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Divergent Neural And Endocrine Responses In Wild-Caught And Laboratory-Bred Rattus Norvegicus, Joanna Jacob, Sally Watanabe, Jonathan Richardson, Nick Gonzales, Emily Ploppert, Garet Lahvis, Aaron Shiels, Sadie Wenger, Kelly Saverino, Janhavi Bhalerao, Brendan Crockett, Erin Burns, Olivia Harding, Krista Fischer-Stenger, Kelly Lambert 2022 University of Richmond

Divergent Neural And Endocrine Responses In Wild-Caught And Laboratory-Bred Rattus Norvegicus, Joanna Jacob, Sally Watanabe, Jonathan Richardson, Nick Gonzales, Emily Ploppert, Garet Lahvis, Aaron Shiels, Sadie Wenger, Kelly Saverino, Janhavi Bhalerao, Brendan Crockett, Erin Burns, Olivia Harding, Krista Fischer-Stenger, Kelly Lambert

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Although rodents have represented the most intensely studied animals in neurobiological investigations for more than a century, few studies have systematically compared neural and endocrine differences between wild rodents in their natural habitats and laboratory strains raised in traditional laboratory environments. In the current study, male and female Rattus norvegicus rats were trapped in an urban setting and compared to weight-and sex-matched conspecifics living in standard laboratory housing conditions. Brains were extracted for neural assessments and fecal boli were collected for endocrine [corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] assays. Additionally, given their role in immune and stress functions, spleen and adrenal weights ...


The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher 2022 Western University

The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This poster investigates the relationship between joint stiffness and spider leg morphology, with an interest in collecting data to create more accurate biomechanical models of spiders.


The First Record Of Scorpiops Bhutanensis Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 From China, With The First Report Of Its Female (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae), He-Yu Lv, Zhi-Yong Di 2022 Marshall University

The First Record Of Scorpiops Bhutanensis Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 From China, With The First Report Of Its Female (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae), He-Yu Lv, Zhi-Yong Di

Euscorpius

The first record of Scorpiops bhutanensis Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 from China (Xizang). An emended diagnosis, detailed redescription, and illustrations of the species are provided. Its female is reported here for the first time.


Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impacts On Fast-Start Performance: How Do Group Size And Habitat Degradation Alter The Escape Behavior Of A Schooling Coral Reef Fish?, Monica D. Bacchus

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Escaping predation is essential for species survival, but prey must effectively match their response to the perceived threat imposed by a predator. Fish evaluate their surroundings using several sensory stimuli, including olfactory, visual, auditory, and mechanical cues. A range of taxa use the fast-start response to evade predators, including fishes, sharks, and larval amphibians. While the fast-start response (rapid bursts of swimming) is extensively studied in solitary fishes, the factors that mediate the collective escape response in schools of fish have historically been investigated far less. To address this knowledge gap, the collective escape behavior and individual escape performance of ...


A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz 2022 Southern Methodist University

A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

This document represents a summary of parasites, in the broadest sense of the term, reported from Peromyscus maniculatus from throughout its range in North America. The document provides data from work ranging from paleontological findings to relatively current reports of parasites and parasitism from P. maniculatus and covers viruses, bacteria sensu lato, protists, helminths, and ectoparasites.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xxviii. Scorpions Of Djibouti, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe 2022 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xxviii. Scorpions Of Djibouti, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

All scorpion species known from Djibouti are listed, with color photographs and maps of their distribution. Buthus awashensis Kovařík, 2011 known from Ethiopia and Somaliland is reported for the first time from Djibouti. The diagnosis of Orthochirus afar Kovařík & Lowe, 2016 is revised; O. borrii Rossi, 2017 is determined to be a junior synonym of O. afar Kovařík & Lowe, 2016 syn. n.; O. aristidis (Simon, 1882) syn. res. is returned to synonymy with O. olivaceus Karsch, 1881; and O. arenicola Lourenço & Ythier, 2021, is relegated to the status of nomen dubium. Hemiscorpius lipsae sp. n. is described and fully complemented with color photos of the female holotype and ...


