Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Zoology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4918 Full-Text Articles 5518 Authors 382347 Downloads 120 Institutions

All Articles in Zoology

Faceted Search

4918 full-text articles. Page 1 of 82.

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

In the present paper, the taxonomic status of several Hispaniolan members of the genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1966 is revised after examination of almost all primary types and abundant supplementary material. This resulted in six new synonymies, which involve both extant and fossil species. The extant taxa herein synonymized are Tityus anasilviae Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus ottenwalderi Armas, 1999, Tityus bahoruco Teruel et Armas, 2006 under Tityus crassimanus (Thorell, 1876), Tityus ebanoverde Armas, 1999 under Tityus elii Armas et Marcano, 1992, and Tityus septentrionalis Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus portoplatensis Armas et Marcano, 1992. The fossil ...


Early Emergence And Seasonality Of The Red-Bellied Snake (Storeria Occipitomaculata) Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, Simon P. Tye, Keith Geluso, Mary J. Harner 2017 University of Nebraska, Kearney

Early Emergence And Seasonality Of The Red-Bellied Snake (Storeria Occipitomaculata) Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, Simon P. Tye, Keith Geluso, Mary J. Harner

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Red-bellied Snake (Storeria occipitomaculata) primarily inhabits moist woodlands of eastern North America, with two disjunct populations occurring in the Great Plains, one of which is in south-central Nebraska. This species is listed as at-risk in Nebraska, in part, due to being uncommon with limited information available about the ecology and natural history of this isolated population. We amassed 48 observations of Red-bellied Snakes in Nebraska from museum specimens and published accounts, including our observations and others reported to us published herein. The previous earliest documented date of spring emergence was 6 April from a specimen collected in 1999. On ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Serradigitus Miscionei, The First Vaejovid Scorpion To Exhibit Parthenogenesis, Richard F. Ayrey 2017 Marshall University

Serradigitus Miscionei, The First Vaejovid Scorpion To Exhibit Parthenogenesis, Richard F. Ayrey

Euscorpius

Thelytokous parthenogenesis (all-female broods) is strongly suggested for the vaejovid species Serradigitus miscionei (Vaejovidae) from southern Arizona, USA. This conclusion is based on the examination of 187 specimens and 15 broods, all determined as females.


The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle Solved: Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) Occurs At Isla De Pinos, Cuba, Rolando Teruel, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle Solved: Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) Occurs At Isla De Pinos, Cuba, Rolando Teruel, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera

Euscorpius

The diplocentrine scorpion genus Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 is recorded herein for the first time from Isla de Pinos, southwestern Cuba. A total of 15 specimens of Heteronebo bermudezi (Moreno, 1938) were collected in two nearby localities of the southern coast of the island, where it occurs in exactly the same habitat previously known for this species in Guanahacabibes Peninsula and two cays of Canarreos Archipelago. The allegedly polytypic status of this species is also revised and full species rank is restored to the subspecies Heteronebo bermudezi morenoi (Armas, 1973). An updated distribution map of H. bermudezi is provided.


Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton 2017 University of the Sunshine Coast

Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton

John Swaddle

Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these ...


Niche By Basma Kavanagh, Vivian M. Hansen 2017 University of Calgary

Niche By Basma Kavanagh, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Basma Kavanagh's Niche.


Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. de Armas, Darren Mansfield 2017 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. De Armas, Darren Mansfield

Euscorpius

We recorded a pregnant female of the Central American bark stripped scorpion Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891), which arrived to England as a stowaway in the bag of a woman that previously visited the Departments of Sacatepéquez, Sololá and San Marcos, Guatemala. On January 2, this C. thorellii female had a litter of three off-spring and three infertile eggs, but she has eaten them, probably as consequence of the stress caused by the hard travel and the environmental changes. We provide a map with the geographical distribution of this species and photos of the female detected in a British train.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova

Euscorpius

We introduce a new system of classification for the subfamily Scorpioninae Latreille, 1802 which includes genera Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837, Pandiborellius Rossi, 2015 stat. n., Pandinoides Fet, 1997, Pandinops Birula, 1913, Pandinurus Fet, 1997, Pandinus (Pandinus) Thorell, 1876, Pandinus (Pandinopsis) Vachon, 1974 stat. n., Pandinus (Pandipalpus) Rossi, 2015 stat. n., and Scorpio Linné, 1758. We provide a checklist of 41 valid species and their synonyms of Pandinus sensu lato. We revise Horn of Africa genera Pandiborellius stat. n. and Pandinurus; all species are fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as ...


Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Populations of the Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) have declined dramatically in recent years in eastern North America due to white-nose syndrome. Although M. septentrionalis was once common in parts of eastern North America, few studies have examined habitat selection of this species in an agricultural landscape. We used acoustical methods to quantify bat activity and construct a habitat model of M. septentrionalis in an intensively farmed area in the Midwestern United States, where mortality from white-nose syndrome has not yet been observed. Our study confirms that M. septentrionalis prefers forest and avoids open habitats in this agricultural region. The ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson 2017 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

No abstract provided.


A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad 2017 Marshall University

A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad

Euscorpius

A new species of the “apacheanus” group of genus Pseudouroctonus is described from western Texas, USA, Pseudouroctonus brysoni, sp. nov. This new species is closely related to P. apacheanus (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972) and two other species recently described from southern Arizona. A combination of morphological differences in the hemispermatophore, the mating plug, and several morphometric-based characters are identified as diagnostic.


The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr. 2017 Penn State University

The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr.

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Balcombe’s book is filled with information on the biology, behavior, and life history of fishes. I do not agree with all his premises. I am still somewhat perplexed about the discussion of whether fish feel pain; I am not sure whether the distinction between nociception and pain makes any difference. Overall, however, his treatment of the principles of both natural and sexual selection is comprehensive and accurate, and has greatly increased my knowledge and awareness of the biology, ethology, and potential for sentience in fishes. In summary, this work has exposed me to new ideas about how to examine ...


What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk 2017 Oakland University

What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Zentall’s thoughtful review of the literature on cognitive dissonance in nonhumans helps to highlight the common finding that similar outcomes in humans and nonhumans can be attributed to different underlying mechanisms. I advocate a more fully comparative approach to the underlying mechanisms, avoiding the assumption of shared processes in humans and nonhumans.


Dissonance Reduction In Nonhuman Animals: Implications For Cognitive Dissonance Theory, Cindy Harmon-Jones, Nick Haslam, Brock Bastian 2017 The University of New South Wales

Dissonance Reduction In Nonhuman Animals: Implications For Cognitive Dissonance Theory, Cindy Harmon-Jones, Nick Haslam, Brock Bastian

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

We review the evidence for dissonance reduction in nonhuman animals and examine the alternative explanations for these effects. If nonhuman animals engage in dissonance reduction, this supports the original theory as proposed by Festinger (1957) over the revisions to the theory that focused on the self-concept. Evidence of animal sentience, including dissonance reduction, may be a source of cognitive dissonance.


Choice-Induced Preference: A Challenge For Contrast, Benjamin R. Eisenreich, Benjamin Y. Hayden 2017 University of Rochester

Choice-Induced Preference: A Challenge For Contrast, Benjamin R. Eisenreich, Benjamin Y. Hayden

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In his target article, Zentall asks: “to experience cognitive dissonance is it necessary for one to have conflicting beliefs or even beliefs at all?” He then argues that a simple behavioral process, the Within Trial Contrast Effect, may be sufficient to explain observed cognitive dissonance effects in nonhuman animals and possibly humans as well. We agree with Zentall that this effect is sufficient to explain many reported cognitive dissonance effects in nonhuman animals, but question its sufficiency for primate behavior (both monkeys and humans).


Fish Are Flexible Learners Who Can Discriminate Human Faces, Ulrike E. Siebeck 2017 The University of Queensland, Australia

Fish Are Flexible Learners Who Can Discriminate Human Faces, Ulrike E. Siebeck

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In his book “What a fish knows” Jonathan Balcombe (2016a, b) has created a comprehensive profile of a group of animals still often thought to have a 3-second memory, no ability to feel pain, and a generally limited ability to learn. Chapter by chapter, Balcombe dismantles these and other such assumptions and makes a convincing case that fish have many abilities that are not that different from our own. Here, I focus on one example which supports the notion that fish are flexible learners and able to perform tasks which are generally thought to require the advanced processing power of ...


To Identify All The Relevant Factors Is To Explain Feeling, Arthur S. Reber 2017 University of British Columbia

To Identify All The Relevant Factors Is To Explain Feeling, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Several additional comments on Reber (2016a) have appeared. Like those addressed in Reber (2016b), they reflect points of agreement and disagreement on various elements of my Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) model. Some, however, seem to have missed key points. I'm willing to take some responsibility for this. Perhaps I was not clear about some of the more radical points of the model. Hopefully the case-by-case review here will help.


Digital Commons powered by bepress