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Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas

Honors Theses

Huntington Beach State Park in Murrells Inlet, SC, USA is considered a “hotspot” for birds, according to the eBird database (eBird, 2020). The park is also visited by approximately 300,000 people, annually (Hobdy, 2019). The causeway at the park is an area of high human and wildlife activity. Here, the differences in desensitization, or lack thereof, of year-round and transient bird species to the stimuli of vehicles and humans were determined. Multiple surveys of the birds at Huntington Beach State Park were conducted from 22nd September, 2019 to 13th June, 2020. Desensitization was quantified by use of a range ...


Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Invasive species cause major ecological and economic damage. The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA; Solenopsis invicta) has successfully invaded much of the southeastern United States and has caused both widespread economic damage and is suspected to be the driver of enigmatic declines of several oviparous snake species. This study aimed to determine the sublethal effects of RIFA on hatchlings of six species of oviparous snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis calligaster, L. holbrooki, Opheodrys aestivus, Pantherophis emoryi, and P. obsoletus) by exposing hatchlings to envenomation by RIFA and then measuring two performance metrics: righting response and swimming speed. We found a slight ...


Leaders Of The Pack: The Effect Of Companion And Livestock Animal Ownership And/Or Management On Leadership Skills In College Students, Laurel E. Dhority 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Leaders Of The Pack: The Effect Of Companion And Livestock Animal Ownership And/Or Management On Leadership Skills In College Students, Laurel E. Dhority

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Having and maintaining good leadership skills should be an important way of life for most college students. As these individuals search for their first jobs and employment outside of the university experience, many businesses and employers will utilize these leadership traits and officer positions within specific clubs and organizations to select who to extend a job offer. Many student associations which place their focus on animals, both agriculturally raised livestock and companion animals, take pride in the skills and proficiencies they teach their members. This study utilized a survey of both multiple choice and Likert Scale styled questions in order ...


Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats 2021 Pepperdine University

Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Many local streams of the Santa Monica Mountains are populated by the native California Newt, Taricha torosa, a species of special concern. Arroyo Sequit is one of these streams, the upper and lower portions of which are split by a culvert and the Mulholland Highway. This stream and the surrounding areas burned during the Woolsey fire of 2018. Since the fire, construction has been ongoing in and around the stream. Two years post-fire (during the summer of 2020) significantly more newts were found in the stream than years prior. A large proportion of these newts were unhealthy in appearance, presenting ...


Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, have caused vast damage to the stream ecosystem of the Santa Monica Mountains, following their invasive introduction. Through their extensive eating habits, high levels of aggression, and responsiveness to environmental stimuli, P. clarkii have a tremendous impact on the success of native species in the Santa Monica Mountains. With exposure to chemical cues, crayfish are able to perceive threats and react accordingly. To determine the extent of such chemoreception, pairs of P. clarkii were tested in the laboratory for conspecific aggression in the presence of native newt, native frog, and conspecific alarm cues. The level ...


The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Invasive crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, are known to negatively impact the biodiversity of Santa Monica Mountain streams. Small symbiotes, ostracods, live on Procambarus clarkii in some local streams. However, their effect on the behaviour of invasive crayfish is unknown. We used an aqueous chlorobutanol solution to remove ostracods from crayfish. We paired control crayfish with those that had ostracods removed and scored aggressive interactions. Crayfish without ostracods were found to be significantly more aggressive towards crayfish with ostracods. When we compared feeding behavior, we found that crayfish without ostracods consumed food more quickly than control crayfish. We again subjected crayfish to ...


Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial Activity Of Gemmotherapeutically White Mulberry (Morus Alba) Leaves, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz, Lariab Zahara Faiz 2021 Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, AJK.

Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial Activity Of Gemmotherapeutically White Mulberry (Morus Alba) Leaves, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz, Lariab Zahara Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

The present study was designed to find out phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of leaves of Mulberry plant. The phytochemical analysis was performed on quantitative and qualitative basis. The qualitative basis indicated the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, saponins and Anthraquinone. The quantitative analysis showed alkaloids (40%), glycosides (20.05%), flavonoids (14%), steroids (3.5%), tannins (11.9%) and saponins (11.5%) and anthraquinone (0.5%) presence. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria has been observed in the leaves of Mulberry (Morus alba) and showed zone of inhibition, Escherichia coli (7±3.3) mm, Staphylococcus aurous (8±3.1), Bacillus ...


Breeding Ecology And Nest- Site Selection Of Turtle Doves (Streptopelia Turtur) In Three New Orchard Habitats, Thilelli Aitouakli, Ettayib BENSACI 2021 Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Ferhat ABBAS University - Setif1, Setif 19000, Algeria Laboratory of Improvement and Development of Plant and Animal Production, University of Ferhat Abbas, Setif1, Setif 19000, Algeria

Breeding Ecology And Nest- Site Selection Of Turtle Doves (Streptopelia Turtur) In Three New Orchard Habitats, Thilelli Aitouakli, Ettayib Bensaci

Journal of Bioresource Management

The main aim of our work was to investigate the breeding parameters in three orchard types in Algeria (apple, cherry and nectarine) for better conservation of existing species. A total of 149 active Turtle dove nests were monitored in these man–made agro-systems. Egg laying occurred from early May and continued until mid-August. Egg laying started later in cherry trees and stopped earlier in nectarines. Nest density was higher in apple orchards. Nests were located higher in nectarine. Clutch size was similar among orchard types. Northeast was the dominant orientation in all orchards. Breeding success was higher than that recorded ...


A Guide To Helminth Parasites Reported From Shorebirds (Charadriidae) From The Americas, Albert G. Canaris, Sofia Capasso, Gay J. Canaris 2021 PO Box 717, Hamilton, Montana

A Guide To Helminth Parasites Reported From Shorebirds (Charadriidae) From The Americas, Albert G. Canaris, Sofia Capasso, Gay J. Canaris

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The shorebird family Charadriidae in the Americas consists of 21 native and 7 vagrant species. Members of the family occupy a diversity of open habitats, ranging from Arctic tundra during nesting, coastal sands, and mudflats to inland prairies, savannas, and wetlands. Some native plovers migrate from nesting grounds in North America to wintering grounds in South America (Hayman et al., 1986; Paulson, 2005; Winkler et al., 2020). Our search of the literature revealed the following: 17 of 28 host species infected with helminth parasites, 153 helminth species, and 199 infections involving 13 geographic areas. The purpose of this guide is ...


Impact Analysis On The Invasive Oriental Weather Loach (Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus) In The Grant Creek And Prairie Creek Watersheds At Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Adam VanHaitsma 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Impact Analysis On The Invasive Oriental Weather Loach (Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus) In The Grant Creek And Prairie Creek Watersheds At Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Adam Vanhaitsma

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Weber Center, Room 101

Abstract

In 2014, the invasive Oriental weather loach was found in the Prairie Creek wetland at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie. While little is known about the Oriental weather loach and its impact on freshwater ecosystems it has become a widespread invasive species. Being the first to investigate the impact of the Oriental weather loach on the Grant Creek and Prairie Creek watersheds at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, we set traps for specimens from early June till late July in both watersheds. Each loach that was caught was euthanized and dissected in order to understand ...


Changes To The Elevational Distribution Of Craugastor Podiciferus In A Costa Rican Cloud Forest, Tanner Senti, Dakotah Henn, Derek W. Rosenberger 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Changes To The Elevational Distribution Of Craugastor Podiciferus In A Costa Rican Cloud Forest, Tanner Senti, Dakotah Henn, Derek W. Rosenberger

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

While a warming climate is responsible for many animal ranges shifting to higher latitudes and elevations, species will be affected in different ways. High elevation species in the tropics are particularly at risk due to shrinking habitat on mountain tops. Craugastor podiciferus is a cryptic species of flesh-bellied frog native to the Talamanca mountain ranges of Costa Rica and Panama. These frogs inhabit montane cloud forests at an elevational range of 1,090 - 2650 meters. However, they are poorly understood and little is known about the natural history of this species. To ...


