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Breeding Season Avian Community Composition And Prey Availability In Eucalyptus And Slash Pine Plantations Of Southwestern Louisiana, Elizabeth J. Messick 2016 Stephen F. Austin State University

Breeding Season Avian Community Composition And Prey Availability In Eucalyptus And Slash Pine Plantations Of Southwestern Louisiana, Elizabeth J. Messick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The increased demand for wood products related to industries such as bioenergy and paper has resulted in a need for a consistent supply of raw materials. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations have the potential to boost wood production for pulpwood and biomass feedstocks. Species characteristics such as rapid, indeterminate growth, coppice regrowth, resistance to disease and insects, and tolerance of a range of environmental conditions make these species successful short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs). Camden white gum (Eucalyptus benthamii), a more cold tolerant species, has made management of eucalyptus plantations viable in southern portions of the United States such as the Western ...


Effects Of Human Disturbance On Physiology, Behavior, And Ornamentation In The Eastern Bluebird, Lauren Marjorie Gillespie 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Human Disturbance On Physiology, Behavior, And Ornamentation In The Eastern Bluebird, Lauren Marjorie Gillespie

Dissertations

Overall, few studies have focused on anthropogenic disturbance on wildlife physiology. Research has typically focused on how environmentally contaminated areas or anthropogenic disturbance (e.g. noise, human activity) influences biodiversity, community structure and behavior of individual animals. However, understanding how disturbance influences some aspects of physiology can require sacrifice of the animal, prohibiting ecologically relevant measures of behavior and reproductive success. This research strives to examine covariation between testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT), plumage ornamentation, and behavior in two populations of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) that differ in degree to which their habitat is modified by human activity.

In this ...


The Feasibility Of Using Drones To Count Songbirds, Andrew M. Wilson, Janine M. Barr, Megan E. Zagorski 2016 Gettysburg College

The Feasibility Of Using Drones To Count Songbirds, Andrew M. Wilson, Janine M. Barr, Megan E. Zagorski

Environmental Studies Student Conference Presentations

Point and transect counts are the most common bird survey methods, but are subject to biases and accessibility issues. To eliminate some of these biases, we propose attaching a recorder to a consumer-grade quadcopter (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV) to estimate songbird populations from audio recordings. We conducted a blind experiment using broadcast recordings to estimate the detection radius of a compact recorder attached to a UAV, and found that the detection radius did not vary significantly when the UAV was flown at elevations of 20, 40 and 60m. We field tested our system by comparing UAV-based bird counts with ...


Experimental Analysis Of An Early Life-History Stage: Selection On Size Of Hatchling Turtles, Fredric J. Janzen, John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis 2016 Iowa State University

Experimental Analysis Of An Early Life-History Stage: Selection On Size Of Hatchling Turtles, Fredric J. Janzen, John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis

Fredric Janzen

Life-history evolution in short-lived organisms has been investigated extensively, but little is known empirically about the causes of the different life-history strategies of long-lived organisms. To explore this issue, we conducted experiments to evaluate natural selection acting on key traits during an important life-history stage of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). We reared eggs from 56 females in a seminatural common environment and released 356 of the resulting hatchlings in four replicates at a natural nesting area to assess offspring recapture probability as a measure of survivorship during the post-emergence migration. Larger body size of hatchling turtles was ...


Impact Of Nest-Site Selection On Nest Success And Nest Temperature In Natural And Disturbed Habitats, Jason J. Kolbe, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Nest-Site Selection On Nest Success And Nest Temperature In Natural And Disturbed Habitats, Jason J. Kolbe, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Nest-site selection behavior is a maternal effect that contributes to offspring survival and variation in offspring phenotypes that are subject to natural selection. We investigated nest-site selection and its consequences in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, in northwestern Illinois. We evaluated nest-site selection at both the microhabitat and habitat patch levels. Turtles selected nest sites with shorter vegetation, more open sand, and fewer cacti than random locations. These microhabitat characteristics described sandy patches where both nest density and success were higher compared to grassy patches in 1999. We subsequently investigated nest-site selection within two discrete subdivisions of the study area ...


The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The eight currently recognized species of North American geese are part of a familiar group of birds collectively called waterfowl, all of which are smaller than swans and generally larger than ducks. They include the most popular of our aquatic gamebirds, with several million shot each year by sport hunters. Our two most abundant waterfowl, the Canada goose and snow goose, have populations collectively totaling about 15 million individuals. Like swans, the lifelong pairbonding of geese, their familial care, and prolonged social attachment to their offspring are legendary. Their seasonal migratory flights sometimes span thousands of miles, and the sight ...


