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Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau 2017 The University of San Francisco

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. Devault, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant) has been observed with increasing frequency in the alluvial plain (Delta region) of Mississippi. In the past 6 years, 22 individuals have been observed in 20 separate sightings during spring and summer. These sightings have occurred at breeding colonies of other colonial waterbirds and commercial aquaculture facilities of Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh). Two sexually mature Neotropic Cormorants have been collected at a colonial waterbird breeding colony near the Mississippi River in the western Delta region among fl ocks of Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorants). Twice during the summer of 2008, confi rmed nesting of Neotropic Cormorants ...


Mountain Plover Nest In Kimball County, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Midcontinent Ecological Science Center

Mountain Plover Nest In Kimball County, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

On 18 May 1995 I observed two adult Mountain Plovers 5 mi west and 1.25 mi north of Bushnell in southwest Kimball county. The birds were in an area of short-grass prairie interspersed with clumps of prickly pear and bare ground. I observed both birds almost continuously from 1-2 p.m. MDT. The first bird was along the road south of the fenceline, just after the road climbs on top of the plateau. The second bird was about 0.1 mi to the north on the west side of the road. Both birds were medium-sized, plain shorebirds, similar in ...


Long-Tailed Jaegers In Western Nebraska, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Selected Works

Long-Tailed Jaegers In Western Nebraska, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

The Long-tailed Jaeger is an accidental migrant in Nebraska with just one accepted record through the mid-1990s. Based on records from adjacent states, especially Colorado (Andrews and Righter 1992) and Wyoming (Faulkner 2010), the species is probably more frequent than these records indicate, and its status is further complicated by possible confusion with Pomarine and Parasitic jaegers. In this article I report details of four records of Long-tailed Jaegers in western Nebraska and comment on the species' identification and status in the state.


Notes On Bird Sightings In Nebraska March 1997, Ruth C. Green, Alice Kenitz, Joel G. Jorgensen, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Nebraska Ornithologists' Union

Notes On Bird Sightings In Nebraska March 1997, Ruth C. Green, Alice Kenitz, Joel G. Jorgensen, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Albino Eastern Bluebirds. On 24 July 1996, I banded two totally white Eastern Bluebirds in Sarpy County, Nebraska. These two birds were in a nest with two other normally plumaged siblings. They were not only white-plumaged, their feet and bills were white and the eyes were a pinkish-red. They were just as well developed as the two normal birds and were ready to fledge, which they did the following day. I believe these birds fit the description of total albinism as defined by John K. Terres in The Audubon Encyclopedia of North American Birds. He defines total albinism as the ...


Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Wetlands continue to decline throughout North America and the Prairie Pothole Region, thus emphasizing the importance of understanding population trends and habitat associations of wetland species to ensure effective conservation and habitat management of those species. We estimated density and abundance and evaluated habitat associations of the Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana georgiana) in Iowa. We conducted standardized distance sampling surveys for Swamp Sparrows and measured habitat characteristics at 307 wetlands in two regions of Iowa in 2009 and 2010. We used Program Distance to model detection probability and estimate region-specific breeding densities of Swamp Sparrows at Iowa wetlands. We ...


Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Drastic losses of wetland habitats across North America over the past century have resulted in population declines of many marsh birds therefore emphasizing the need for proper management of remaining wetlands for the conservation of marsh birds. Our objective was to evaluate the probability of site occupancy of secretive marsh birds in Iowa in response to habitat variables at multiple scales. We conducted call-broadcast surveys for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in Iowa from 16 May–15 July 2009 and from 20 April–10 July 2010. We utilized occupancy models in Program MARK to estimate site occupancy probability ...


How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze 2017 University of Wyoming

How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze

Honors Theses AY 16/17

The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...


Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim 2017 Chapman University

Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Tameness is a measure of tolerance towards human disturbance. As human disturbance and recreational activity are increasing, it is becoming more and more important to understand responses of species to this disturbance. Tameness has been shown to be influenced by an individuals characteristics and life history. Two possible determinants of tameness are breeding stage and parentage. We studied tameness in common loons (Gavia immer) specifically looking at the effects of breeding stage and parentage. Tameness was measured by flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which a loon dove from an approaching human observer in a canoe. Loons with chicks ...


Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.

First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...


Where In The World Are Pallas's Fish Eagles? Migration And Ecology Of Haliaeetus Leucoryphus In Asia, Marla Lynn Steele 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Where In The World Are Pallas's Fish Eagles? Migration And Ecology Of Haliaeetus Leucoryphus In Asia, Marla Lynn Steele

Theses and Dissertations

Pallas’s Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) is the Northern Hemisphere’s least understood eagle species. Virtually nothing is known concerning the species’ ecology. Historically, Pallas’s Fish Eagles were expected to breed in three separate populations in Mongolia, China, and India and was considered one of the most common raptors in Asia prior to the 1900’s. However, by 1960’s major declines were observed. The species is currently listed as “globally vulnerable” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The current study examined over a century of Pallas’s Fish Eagle observation data to ...


