Haemosporidian Parasite Community In Migrating Bobolinks On The Galapagos Islands, 2018 University of New England
Haemosporidian Parasite Community In Migrating Bobolinks On The Galapagos Islands, Noah G. Perlut, Patricia G. Parker, Rosalind B. Renfrew, Maricruz Jaramillo
Environmental Studies Faculty Publications
Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) migrate from their breeding grounds in North America to their wintering grounds in South America during the fall each year. A small number of Bobolinks stop temporarily in Galapagos, and potentially carry parasites. On the North American breeding grounds, Bobolinks carry a least two of the four Plasmodium lineages recently detected in resident Galapagos birds. We hypothesized that Bobolinks carried these parasites to Galapagos, where they were bitten by mosquitoes that then transmitted the parasites to resident birds. The haemosporidian parasite community in 44% of the Bobolinks we captured was consistent with those on their breeding grounds ...
Paul Johnsgard: Comprehensive Vita And Bibliography, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Paul Johnsgard: Comprehensive Vita And Bibliography, Paul A. Johnsgard
Papers in Ornithology
A current curriculum vitae and comprehensive bibliography for Paul A. Johnsgard, Foundation Regents Professor Emeritus at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Dr. Johnsgard has been the author of (at least) 83 books, 140 journal articles or chapters, 100 reviews or popular articles; the subject of 7 profile articles; and the director for 12 Ph.D. dissertations and 12 M.S. theses—all listed here. Dates covered are 1953 through 2018. Dr. Johnsgard is also an illustrator and photographer.
Updated March 2018.
The Impact Of Parental Traits, Offspring Traits, And Climate On Parental Care During The Incubation Stage In A Tropical Bird, Sarah Brannon, Corey Tarwater
Honors Theses AY 17/18
Many factors could play a role in individual variation in amount and length of parental care. We studied parental care during the incubation period of the Black-capped antshrikes (Thamnophilus atrinucha) in central Panama. Our comprehensive data set allowed us to determine the impacts of parental traits (age and sex), offspring traits (time of year and age of young), and climate (rain and temperature) on variation in parental care within the species. We found that an interaction between sex and age of the adult influenced incubation behavior, while time of the year and age of young did not alter incubation. Perhaps ...
Gulls, 2018 USDA, Wildlife Services
Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans
Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series
Abundant gull (Figure 1) populations in North America have led to a variety of conflicts with people. Gulls cause damage at aquaculture facilities and other properties, and often collide with aircraft. Their use of structures on and near water results in excessive amounts of bird droppings on boats and docks. Their presence near outdoor dining establishments, swimming beaches, and recreational sites can lead to negative interactions with people. Large amounts of gull fecal material pollutes water and beaches resulting in drinking water contamination and swim bans. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion and limited lethal control may reduce damage to ...
The Effects Of Habitat Composition On Red-Headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes Erythrocephalus L.) Population Density, 2018 Olivet Nazarene University
The Effects Of Habitat Composition On Red-Headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes Erythrocephalus L.) Population Density, Kimberly Zralka
Scholar Week 2016 - present
Declines in animal populations worldwide are of critical conservation concern. However, without an understanding of optimal habitat preference, it is often difficult to determine what factors are driving these losses. Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus L.) populations have declined by over 70% in the last 50 years, and yet in some areas the birds seem to maintain stable populations. The aim of this study was to empirically test the effects of various habitat factors on red-headed woodpecker abundance. We were particularly interested in whether oak species (Quercus sp.) present in largely savanna environments (an endangered ecosystem in the Midwestern United States ...
A Note On The Onset Of Synchronous Egg Laying In A Seabird Behavior Model, 2018 Andrews University
A Note On The Onset Of Synchronous Egg Laying In A Seabird Behavior Model, Dorothea Gallos, Christiane Gallos
Protection Island, Washington hosts a large colony of Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). These birds are known to exhibit every-other-day egg-laying synchrony in dense areas of the colony in response to egg cannibalism, which is the main source of egg loss. Here we present an equilibrium analysis of a discrete-time animal behavior model for egg laying. We use Jury Conditions to find the stability criteria for the equilibrium as a function of the colony density and show that a 2-cycle bifurcation occurs when the equilibrium loses stability. The 2-cycle pattern in egg laying becomes increasingly synchronous as the colony density increases ...