The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The ten currently recognized species of grouse in North America have played an important role in America’s history, from the famous but ill-fated heath hen, a primary source of meat for the earliest New England immigrants, to the ruffed grouse, currently one of the most abundant and soughtafter upland game birds in more than 40 states and provinces. This book summarizes the ecology, reproductive biology, and social behavior of all ten of the extant North American grouse species. It also describes the current status of grouse populations, some of which are perilously close to extinction. The social behavior of ...


Hands Of The Future, Inc; Junior Nature Club; Living Schoolyards, Zonda K. Bryant 2016 Hands of the Future, Inc

Hands Of The Future, Inc; Junior Nature Club; Living Schoolyards, Zonda K. Bryant

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Programs to connect children to nature


Stopover Ecology Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) During Autumn Migration, Theodore Joseph Zenzal Jr 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Stopover Ecology Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) During Autumn Migration, Theodore Joseph Zenzal Jr

Dissertations

The Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is one of the smallest Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and the only species of hummingbird that breeds in Eastern North America, yet few studies have investigated the biology of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds when they stopover during migration. Given their small size, high metabolism, aggression, and specialized diet, hummingbirds may represent a migrant that operates on the physiological edge. Therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence their stopover as well as the decision to resume migration. Towards this end, Ruby-throated Hummingbirds were captured during autumn migration along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico to ...


Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends In The Conterminous United States, 1986-2010, Wade L. Eakle, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Richard A. Fischer, Karen Steenhof 2016 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends In The Conterminous United States, 1986-2010, Wade L. Eakle, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Richard A. Fischer, Karen Steenhof

Laura Bond

We analyzed counts from the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey to examine state, regional, and national trends in counts of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) within the conterminous 48 United States from 1986 to 2010. Using hierarchical mixed model methods, we report trends in counts from 11 729 surveys along 844 routes in 44 states. Nationwide Bald Eagle counts increased 0.6% per yr over the 25-yr period, compared to an estimate of 1.9% per yr from 1986 to 2000. Trend estimates for Bald Eagles were significant (P ≤ 0.05) and positive in the northeastern and northwestern U.S ...


The Evolution Of Lateralized Foot Use In Parrots: A Phylogenetic Approach, Culum Brown, Maria Magat 2016 Macquarie University

The Evolution Of Lateralized Foot Use In Parrots: A Phylogenetic Approach, Culum Brown, Maria Magat

Culum Brown, Ph.D.

Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of cognitive function in either brain hemisphere and may be overtly expressed as behavioral asymmetries, such as handedness. The evolutionary history of laterality is of considerable interest due to its close link with the development of human language. Although considerable research effort has aimed at the proximate explanations of cerebral lateralization, considerably less attention has been paid to ultimate explanations. The extent to which laterality is constrained by phylogeny or shaped by ecological forces through natural selection has received little attention. Here, the foot preference of 23 species of Australian parrots was examined to ...


Fluctuating Survival Selection Explains Variation In Avian Group Size, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, Erin A. Roche, Valerie A. O'Brien, Catherine E. Page 2016 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa

Fluctuating Survival Selection Explains Variation In Avian Group Size, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, Erin A. Roche, Valerie A. O'Brien, Catherine E. Page

Papers in Natural Resources

Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark– recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be ...


Pheomelanin Pigment Is Not An Indicator Of Feather Corticosterone Content In Diurnal Migratory Raptors In Idaho, Christopher Porterfield 2016 Boise State University

Pheomelanin Pigment Is Not An Indicator Of Feather Corticosterone Content In Diurnal Migratory Raptors In Idaho, Christopher Porterfield

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

In some cases, pigmentation can be used as an indicator of measures of condition. In this study, I tested the relationship between reddish pheomelanin pigmentation and the amount of corticosterone, a hormone associated with stress, sequestered in the feathers. I predicted that with higher corticosterone in feathers individuals would exhibit increased brightness and reduced saturation of pheomelanin pigments in their feathers. I collected spectral data from feathers from American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Cooper’s Hawks (Accipiter cooperii), and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) during migration in southwestern Idaho over two years (2010-2011). After extracting corticosterone from these same feathers, I measured ...