Reproductive Ecology And Microbial Communities From Wood Duck Nest Boxes In Georgia And Florida, Jake Shurba 2022 Clemson University

Reproductive Ecology And Microbial Communities From Wood Duck Nest Boxes In Georgia And Florida, Jake Shurba

All Theses

Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) are an important game species throughout the Atlantic Flyway that was nearly extirpated by the early 20th century due to overhunting and the loss of habitat. Wood ducks are secondary cavity-nesters that utilize artificial nest boxes and natural cavities. It is reported that the use of nest boxes is likely what led to re-establishment of the species in North America. Where boxes are numerous, overuse of boxes by multiple hens throughout a nesting season can occur and result in a buildup of bacteria, parasites and other potentially detrimental pathogens that can impact egg hatchability. No ...


In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi 2022 University of Hawaii at Hilo

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


Defining An Epidemiological Landscape That Connects Movement Ecology To Pathogen Transmission And Pace-Of-Life, Kezia Manlove, Mark Wilber, Lauren White, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Anni Yang, Marie L.J. Gilbertson, Meggan E. Craft, Paul C. Cross, George Wittemyer, Kim M. Pepin 2022 Utah State University

Defining An Epidemiological Landscape That Connects Movement Ecology To Pathogen Transmission And Pace-Of-Life, Kezia Manlove, Mark Wilber, Lauren White, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Anni Yang, Marie L.J. Gilbertson, Meggan E. Craft, Paul C. Cross, George Wittemyer, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Pathogen transmission depends on host density, mobility and contact. These components emerge from host and pathogen movements that themselves arise through interactions with the surrounding environment. The environment, the emergent host and pathogen movements, and the subsequent patterns of density, mobility and contact form an ‘epidemiological landscape’ connecting the environment to specific locations where transmissions occur. Conventionally, the epidemiological landscape has been described in terms of the geographical coordinates where hosts or pathogens are located. We advocate for an alternative approach that relates those locations to attributes of the local environment. Environmental descriptions can strengthen epidemiological forecasts by allowing for ...


The Effects Of Rising Ambient Temperatures On Thermoregulation And Range Shifts Of Northern Flying Squirrels, Elise K. Gudde 2022 University of Maine

The Effects Of Rising Ambient Temperatures On Thermoregulation And Range Shifts Of Northern Flying Squirrels, Elise K. Gudde

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change may potentially alter a species’ range distribution and thus the relationship between environmental temperatures and animal performance as a response to climate warming has become an important area of research. Two species of flying squirrel in North America, the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) and the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) have undergone northward range shifts, with climate warming being the suspected driver. Because they are nocturnal and tree nesting, flying squirrels may be particularly susceptible to warmer temperatures, as they will experience the highest daily ambient temperatures during their resting phase. I used G. sabrinus as a ...


Current Ecotoxicity Testing Needs Among Selected U.S. Federal Agencies, Patricia Ceger, Natalia Garcia-Reyero Vinas, David Allen, Elyssa Arnold, Raanan Bloom, Jennifer C. Brennan, Carol Clarke, Karen Eisenreich, Kellie Fay, Jonathan Hamm, Paula F.P. Henry, Katherine E. Horak, Wesley Hunter, Donna Judkins, Patrice Klein, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Kara Koehrn, Carlie A. LaLone, James P. Laurenson, Jessica K. Leet, Anna Lowit, Scott G. Lynn, Teresa Norberg-King, Edward J. Perkins, Elijah J. Petersen, Barnett A. Rattner, Catherine S. Sprankle, Thomas Steeger, Jim E. Warren, Sarah Winfield, Edward Odenkirchen 2022 Integrated Laboratory Systems

