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Insect (Arthropoda: Insecta) Composition In The Diet Of Ornate Box Turtles (Terrapene Ornata Ornata) In Two Western Illinois Sand Prairies, With A New State Record For Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Reese J. Worthington, E. R. Sievers, D. B. Ligon, P. K. Lago 2018 University of Mississippi

Insect (Arthropoda: Insecta) Composition In The Diet Of Ornate Box Turtles (Terrapene Ornata Ornata) In Two Western Illinois Sand Prairies, With A New State Record For Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Reese J. Worthington, E. R. Sievers, D. B. Ligon, P. K. Lago

The Great Lakes Entomologist

A study of fecal samples collected over a two-year period from juvenile ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata Agassiz) revealed diets consisting of six orders of insects representing 19 families. Turtles were reared in captivity from eggs harvested from local, wild populations, and released at two remnant prairies. Identifiable insect fragments were found in 94% of samples in 2013 (n=33) and 96% in 2014 (n=25). Frequency of occurrence of insects in turtle feces is similar to results reported in previous studies of midwestern Terrapene species. A comparison of insect composition presented no significant difference between release sites. There ...


Scorpions Of Sri Lanka (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Ii. Family Hormuridae, František Kovařík, Kithsiri B. Ranawana, V. A. Sanjeewa Jayarathne, Sanjaya Karunarathna, Alexander Ullrich 2018 Charles University

Scorpions Of Sri Lanka (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Ii. Family Hormuridae, František Kovařík, Kithsiri B. Ranawana, V. A. Sanjeewa Jayarathne, Sanjaya Karunarathna, Alexander Ullrich

Euscorpius

Liocheles australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) is reported for the first time from Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan population is fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved females, as well as its habitat.


Two New Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel, Gabriel de los Santos 2018 Grupo de Sistemática y Ecología de Artrópodos Caribeños

Two New Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel, Gabriel De Los Santos

Euscorpius

Two new species of Buthidae scorpions of the genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 are herein described from the Greater Antillean island of Hispaniola. One of them belongs to the "crassimanus" species-group and is known from an adult pair collected at Massif de la Hotte, in southwestern Haiti. The other belongs to the "quisqueyanus" species-group and is known from a single adult female from a high peak in the Central Range (= Cordillera Central), in northwestern Dominican Republic. Moreover, two fossil taxa from this island are retained as junior synonyms of Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay, 1988†.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xiv. Hottentotta Somalicus Sp. N. (Buthidae) From Somalia, František Kovařík 2018 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xiv. Hottentotta Somalicus Sp. N. (Buthidae) From Somalia, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Hottentotta somalicus sp. n. from Somalia is described and fully complemented with color photos. Morphologically it is similar to H. polystictus (Pocock, 1896). These two species have very narrow metasomal segments (1.63–1.73 in both sexes versus 1.31–1.61 in both sexes of other Hottentotta species from the Horn of Africa). H. polystictus and H. somalicus sp. n. occur in separate areas (Somaliland versus Somalia) and can be differentiated by color.


Revision Of The Mesobuthus Caucasicus Complex From Central Asia, With Descriptions Of Six New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Victor Fet, František Kovařík, Benjamin Gantenbein, Ronald C. Kaiser, Alexander K. Stewart, Matthew R. Graham 2018 Marshall University

Revision Of The Mesobuthus Caucasicus Complex From Central Asia, With Descriptions Of Six New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Victor Fet, František Kovařík, Benjamin Gantenbein, Ronald C. Kaiser, Alexander K. Stewart, Matthew R. Graham

Euscorpius

A widespread Mesobuthus caucasicus complex, which includes some of the most common scorpions found from the Caucasus to China, is revised for the first time based on new extensive collections from Central Asia, using both morphological and DNA marker data. Mesobuthus caucasicus (Nordmann, 1840), s.str. is restricted to the Caucasus Mts. Four taxa are elevated to species rank: M. fuscus (Birula, 1897) (Tajikistan), M. intermedius (Birula, 1897) (Tajikistan), M. kaznakovi (Birula, 1904) (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), and M. parthorum (Pocock, 1889) (Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan). Six new species are described: M. brutus sp. n. (Iran), M. elenae sp. n. (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), M ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson 2018 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling 2018 University College Dublin - Ireland

Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling

Biology Faculty Articles

A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling. The anal microbiome was sequenced using metabarcoding in more than 50 ...


If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford 2018 University of Gloucestershire, England

If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

An evolutionary analysis suggests that selection is unlikely to have tolerated the capacity for intentional self-killing in nonhuman animals. The potential to escape pain by suicide would have presented a recurrent and severe adaptive problem for an animal with a reproductive future to protect. If the potential for suicide arose in the evolutionary past, anti-suicide mechanisms may have co-evolved, as we believe they have in adult humans. Peña-Guzmán’s (2017) argument that some nonhuman animals can suicide is incomplete without an account of the defences that result in the vast majority opting not to.


Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber 2018 University of British Columbia

Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The commentaries by Calvo (2018) and Mallatt & Feinberg (2017) on my 2016 target branch out from a common conceptual node like forks in a road. Calvo criticizes me for not acknowledging that plants too are likely to be sentient and claims I have fallen into the kind of category error of which I accuse others ─ a zoocentric bias that fails to grant consciousness to flora. Mallatt & Feinberg maintain that I've gone too far in granting sentience to any species that lacks a nervous system. Calvo makes some good points but there are other issues concerning plant sentience such as ...


Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti 2018 University of Trieste, Department of Life Sciences

Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The time was ripe for Marino’s review of chickens’ cognitive capacities. The research community, apart from expressing gratitude for Marino’s work, should now use it to increase public awareness of chickens’ abilities. People’s views on many animals are ill-informed. Scientists need to communicate and engage with the public about the relevance and societal implications of their findings.


Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus 2018 University of San Francisco

Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I fully support the continuum proposed in the target article and argue along the same lines that we should be suspicious of drawing any strict borders between human and non-human animals. Since we can say very little with absolute certainty about human intentions regarding suicide, we have no certainty about the intentions of non-human animals. Although I am very sympathetic to Peña-Guzmán’s overall argument, I suggest that time could be taken into consideration as well.


Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger 2018 Kent State University - Tuscarawas Campus

Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Increasing understanding of the impressive cognitive and social capacities of nonhuman animals suggests the possibility that they may sometimes commit suicide. Such notions tend to be dismissed as “anthropomorphism.” That interpretive hazard, I argue, must be weighed against the opposite hazard of “anthropodenial” — “the a priori rejection of shared characteristics between humans and animals” (de Waal 2006). If animals do commit suicide, how often is it motivated precisely by the impact of humans on animal life?


Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold 2018 Central Washington University

Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Claims are often made about behaviors being unique to humans; the evidence usually shows they are not. Sign language studies on chimpanzees may provide a useful model for comparative studies of suicide. A productive approach to comparative studies is to focus on observable behaviors rather than getting lost in the pitfalls of vague definitions and changing measures.


Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley 2018 Western Sydney University

Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán’s depiction of the opponent of animal suicide as a conservative is a straw man. It is possible to accept that animals are self-conscious and reflexive yet still reject the view that they have the mental wherewithal to commit run-of-the-mill suicide. That animal behaviour can be positioned on a continuum of self-destructive behaviour does not establish that animals can intentionally kill themselves.


An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine 2018 Simon Fraser University

An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán’s discussion of suicide in nonhuman animals has broad implications. In this commentary, I focus on the logical relation between suicide and intention. Proximate cause must be distinguished from ultimate function in explanations of suicide. I briefly discuss two adaptationist accounts of suicidal behavior.


Roots Of Self-Preservation Failure In Animal Behavior, Denys deCatanzaro 2018 McMaster University

Roots Of Self-Preservation Failure In Animal Behavior, Denys Decatanzaro

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Affective variation from euphoria to dysphoria, best understood in humans, is also found in the behavior and neurochemistry of many other mammals. Suicide in humans typically occurs in highly dysphoric and despondent individuals. Self-injurious behavior has been observed in dysphoric and despondent nonhuman primates. In humans, suicide is facilitated by a highly-evolved neocortex giving rise to behavioral flexibility and culture. As Peña-Guzmán indicates, some other mammals also have elaborate neocortices and the capacity for cognitive insight, particularly apes, delphinids, and whales. Suicide is most likely to occur in species where individuals live in stable groups of highly interdependent kin.


Characterizing Curiosity-Related Behavior In Bottlenose (Tursiops Truncatus) And Roughtoothed (Steno Bredanensis) Dolphins, Malin Lilley, Amber J. de Vere, Deirdre Yeater, Stan A. Kuczaj II 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Characterizing Curiosity-Related Behavior In Bottlenose (Tursiops Truncatus) And Roughtoothed (Steno Bredanensis) Dolphins, Malin Lilley, Amber J. De Vere, Deirdre Yeater, Stan A. Kuczaj Ii

Psychology Faculty Publications

Dolphins are frequently described as curious animals; however, there have been few systematic investigations of how dolphins behave when they are curious and the extent to which individual differences in curiosity exist in dolphins. Previous research has described individual differences in dolphins’ frequency of interactions with environmental enrichment as well as quantifying curiosity-related traits of dolphins via personality assessments, though behavioral observation and trait rating components have not been part of the same study. The present study describes two different experiments designed to elicit curiosity in 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis) dolphins. In Experiment 1, dolphins ...


Summer 2017 Survey Of Diamondback Terrapins In Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, Josephine Maresca 2017 Selected Works

Summer 2017 Survey Of Diamondback Terrapins In Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, Josephine Maresca

Josephine Maresca

No abstract provided.


Learning To Live With Wolves: Community-Based Conservation In The Blackfoot Valley Of Montana, Seth M. Wilson, Elizabeth H. Bradley, Gregory A. Neudecker 2017 University of Montana

Learning To Live With Wolves: Community-Based Conservation In The Blackfoot Valley Of Montana, Seth M. Wilson, Elizabeth H. Bradley, Gregory A. Neudecker

Human–Wildlife Interactions

We built on the existing capacity of a nongovernmental organization called the Blackfoot Challenge to proactively address wolf (Canis lupus)-livestock conflicts in the Blackfoot Valley of Montana. Beginning in 2007, wolves started rapidly recolonizing the valley, raising concerns among livestock producers. We built on an existing program to mitigate conflicts associated with an expanding grizzly bear population and worked within the community to build a similar program to reduce wolf conflicts using an integrative, multi-method approach. Efforts to engage the community included one-on-one meetings, workshops, field tours, and regular group meetings as well as opportunities to participate in data ...


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