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Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann 2017 UMaine

Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.

Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis

Master's Theses

Increases in oceanic shipping are a global phenomenon, and a leading cause of concern for marine animal welfare. While it may be difficult to assess the effect of boat traffic on all species in all contexts, it is vital to report anthropogenic impacts where longitudinal data is available, and doubly so where a dearth of information exists. The purpose of this study is to describe how dolphin behavior changed in the presence of boats in the Mississippi Sound between 2006 and 2012, and more specifically, to detail how different boat types impacted dolphins’ behavioral states. This study is unique in ...


Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale

Dissertations

Environmental enrichment is a key component to improving the psychological and physiological well being of animals in human care. Enrichment can be achieved through a variety of modalities, including the addition of objects and scents, or by providing the animals with additional challenges. The effectiveness of specific enrichment should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the desired result is achieved. Environmental enrichment devices (EED’s) can be utilized to present novel problems to animals in human care. When confronted with a novel problem, dolphins can plan their behavior to create a more efficient strategy then previously modeled ...


Influence Of Sex And Ambient Temperature On Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) Dusting Behavior, Kelly Summers 2017 Ohio Wesleyan University

Influence Of Sex And Ambient Temperature On Asian Elephant (Elephas Maximus) Dusting Behavior, Kelly Summers

Student Symposium

Previous studies indicate that elephant dusting behavior can be promoted by several factors including environmental temperature and social interaction. We hypothesized that (1) if dusting serves as a voluntary thermoregulatory function, then increased ambient temperature would result in increased dusting performance, and (2) if dusting is influenced by social interactions, then male and female elephants will exhibit dusting at similar rates in a group setting. Preliminary data indicated no significant relationship between temperature and the rate of dustings performed. Contrary to our predictions, females exhibited a greater rate of dusting than males in a social environment. The current study reexamines ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xi. Pandinurus Kmoniceki Sp. N. Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Jana Plíškova, František Šťáhlavský 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xi. Pandinurus Kmoniceki Sp. N. Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Jana Plíškova, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Pandinurus kmoniceki sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. Hemispermatophore of P. kmoniceki sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of P. kmoniceki sp. n. (2n=120).


Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

In the present paper, the taxonomic status of several Hispaniolan members of the genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1966 is revised after examination of almost all primary types and abundant supplementary material. This resulted in six new synonymies, which involve both extant and fossil species. The extant taxa herein synonymized are Tityus anasilviae Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus ottenwalderi Armas, 1999, Tityus bahoruco Teruel et Armas, 2006 under Tityus crassimanus (Thorell, 1876), Tityus ebanoverde Armas, 1999 under Tityus elii Armas et Marcano, 1992, and Tityus septentrionalis Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus portoplatensis Armas et Marcano, 1992. The fossil ...


Early Emergence And Seasonality Of The Red-Bellied Snake (Storeria Occipitomaculata) Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, Simon P. Tye, Keith Geluso, Mary J. Harner 2017 University of Nebraska, Kearney

Early Emergence And Seasonality Of The Red-Bellied Snake (Storeria Occipitomaculata) Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, Simon P. Tye, Keith Geluso, Mary J. Harner

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Red-bellied Snake (Storeria occipitomaculata) primarily inhabits moist woodlands of eastern North America, with two disjunct populations occurring in the Great Plains, one of which is in south-central Nebraska. This species is listed as at-risk in Nebraska, in part, due to being uncommon with limited information available about the ecology and natural history of this isolated population. We amassed 48 observations of Red-bellied Snakes in Nebraska from museum specimens and published accounts, including our observations and others reported to us published herein. The previous earliest documented date of spring emergence was 6 April from a specimen collected in 1999. On ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Serradigitus Miscionei, The First Vaejovid Scorpion To Exhibit Parthenogenesis, Richard F. Ayrey 2017 Marshall University

Serradigitus Miscionei, The First Vaejovid Scorpion To Exhibit Parthenogenesis, Richard F. Ayrey

Euscorpius

Thelytokous parthenogenesis (all-female broods) is strongly suggested for the vaejovid species Serradigitus miscionei (Vaejovidae) from southern Arizona, USA. This conclusion is based on the examination of 187 specimens and 15 broods, all determined as females.


The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle Solved: Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) Occurs At Isla De Pinos, Cuba, Rolando Teruel, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle Solved: Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) Occurs At Isla De Pinos, Cuba, Rolando Teruel, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera

Euscorpius

The diplocentrine scorpion genus Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 is recorded herein for the first time from Isla de Pinos, southwestern Cuba. A total of 15 specimens of Heteronebo bermudezi (Moreno, 1938) were collected in two nearby localities of the southern coast of the island, where it occurs in exactly the same habitat previously known for this species in Guanahacabibes Peninsula and two cays of Canarreos Archipelago. The allegedly polytypic status of this species is also revised and full species rank is restored to the subspecies Heteronebo bermudezi morenoi (Armas, 1973). An updated distribution map of H. bermudezi is provided.


Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton 2017 University of the Sunshine Coast

Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton

John Swaddle

Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these ...


Niche By Basma Kavanagh, Vivian M. Hansen 2017 University of Calgary

Niche By Basma Kavanagh, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Basma Kavanagh's Niche.


Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. de Armas, Darren Mansfield 2017 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. De Armas, Darren Mansfield

Euscorpius

We recorded a pregnant female of the Central American bark stripped scorpion Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891), which arrived to England as a stowaway in the bag of a woman that previously visited the Departments of Sacatepéquez, Sololá and San Marcos, Guatemala. On January 2, this C. thorellii female had a litter of three off-spring and three infertile eggs, but she has eaten them, probably as consequence of the stress caused by the hard travel and the environmental changes. We provide a map with the geographical distribution of this species and photos of the female detected in a British train.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova

Euscorpius

We introduce a new system of classification for the subfamily Scorpioninae Latreille, 1802 which includes genera Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837, Pandiborellius Rossi, 2015 stat. n., Pandinoides Fet, 1997, Pandinops Birula, 1913, Pandinurus Fet, 1997, Pandinus (Pandinus) Thorell, 1876, Pandinus (Pandinopsis) Vachon, 1974 stat. n., Pandinus (Pandipalpus) Rossi, 2015 stat. n., and Scorpio Linné, 1758. We provide a checklist of 41 valid species and their synonyms of Pandinus sensu lato. We revise Horn of Africa genera Pandiborellius stat. n. and Pandinurus; all species are fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as ...


Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Populations of the Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) have declined dramatically in recent years in eastern North America due to white-nose syndrome. Although M. septentrionalis was once common in parts of eastern North America, few studies have examined habitat selection of this species in an agricultural landscape. We used acoustical methods to quantify bat activity and construct a habitat model of M. septentrionalis in an intensively farmed area in the Midwestern United States, where mortality from white-nose syndrome has not yet been observed. Our study confirms that M. septentrionalis prefers forest and avoids open habitats in this agricultural region. The ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson 2017 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

No abstract provided.


A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad 2017 Marshall University

A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad

Euscorpius

A new species of the “apacheanus” group of genus Pseudouroctonus is described from western Texas, USA, Pseudouroctonus brysoni, sp. nov. This new species is closely related to P. apacheanus (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972) and two other species recently described from southern Arizona. A combination of morphological differences in the hemispermatophore, the mating plug, and several morphometric-based characters are identified as diagnostic.


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