Sugar Glider (Petaurus Breviceps) Behavior In Red Vs Blue Lighting, Elisa Hillman 2021 University of South Dakota

Sugar Glider (Petaurus Breviceps) Behavior In Red Vs Blue Lighting, Elisa Hillman

Honors Thesis

Sugar gliders are an exotic pet that is increasing in popularity in households as well as in zoos. One challenge that caregivers have to manage is their nocturnal circadian rhythm. In order for people to view or interact with sugar gliders during their active time, many zoos will reverse their diurnal cycle with lights. The discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) which seems to have an increased sensitivity to blue light and how these cells affect the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and circadian rhythm has led to an increase in awareness on the health effects of being exposed ...


Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams 2021 James Madison University

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reptiles utilize a variety of environmental cues to inform and drive animal behavior such as chemical scent trails produced by food or conspecifics. Decrypting the scent-trailing behavior of vertebrates, particularly invasive species, enables the discovery of cues that induce exploratory behavior and can aid in the development of valuable basic and applied biological tools. However, pinpointing behaviors dominantly driven by chemical cues versus other competing environmental cues can be challenging. Y-mazes are common tools used in animal behavior research that allow quantification of vertebrate chemosensory behavior across a range of taxa. By reducing external stimuli, Y-mazes remove confounding factors and ...


The Insular Herpetofauna Of Mexico: Composition, Conservation, And Biogeographic Patterns, Juan Valentín Pliego‐Sánchez, Christopher Blair, Aníbal H. Díaz de la Vega‐Pérez, Víctor H. Jiménez‐Arcos 2021 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

The Insular Herpetofauna Of Mexico: Composition, Conservation, And Biogeographic Patterns, Juan Valentín Pliego‐Sánchez, Christopher Blair, Aníbal H. Díaz De La Vega‐Pérez, Víctor H. Jiménez‐Arcos

Publications and Research

We compile a Mexican insular herpetofaunal checklist to estimate endemism, conservation status, island threats, net taxonomic turnover among six biogeographic provinces belonging to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, and the relationships between island area and mainland distance versus species richness. We compile a checklist of insular herpetofaunal through performing a literature and collection review. We define the conservation status according to conservation Mexican law, the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature, and Environmental Vulnerability Scores. We determine threat percentages on islands according to the 11 major classes of threats to biodiversity. We estimate the net taxonomic turnover ...


Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger 2021 Murray State University

Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger

Scholars Week

Life history morph, sex, and body condition are traits that may influence stress within salamander populations because of differences in physiology and environmental conditions. Given widespread declines and the effects chronic stress can have on amphibian health, it is important to understand within-population drivers of stress and how population level variation may influence population viability. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess how corticosterone varies within the Arizona tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum) population at the Mexican Cut Nature Preserve. We used a non-invasive skin swabbing method to collect baseline and elevated corticosterone from paedomorph (aquatic morph; N ...


Understanding Relationships Between Stress, Snake Fungal Disease, And Parasitism In Wild Cottonmouth Snake Populations, Emma Fehlker Campbell 2021 Murray State University

Understanding Relationships Between Stress, Snake Fungal Disease, And Parasitism In Wild Cottonmouth Snake Populations, Emma Fehlker Campbell

Scholars Week

Chronically raised stress levels are known to correlate with decreased immune function in vertebrates, possible leading to increased susceptibility to infections including parasitism and Snake Fungal Disease (SFD). Helminth endoparasites and Hemoparasites are frequently found in wild populations but little is known about their physiological effects. Additionally, parasite infection may have interactive effects with diseases including SFD. To our knowledge few studies have assessed potential interactions between SFD and parasites in snakes. Thus, the objective of our study is to assess the individual and interactive effects of Helminth endoparasites, hemoparasites, and snake fungal disease on cottonmouth physiological stress. We are ...


Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways

Zea E-Books

A survey of the archeological and paleontological literature allowed a compilation of Holocene records of mammals in Nebraska. This survey identified Holocene records from 338 sites in 62 of the 93 Nebraska counties. These counties were located throughout state, but there was a concentration of sites in southwestern Nebraska where there were 27 fossil sites in Frontier County and 22 in Harlan County. Fossils sites were underrepresented in the Sand Hills region. Records of fossil mammals covered the entire Holocene period from 13,000 years ago until AD 1850. A minimum of 57 species (with eight additional species potentially present ...


First Description Of Deep Benthic Habitats And Communities Of Oceanic Islands And Seamounts Of The Nazca Desventuradas Marine Park, Chile, Jan M. Tapia-Guerra, Ariadna Mecho, Erin E. Easton, María de los Ángeles Gallardo, Matthias Gorny, Javier Sellanes 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

First Description Of Deep Benthic Habitats And Communities Of Oceanic Islands And Seamounts Of The Nazca Desventuradas Marine Park, Chile, Jan M. Tapia-Guerra, Ariadna Mecho, Erin E. Easton, María De Los Ángeles Gallardo, Matthias Gorny, Javier Sellanes

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Seamounts and oceanic islands of the Chilean Exclusive Economic Zone at the intersection of the Nazca and Salas y Gómez ridges lie within one of the least explored areas in the world. The sparse information available, mainly for seamounts outside Chilean jurisdiction and shallow-water fauna of the Desventuradas Islands, suggests that the area is a hotspot of endemism. This apparent uniqueness of the fauna motivated the creation of the large Nazca-Desventuradas Marine Park (NDMP, ~ 300,000 km2) around the small islands San Felix and San Ambrosio in 2015. We report for the first time a detailed description of benthic microhabitats ...


Protura (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) In Slovenian Caves, Loris Galli, Franc Janžekovič, Peter Kozel, Tone Novak 2021 Genoa University, Italy

Protura (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) In Slovenian Caves, Loris Galli, Franc Janžekovič, Peter Kozel, Tone Novak

International Journal of Speleology

Protura is a small class of Hexapoda, generally poorly known, and rather scarce data on its occurrence in caves are scattered throughout literature on fauna in caves and in some papers on Protura. Although the cave-dwelling fauna is relatively well studied in Slovenia, published records on Protura are rare. In this paper, data on the occurrence and abundance of Protura in Slovenian caves are considered. Various statistical analyses were performed to compare caves with Protura to those without in 60 intensively monitored cavities to detect any differences in the selected environmental conditions. No significant difference was obtained. Samples collected from ...


Traffic Related Air Pollution Exposure Effect On Circulating White Blood Cell Counts In Healthy Individuals, Anjam Shezadi, Muhammad Shahbaz, Irfan Baboo, Faiza Shakir, Misbah Shoukat, Maryam Anwar, Badra Younis, Rabia Akbar, Amna Benish, Lubna Mumtaz, Zahid Farooq 2021 Department of Zoology, Women University Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Traffic Related Air Pollution Exposure Effect On Circulating White Blood Cell Counts In Healthy Individuals, Anjam Shezadi, Muhammad Shahbaz, Irfan Baboo, Faiza Shakir, Misbah Shoukat, Maryam Anwar, Badra Younis, Rabia Akbar, Amna Benish, Lubna Mumtaz, Zahid Farooq

Journal of Bioresource Management

During this short term study a total of 110 samples were collected from the selected individuals of study area. This study was aimed to count the White blood cells in the blood samples of individuals, who were mostly exposed to exhaust fumes (air pollution), like traffic constables, cooks and shopkeepers. For this purpose blood samples were taken into an evacuee container having anticoagulant Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) so to prevent coagulation of blood, for the count of WBCs, heamocyto-meter was used. During the study the body mass index and blood pressure was also measured by digital blood pressure measuring ...


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