Preferred Atmospheric Patterns For Vernal And Autumnal Nocturnal Bird Migration Using The Plymouth, New Hampshire Noaa-Esrl Snow Level Radar, Andrea LaRocca, CareyAnne Howlett, Parker Bradley, Jesse Carlson 2017 Applied Meteorology

Preferred Atmospheric Patterns For Vernal And Autumnal Nocturnal Bird Migration Using The Plymouth, New Hampshire Noaa-Esrl Snow Level Radar, Andrea Larocca, Careyanne Howlett, Parker Bradley, Jesse Carlson

Student Showcase of Excellence

Radar technology can be a useful tool in tracking trends in bird migration. The NOAA-ESRL Snow Level Radar (SLR), located in Plymouth, New Hampshire, is primarily used to monitor the Bright-Band Height (BBH) of falling precipitation, or the level at which snow melts to water. Using data collected from November 2014 to November 2016, preferential atmospheric conditions over Plymouth, New Hampshire were analyzed during peak migration events for both autumn and spring migration seasons.


Habitat Restoration Through Permaculture And Agroforestry In Southern Belize, Parker Bradley, Alexandra Hill, Lucas Kirker, Andrew Van Houten, Jared Lamy, Jason Kenney, Logan Kuzmitch 2017 Environmental Biology

Habitat Restoration Through Permaculture And Agroforestry In Southern Belize, Parker Bradley, Alexandra Hill, Lucas Kirker, Andrew Van Houten, Jared Lamy, Jason Kenney, Logan Kuzmitch

Student Showcase of Excellence

One of the major benefits of permaculture and agroforestry is the restoration of complex habitat while still providing calories for human consumption. The Maya Mountain Research Farm in Southern Belize consists of 32ha of former cattle pasture and citrus orchard now used for permaculture and agroforestry, hosting a diverse polyculture of dozens of fruit-bearing tree and shrub species and about half a dozen timber tree species, all interspersed with dynamic patches of banana and maize. Spread out along the farm’s habitat mosaic, 17 point count stations were repeated three times, as well as 21 forest interior stations done once ...


Changes In The Breeding Range Of The Broad-Winged Hawk (Buteo Platypterus) Due To Habitat Fragmentation In The Northern Appalachian Region, Rachael M. Pruitt 2017 Gettysburg College

Changes In The Breeding Range Of The Broad-Winged Hawk (Buteo Platypterus) Due To Habitat Fragmentation In The Northern Appalachian Region, Rachael M. Pruitt

Student Publications

The Broad-winged Hawk (BWHA), Buteo platypterus, a small, secretive hawk with distinguishing broad black tail bands, breeds in northeastern North America. The hawks nest in deciduous or mixed forest, often near water, and close to clearings or forest edges. Land conversion and fragmentation alters the landscape and reduces the area of contiguous forest used by BWHA. This study seeks to determine the habitat metrics that may be influencing the apparent breeding range declines of the BWHA at the landscape scale. Landscape characteristics and BWHA presence data from 18,684 Breeding Bird Atlas blocks (each about 25km2) from Ohio, West Virginia ...


The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.

The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...


P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels 2017 Western University

P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels

Western Research Forum

Background: Beat perception is a complex cognitive skill that enables humans to “feel” the beat in music, and is an essential component of synchronization of behavior and dance. The mechanisms in the human brain that facilitate beat perception are not entirely understood, and have only been studied thus far using non-invasive techniques. Some animals, such as songbirds, also seem to be able to detect a beat in rhythms, though this has never been formally tested independent of motor synchronization.

Methods: An operant experiment is used to assess if European starlings, a type of songbird, are capable of categorizing auditory rhythms ...


The Impact Of Various Predator Perceptions On Stress Response And Spatial Memory In Birds, Chlöe S. N. Carter 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Various Predator Perceptions On Stress Response And Spatial Memory In Birds, Chlöe S. N. Carter

Western Research Forum

The Impact of Various Predator Perceptions on Stress Response and Spatial Memory in Birds

Background

This project will explore the impact of environmental stressors on the cognitive abilities of birds. Predator perception has been demonstrated to elicit a stress response by elevating stress hormones which can alter the behaviour of birds. The aim of this study is to observe if chronic stress from differently perceived threats of predation in an individual’s environment will lead to differences in the spatial memory abilities in two species of birds. I predict that chronic stress resulting from predator stimuli will impair the bird ...


The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Perching And Dabbling Ducks: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This volume, the fourth in a series of books that collectively update and expand P. A. Johnsgard’s 1975 The Waterfowl of North America, summarizes research findings on this economically and ecologically important group of waterfowl. The volume includes the mostly tropical perching duck tribe Cairinini, of which two species, the muscovy duck and the wood duck, are representatives. Both species are adapted for foraging on the water surface, mostly on plant materials, but typically perch in trees and nest in elevated tree cavities or other elevated recesses. This volume also includes the dabbling, or surface-feeding, duck tribe Anatini, a ...


A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith 2017 College of William and Mary

A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith

John Swaddle

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a “sonic net”), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before ...


Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Human-altered landscapes often include structural features, such as higher levels of impervious surface cover (ISC) and less vegetation, that are likely to affect the transmission of avian vocalizations. We investigated the relationships between human habitat modifications and signal transmission by measuring four acoustic parameters—persistence, reverberation, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of broadcast tones, as well as absolute ambient noise level—in each of 39 avian breeding territories across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Using a geographic information system, we quantified the amounts of different habitat features (e.g., ISC, grass, trees) at each site; a principal component analysis was used to ...


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