whether the application of these models influenced our assessment of distribution change between two atlas projects separated by twenty ...
Winter Diet Of Bobolink, A Long-Distance Migratory Grassland Bird, Inferred From Feather Isotopes, 2017 Vermont Center for Ecostudies
Winter Diet Of Bobolink, A Long-Distance Migratory Grassland Bird, Inferred From Feather Isotopes, Rosalind B. Renfrew, Jason M. Hill, Daniel H. Kim, Christopher Romanek, Noah G. Perlut
Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations
Effective conservation of migratory bird populations depends on advancements in our understanding of processes throughout the life cycle. Fundamental information about wintering ecology (e.g., habitat use and diet composition) remains limited, which limits assessment of threats to populations during winter. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) is a year-round grassland obligate and Nearctic-Neotropical migrant that undergoes 2 complete molts each year, including a complete prealternate molt on the South American wintering grounds. This unusual winter molt provides a rare opportunity to examine, using stable isotope analysis, the timing and contribution of foraging resources in the Bobolink diet prior to northbound migration from ...
How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze
Honors Theses AY 16/17
The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...
Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, 2017 Chapman University
Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim
Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters
Tameness is a measure of tolerance towards human disturbance. As human disturbance and recreational activity are increasing, it is becoming more and more important to understand responses of species to this disturbance. Tameness has been shown to be influenced by an individuals characteristics and life history. Two possible determinants of tameness are breeding stage and parentage. We studied tameness in common loons (Gavia immer) specifically looking at the effects of breeding stage and parentage. Tameness was measured by flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which a loon dove from an approaching human observer in a canoe. Loons with chicks ...
Where In The World Are Pallas's Fish Eagles? Migration And Ecology Of Haliaeetus Leucoryphus In Asia, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Where In The World Are Pallas's Fish Eagles? Migration And Ecology Of Haliaeetus Leucoryphus In Asia, Marla Lynn Steele
Theses and Dissertations
Pallas’s Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) is the Northern Hemisphere’s least understood eagle species. Virtually nothing is known concerning the species’ ecology. Historically, Pallas’s Fish Eagles were expected to breed in three separate populations in Mongolia, China, and India and was considered one of the most common raptors in Asia prior to the 1900’s. However, by 1960’s major declines were observed. The species is currently listed as “globally vulnerable” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The current study examined over a century of Pallas’s Fish Eagle observation data to ...
Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski
Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources
Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.
First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...
Preferred Atmospheric Patterns For Vernal And Autumnal Nocturnal Bird Migration Using The Plymouth, New Hampshire Noaa-Esrl Snow Level Radar, Andrea Larocca, Careyanne Howlett, Parker Bradley, Jesse Carlson
Student Showcase of Excellence
Radar technology can be a useful tool in tracking trends in bird migration. The NOAA-ESRL Snow Level Radar (SLR), located in Plymouth, New Hampshire, is primarily used to monitor the Bright-Band Height (BBH) of falling precipitation, or the level at which snow melts to water. Using data collected from November 2014 to November 2016, preferential atmospheric conditions over Plymouth, New Hampshire were analyzed during peak migration events for both autumn and spring migration seasons.
Habitat Restoration Through Permaculture And Agroforestry In Southern Belize, 2017 Environmental Biology
Habitat Restoration Through Permaculture And Agroforestry In Southern Belize, Parker Bradley, Alexandra Hill, Lucas Kirker, Andrew Van Houten, Jared Lamy, Jason Kenney, Logan Kuzmitch
Student Showcase of Excellence
One of the major benefits of permaculture and agroforestry is the restoration of complex habitat while still providing calories for human consumption. The Maya Mountain Research Farm in Southern Belize consists of 32ha of former cattle pasture and citrus orchard now used for permaculture and agroforestry, hosting a diverse polyculture of dozens of fruit-bearing tree and shrub species and about half a dozen timber tree species, all interspersed with dynamic patches of banana and maize. Spread out along the farm’s habitat mosaic, 17 point count stations were repeated three times, as well as 21 forest interior stations done once ...