Effects Of Eggshell Coloration On Egg Cannibalism Among Glaucous-Winged Gulls, 2018 Andrews University
Effects Of Eggshell Coloration On Egg Cannibalism Among Glaucous-Winged Gulls, Isabelle Hwang
A common source of reproductive loss in gulls is egg cannibalism. At a large Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) colony on Protection Island, Washington, cannibalism accounts for 55% of egg loss. Because cannibalism is a form of predation and birds have a highly developed sense of vision, I hypothesized that visible light coloration of Glaucous-winged Gull eggs plays a role in determining whether they are cannibalized. I used logistic regression to test whether egg fate was related to egg brightness, specific coloration, specific spot coverage, coloration relative to the most common coloration, and spot coverage relative to the most common spot ...
Feeder Density Enhances House Finch Disease Transmission In Experimental Epidemics, Sahnzi C. Moyers, James S. Adelman, Damien R. Farine, Courtney A. Thomason, Dana M. Hawley
Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications
Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of backyard bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naïve, groups of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) and continuously tracked behaviors at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behavior ...
P-09 Bifurcation Analysis Of A Discrete-Time Model For Seabird Reproduction, 2018 Andrews University
P-09 Bifurcation Analysis Of A Discrete-Time Model For Seabird Reproduction, Dorothea Gallos
Honors Scholars & Undergraduate Research Poster Symposium Programs
Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) breed in a large colony on Protection Island, Washington, and are known to exhibit every-other-day egg-laying synchrony in dense areas of the colony. We present a discrete-time model for egg-laying synchrony and use Jury Conditions to find the stability of the system as a function of the crowding factor. The equilibrium loses stability when the crowding factor exceeds a critical value, and the system begins synchronous stable oscillations. We also explore the effects of synchrony in the presence of egg predation and show that synchrony can be advantageous for individuals.
P-46 A Periodic Matrix Model Of Seabird Behavior And Population Dynamics, 2018 Andrews University
P-46 A Periodic Matrix Model Of Seabird Behavior And Population Dynamics, Mykhaylo M. Malakhov, Benjamin Macdonald, Shandelle M. Henson, J. M. Cushing
Honors Scholars & Undergraduate Research Poster Symposium Programs
Rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific Northwest lead to food resource reductions for surface-feeding seabirds, and have been correlated with several marked behavioral changes. Namely, higher SSTs are associated with increased egg cannibalism and egg-laying synchrony in the colony. We study the long-term effects of climate change on population dynamics and survival by considering a simplified, cross-season model that incorporates both of these behaviors in addition to density-dependent and environmental effects. We show that cannibalism can lead to backward bifurcations and strong Allee effects, allowing the population to survive at lower resource levels than would be possible otherwise.
Bulletin No. 43: Birds Of The Connecticut College Arboretum: Eighty Years Of Change, 2018 Connecticut College
Bulletin No. 43: Birds Of The Connecticut College Arboretum: Eighty Years Of Change, Robert Askins
No abstract provided.
Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, 2018 The University of Edinburgh
Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul
James S. Adelman
A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.
A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...
Factors Of Annual Reproductive Success In North American Barn Swallows (Hirundo Rustica Erythrogaster) In Shared Greenspace, 2018 City University of New York (CUNY)
Factors Of Annual Reproductive Success In North American Barn Swallows (Hirundo Rustica Erythrogaster) In Shared Greenspace, Joseph Czeisel
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
This study examined three metrics related to barn swallow reproductive success in shared greenspace. Earlier nesting dates were positively related to reproductive output and survival rate. Anthropogenic disturbance was not found to influence productivity. The distance of nests inside structures predicted survival rate. The monitoring of additional seasons is recommended.
Slave To The Rhythm: Variation In The Acoustic Signaling Of Picoides Woodpeckers, 2018 City University of New York (CUNY)
Slave To The Rhythm: Variation In The Acoustic Signaling Of Picoides Woodpeckers, Alex Baer
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
We explored rhythmic variation in acoustic signals by geography across four species of Picoides woodpeckers. We hypothesized that there would be an effect of geographic location on the cadence of drums and rattle-type calls. No significant effect was observed. However, drum cadence was observed to significantly impact conspecific recognition in playbacks.