Current Ecotoxicity Testing Needs Among Selected U.S. Federal Agencies, Patricia Ceger, Natalia Garcia-Reyero Vinas, David Allen, Elyssa Arnold, Raanan Bloom, Jennifer C. Brennan, Carol Clarke, Karen Eisenreich, Kellie Fay, Jonathan Hamm, Paula F.P. Henry, Katherine E. Horak, Wesley Hunter, Donna Judkins, Patrice Klein, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Kara Koehrn, Carlie A. Lalone, James P. Laurenson, Jessica K. Leet, Anna Lowit, Scott G. Lynn, Teresa Norberg-King, Edward J. Perkins, Elijah J. Petersen, Barnett A. Rattner, Catherine S. Sprankle, Thomas Steeger, Jim E. Warren, Sarah Winfield, Edward Odenkirchen

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

U.S. regulatory and research agencies use ecotoxicity test data to assess the hazards associated with substances that may be released into the environment, including but not limited to industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, food additives, and color additives. These data are used to conduct hazard assessments and evaluate potential risks to aquatic life (e.g., invertebrates, fish), birds, wildlife species, or the environment. To identify opportunities for regulatory uses of non-animal replacements for ecotoxicity tests, the needs and uses for data from tests utilizing animals must first be clarified. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to identify the ecotoxicity ...


Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson 2022 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most sought-after deer species in America. The antlers of mammals, such as deer, are one of the fastest regenerative tissues in the world and are grown and naturally cast every year. Research on cast antlers have been used for a variety of purposes including population comparisons and impacts of deer health due to climatic stressors. When investigating cast antlers, it is important to confirm individuality of match sets in addition to antlers of the same individual between years. Therefore, individuality must be confirmed genetically, and protocols must be developed and established to do so ...


Reanalysis Of Teruelius And Grosphus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) With Descriptions Of Two New Species, Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík 2022 Marshall University

Reanalysis Of Teruelius And Grosphus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) With Descriptions Of Two New Species, Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

No abstract provided.


Review Of The Cloacininae Stossich (Nemata: Strongyloidea) From Australasian Marsupials (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea), Ian Beveridge, Lesley R. Smales 2022 University of Melbourne

Review Of The Cloacininae Stossich (Nemata: Strongyloidea) From Australasian Marsupials (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea), Ian Beveridge, Lesley R. Smales

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The nematode sub-family Cloacininae from Australasian macropodoid marsupials is reviewed. Keys are provided to all genera and species currently known. A revised definition of the sub-family and detailed generic diagnoses are provided. For each species, full synonymies and literature citations are included along with known hosts, geographical distributions and associated DNA sequence data. A brief morphological synopsis of each species is provided together with illustrations of the morphological features needed for identification using the keys. Due to uncertainties relating to the division of the sub-family into tribes, only the nominal allocation to tribe is provided. Two new genera are erected ...


Abundance, Site-Fidelity, And Association Patterns Of Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Off Southeast Florida, Graysen D. Boehning 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Abundance, Site-Fidelity, And Association Patterns Of Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Off Southeast Florida, Graysen D. Boehning

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The coastal bottlenose dolphin is well studied throughout its natural range, however, most of the study areas comprised wide, well-protected habitats such as bays and estuaries, and not narrow coastal sandbanks. This study identifies a residential group of coastal bottlenose dolphins utilizing the narrow sandbanks within the Northwestern Atlantic waters off the coast of Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. From 2014-2020, 313 boat surveys were conducted, and 585 individual dolphins were identified using photo-ID. Twenty-four animals were determined to be full-time and 66 animals were determined to be part-time residents. Full-time and part-time residents associated in three social tribes, with ...


Comparative Susceptibility Of Eastern Cottontails And New Zealand White Rabbits To Classical Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (Rhdv) And Rhdv2, Fawzi Mohamed, Thomas Gidlewski, Mary L. Berninger, Heather M. Petrowski, Alexa J. Bracht, Carla Bravo de Rueda, Roger W. Barrette, Meredith Grady, Emily S. O'Hearn, Charles E. Lewis, Karen E. Moran, Tracy L. Sturgill, Lorenzo Capucci, J. Jeffrey Root 2022 USDA ARS Plum Island Animal Disease Center