Three-Dimensional Simulation For Fast Forward Flight Of A Calliope Hummingbird, Jialei Song, Bret W. Tobalske, Don Powers, Tyson Hedrick, Haoxiang Luo 2016 Vanderbilt University

Three-Dimensional Simulation For Fast Forward Flight Of A Calliope Hummingbird, Jialei Song, Bret W. Tobalske, Don Powers, Tyson Hedrick, Haoxiang Luo

Faculty Publications - Department of Biology and Chemistry

We present a computational study of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a calliope hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope) during fast forward flight. Three-dimensional wing kinematics were incorporated into the model by extracting time-dependent wing position from high-speed videos of the bird flying in a wind tunnel at 8.3 m s−1. The advance ratio, i.e. the ratio between flight speed and average wingtip speed, is around one. An immersed-boundary method was used to simulate flow around the wings and bird body. The result shows that both downstroke and upstroke in a wingbeat cycle produce significant thrust for the bird to overcome drag ...


History And Current Status Of The Northern Saw-Whet Owl (Aegolius Acadicus) In Arkansas, Mitchell L. Pruitt 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

History And Current Status Of The Northern Saw-Whet Owl (Aegolius Acadicus) In Arkansas, Mitchell L. Pruitt

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The secretive Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) is believed to be much more widespread during fall and winter than previously thought. Of the few places in the southern United States conducting research on this species, all have been successful at capturing birds. A total of 12 historic records existed for Arkansas until my work began in fall of 2014. The first confirmed record was in 1959 and the most recent was in 2010. Over the course of two field seasons, I captured and banded 24 saw-whet owls in rural Madison County. All birds were mist-netted along a trail, in woodland ...


Population And Morphological Changes In American Kestrels Through Space And Time, Teresa E. Ely 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Population And Morphological Changes In American Kestrels Through Space And Time, Teresa E. Ely

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

A once common raptor, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) has experienced population declines in the last two decades throughout North America. Many hypotheses exist about the decline, including mortality from West Nile virus, rodenticide poisoning, climate change, an increase in predators, and core habitat loss or degradation, which could influence food availability. Food availability is key to raptor survival and reproduction, and changes in food availability throughout the year can have lifelong effects on size and body condition. Here we examine how morphology, specifically mass and wing chord, has changed at seven migration sites throughout North America as kestrel populations ...


Measuring And Comparing Stress Levels And Stress Behaviors To Rehabilitation Time In Avian Patients, Anderson Grant 2016 Iowa State University

Measuring And Comparing Stress Levels And Stress Behaviors To Rehabilitation Time In Avian Patients, Anderson Grant

Honors Projects and Posters

A better understanding of avian stress behaviors and the consequences of this stress is important for wildlife care clinics, the rehabilitation field, and the behavioral ecology community. The goals of this experiment are to 1) determine whether correlations between the time to patient recovery and the stress experienced during captivity exist, and 2) develop a ranking of patient response to treatment that will inform doctors and staff about the stress levels patients are experiencing. I observed behavioral response to handling and treatment by staff for 3 barred owls admitted to the Wildlife Care Clinic. I collected fecal samples from during ...


Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore 2016 Iowa State University

Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore

Tyler Harms

Wetlands continue to decline throughout North America and the Prairie Pothole Region, thus emphasizing the importance of understanding population trends and habitat associations of wetland species to ensure effective conservation and habitat management of those species. We estimated density and abundance and evaluated habitat associations of the Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana georgiana) in Iowa. We conducted standardized distance sampling surveys for Swamp Sparrows and measured habitat characteristics at 307 wetlands in two regions of Iowa in 2009 and 2010. We used Program Distance to model detection probability and estimate region-specific breeding densities of Swamp Sparrows at Iowa wetlands. We ...


Influence Of Season And Time Of Day On Marsh Bird Detections, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore 2016 Iowa State University

Influence Of Season And Time Of Day On Marsh Bird Detections, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore

Tyler Harms

Call-broadcast surveys are frequently used to elicit responses of secretive marsh birds and produce greater detection rates than passive surveys. However, little is known about how detection rates of birds from these surveys differ by season and time of day. We conducted call-broadcast surveys for eight focal species at 56 wetlands throughout Iowa from 15 May–13 June 2010 (early season) and from 15 June–10 July 2010 (late season). Our focal species were Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), King Rail (Rallus elegans), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), Sora (Porzana carolina), Common Gallinule (Gallinula ...


Density And Abundance Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore 2016 Iowa State University

Density And Abundance Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen Dinsmore

Tyler Harms

A decrease in wetland habitats throughout North America has caused a decline in populations of marsh birds. The objective of this study was to estimate population densities and abundances of secretive marsh birds in Iowa. Call-broadcast surveys were conducted in conjunction with distance sampling for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in three regions of Iowa during 2009 and 2010. Regions were defined by observed microhabitat characteristics which also corresponded to physiographic regions. Region-specific density estimates were obtained using Program Distance for four species of marsh birds for which sufficient detections existed (Pied-billed Grebe [Podilymbus podiceps], Least Bittern [Ixobrychus ...


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