In Sickness And In Health: Understanding The Interactive Effects Of Immune Challenge And Foraging Behavior On Parental Investment In A Monogamous Seabird, Zachary Garrett
Honors Research Projects
Carotenoid ornamentation is quite common in many species of birds, and often serves as an honest indicator of their fitness. The honesty of carotenoid ornamentation in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster brewsteri), a monogamous seabird, is likely driven by rarity of carotenoids in the diet but may also be regulated through additional pathways. For example, the trade-off hypothesis states that carotenoid pigments used in ornaments may also be required for the immune system as an antioxidant, thereby allowing only the healthiest birds to afford the carotenoid ornamentation. To test the trade-off hypothesis, I took advantage of a previously conducted ...
Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, 2018 Regis University
Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Taylor Readyhough
All Regis University Theses
Life in a zoo brings a score of stressors into the lives of captive animals, including artificial light, crowds of visitors, and increased noise levels. Stress especially impacts captive birds, and continued exposure to these stressors can negatively affect birds’ reproductive success and overall well-being. Staff at the Denver Zoo noticed increased aggression between a male and female pair of great Indian hornbills during the winter of 2016. This behavioral shift coincided with Zoo Lights, a holiday event that results in the hornbills’ exhibit remaining open to the public for approximately four extra hours through the entire month of December ...
Role Of Nest Site Microclimate And Food Availability In Chick Development And Reproductive Success In Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa Tridactyla), Lindsay Mae Lacey
Seabirds are marine top predators, and as such are often studied as bioindicators of climate shifts (Oswald and Arnold 2012). Though many studies have analyzed the effect of macroclimatic variation on marine prey species availability and thus seabirds, few have analyzed effects of microclimate - fine spatial patterns of climate (Mantua and Hare 2002; Hatch 2013; Kim and Monaghan 2005a). I tested the hypothesis that localized temperature and humidity at nest sites interact with food availability to alter black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) nest site quality, chick body condition during growth and development, and reproductive parameters including Julian lay date, number of ...
Apparent Survival Of Snowy Plovers Varies Seasonally, 2018 Humboldt State University
Apparent Survival Of Snowy Plovers Varies Seasonally, Nora C. Papian
Theses and projects
Survival is an important vital rate that contributes to population viability, but is infrequently monitored and studied, especially compared to productivity. Furthermore, factors that limit survival and the relative effect on survival are often unknown. I used mark-resight observations of a small (~350) population of threatened Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) to quantify seasonal and annual variation in survival and movement between three coastal locations across ~70 km in Humboldt County, California. The return of individuals to non-breeding flocks at three locations was high between years (75-81%). Movement between three locations varied greatly, although most (n = 137) individuals resided at ...
Do Avian Blood Parasites Influence Hypoxia Physiology In A High Elevation Environment?, 2018 Old Dominion University
Do Avian Blood Parasites Influence Hypoxia Physiology In A High Elevation Environment?, Farah Ishtiaq, Sahas Barve
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Montane birds which engage in elevational movements have evolved to cope with fluctuations in environmental hypoxia, through changes in physiological parameters associated with blood oxygen-carrying capacity such as haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct). In particular, elevational migrants which winter at low elevations, encounter varying intensities of avian haemosporidian parasites as they traverse heterogeneous environments. Whilst high intensity parasite infections lead to anaemia, one can expect that the ability to cope with haemosporidian infections should be a key trait for elevational migrants that must be balanced against reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in response to high elevation. In ...
Migratory Patterns And Population Genetic Structure In A Declining Wetland-Dependent Songbird, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
Migratory Patterns And Population Genetic Structure In A Declining Wetland-Dependent Songbird, Matthew G. Desaix
Theses and Dissertations
Understanding migratory connectivity is essential for assessing the drivers behind population dynamics and for implementing effective management in migratory species. Genetic markers provide a means to describe migratory connectivity, as well as incorporate population genetic analyses, however genetic markers can be uninformative for species with weak genetic structure. In this study, we evaluate range-wide population genetic structure and migratory connectivity in the prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea, a wetland-dependent neotropical migratory songbird, using high-resolution genetic markers. We reveal regional genetic structure between sampling sites in the Mississippi River Valley and the Atlantic Seaboard with overall weak genetic differentiation among populations (F ...