Comparative Susceptibility Of Eastern Cottontails And New Zealand White Rabbits To Classical Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (Rhdv) And Rhdv2, Fawzi Mohamed, Thomas Gidlewski, Mary L. Berninger, Heather M. Petrowski, Alexa J. Bracht, Carla Bravo De Rueda, Roger W. Barrette, Meredith Grady, Emily S. O'Hearn, Charles E. Lewis, Karen E. Moran, Tracy L. Sturgill, Lorenzo Capucci, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a genetically distinct RHDV named RHDV2 emerged in Europe and spread to many other regions, including North America in 2016. Prior to this study it was unknown if eastern cottontails (ECT(s); Sylvilagus floridanus), one of the most common wild lagomorphs in the United States, were susceptible to RHDV2. In this study, 10 wild-caught ECTs and 10 New Zealand white rabbits (NZWR(s); O. cuniculus) were each inoculated orally with either RHDV (RHDVa/GI.1a; n = 5 per species) or ...


Solar Radiation And Soil Moisture Drive Tropical Forest Understory Responses To Experimental And Natural Hurricanes, J. Aaron Hogan, Joanne M. Sharpe, Ashley Van Beusekom, Sarah Stankavich, Samuel Matta Carmona, John E. Bithorn, Jamarys Torres-Díaz, Grizelle González, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron B. Shiels 2022 Florida International University

Solar Radiation And Soil Moisture Drive Tropical Forest Understory Responses To Experimental And Natural Hurricanes, J. Aaron Hogan, Joanne M. Sharpe, Ashley Van Beusekom, Sarah Stankavich, Samuel Matta Carmona, John E. Bithorn, Jamarys Torres-Díaz, Grizelle González, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Tropical forest understory regeneration occurs rapidly after disturbance with compositional trajectories that depend on species availability and environmental conditions. To predict future tropical forest regeneration dynamics, we need a deeper understanding of how pulse disturbance events, like hurricanes, interact with environmental variability to affect understory demography and composition. We examined fern and sapling mortality, recruitment, and community composition in relation to solar radiation and soil moisture using 17 years of forest dynamics data (2003–2019) from the Canopy Trimming Experiment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Solar radiation increased 150% and soil moisture increased 40% following canopy trimming of ...


Is Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Wounding Frequency Affected By The Presence Versus Absence Of Visitors? A Multi-Institutional Study, Robin Elana Salak, Christina Cloutier Barbour 2022 Central Washington University

Is Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Wounding Frequency Affected By The Presence Versus Absence Of Visitors? A Multi-Institutional Study, Robin Elana Salak, Christina Cloutier Barbour

Student Published Works

Visitor effect studies have had inconsistent results, due in part to the inability to control for all confounding variables such as time of day, seasonal weather patterns, and so forth. This study represents the first instance where chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) wounding frequencies were investigated across extensive time periods in the presence and complete absence of visitors, thus eliminating many visitor-related variables. Additional variables were eliminated through the zoo selection process, based on institutional responses to a 29-question survey, providing a novel approach to the question of visitor effects. The aim of this study was to determine if visitors were associated ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2022 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


Scorpions Of China: An Updated Checklist With Comments On Some Taxonomic Issues (Arachnida: Scorpiones), Victoria Tang 2022 Marshall University

Scorpions Of China: An Updated Checklist With Comments On Some Taxonomic Issues (Arachnida: Scorpiones), Victoria Tang

Euscorpius

An updated checklist of scorpions of China (52 species belonging to 13 genera and six families) is provided, with Chinese name equivalents and an illustrated map of all localities. Colored photos of the Chinese population of Mesobuthus thersites (C. L. Koch, 1839) and one Olivierus sp. in vivo habitus are provided for the first time. The recent taxonomic changes are summarized. The monotypic genus Tibetiomachus (Hormuridae) with its single species T. himalayensis is considered a nomen dubium. The validity of the previously synonymized Scorpiops atomatus Qi et al., 2005 and S. validus (Di et al., 2010) (Scorpiopidae) is questioned, although ...


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