Changes In The Breeding Range Of The Broad-Winged Hawk (Buteo Platypterus) Due To Habitat Fragmentation In The Northern Appalachian Region, Rachael M. Pruitt
The Broad-winged Hawk (BWHA), Buteo platypterus, a small, secretive hawk with distinguishing broad black tail bands, breeds in northeastern North America. The hawks nest in deciduous or mixed forest, often near water, and close to clearings or forest edges. Land conversion and fragmentation alters the landscape and reduces the area of contiguous forest used by BWHA. This study seeks to determine the habitat metrics that may be influencing the apparent breeding range declines of the BWHA at the landscape scale. Landscape characteristics and BWHA presence data from 18,684 Breeding Bird Atlas blocks (each about 25km2) from Ohio, West Virginia ...
The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard
Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.
The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...
P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, 2017 Western University
P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels
Western Research Forum
Background: Beat perception is a complex cognitive skill that enables humans to “feel” the beat in music, and is an essential component of synchronization of behavior and dance. The mechanisms in the human brain that facilitate beat perception are not entirely understood, and have only been studied thus far using non-invasive techniques. Some animals, such as songbirds, also seem to be able to detect a beat in rhythms, though this has never been formally tested independent of motor synchronization.
Methods: An operant experiment is used to assess if European starlings, a type of songbird, are capable of categorizing auditory rhythms ...
The Impact Of Various Predator Perceptions On Stress Response And Spatial Memory In Birds, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
The Impact Of Various Predator Perceptions On Stress Response And Spatial Memory In Birds, Chlöe S. N. Carter
Western Research Forum
The Impact of Various Predator Perceptions on Stress Response and Spatial Memory in Birds
This project will explore the impact of environmental stressors on the cognitive abilities of birds. Predator perception has been demonstrated to elicit a stress response by elevating stress hormones which can alter the behaviour of birds. The aim of this study is to observe if chronic stress from differently perceived threats of predation in an individual’s environment will lead to differences in the spatial memory abilities in two species of birds. I predict that chronic stress resulting from predator stimuli will impair the bird ...
The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard
This volume, the fourth in a series of books that collectively update and expand P. A. Johnsgard’s 1975 The Waterfowl of North America, summarizes research findings on this economically and ecologically important group of waterfowl. The volume includes the mostly tropical perching duck tribe Cairinini, of which two species, the muscovy duck and the wood duck, are representatives. Both species are adapted for foraging on the water surface, mostly on plant materials, but typically perch in trees and nest in elevated tree cavities or other elevated recesses. This volume also includes the dabbling, or surface-feeding, duck tribe Anatini, a ...
A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, 2017 College of William and Mary
A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith
Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a “sonic net”), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before ...
Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, 2017 College of William and Mary
Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle
Human-altered landscapes often include structural features, such as higher levels of impervious surface cover (ISC) and less vegetation, that are likely to affect the transmission of avian vocalizations. We investigated the relationships between human habitat modifications and signal transmission by measuring four acoustic parameters—persistence, reverberation, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of broadcast tones, as well as absolute ambient noise level—in each of 39 avian breeding territories across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Using a geographic information system, we quantified the amounts of different habitat features (e.g., ISC, grass, trees) at each site; a principal component analysis was used to ...
Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, 2017 College of William and Mary
Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos
Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...
Constraints On Acoustic Signaling Among Birds Breeding In Secondary Cavities: The Effects Of Weather, Cavity Material, And Noise On Sound Propagation, John P. Swaddle, Caitlin R. Kight, Saji Perera, Eduardo Davila-Reyes, Shena Sikora
Increasing evidence suggests that anthropogenic noise from urbanization affects animal acoustic communication. We investigated whether the begging calls of nestling Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) varied along a disturbance gradient of ambient noise. Contrary to our prediction and the results of a previous study of nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), we found that nestling Eastern Bluebirds did not increase the amplitude or structural characteristics—including frequency, rate, and duration—of their vocalizations in response to ambient noise. However, we found that prevalent temperature and humidity conditions attenuated begging calls. Specifically, in warmer, more humid weather, vocalizations of nestling Eastern Bluebirds attenuated ...