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Mechanistic Understanding Of Leaky Gut Syndrome In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Jennifer Hoover 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mechanistic Understanding Of Leaky Gut Syndrome In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Jennifer Hoover

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Broilers, meat-type chickens, are bred for high growth rate and meat yield. These chickens have specific challenges due to heat stress. The adverse effects that impact these chickens have lead us to study the mechanisms involved. The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression of genes involved in intestinal permeability of heat- stressed broiler chickens. All analyses are on previously collected tissues. A total of 600 one day old Cobb 500 male chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers. Ambient temperature in the chambers was gradually decreased from 32˚C on d 1 to ...


Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing In Herda Equine, Joseph R. Hawkes 2020 Utah State University

Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing In Herda Equine, Joseph R. Hawkes

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

HERDA (Heritable Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia) is a genetic skin disease mainly found in Quarter Horses, but also in Appaloosa and American Paint breeds. HERDA is similar to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in humans, with symptoms including stretchy skin, hyperflexible joints, and, unique to HERDA equine, spontaneous skin sloughing. Horses affected by HERDA are not suitable for performing and are oftentimes euthanized. Some carriers for the HERDA-mutation are very competitive in the American Quarter Horse industry, especially in cutting events where it is believed, yet unproven, to give them an advantage with increased flexibility. It is also possible that the genomic locus ...


Effect Of Dietary Spirulina Platensis On Stress Levels And Growth Of Female Broiler Chickens, Victoria Tarkington 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Dietary Spirulina Platensis On Stress Levels And Growth Of Female Broiler Chickens, Victoria Tarkington

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study measured the effects of dietary Spirulina platensis supplementation on heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, footpad lesions, and growth performance parameters. One hundred and eighty Ross 708 broiler females were randomly divided evenly into fifteen pens with three dietary treatments for a total of five replications per treatment (twelve birds per replicate) for five weeks. The different treatments were a control diet of 20% crude protein, a diet of 17% crude protein, and a diet of 17% crude protein with 10% S. platensis added to the feed. Body weight, feed intake, and mortality rate was not significantly different between treatments ...


The Effects Of Phosphate On Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov, Dennis Ferraro 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Phosphate On Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov, Dennis Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study seeks examine the effects of elevated phosphate levels on the larval stage of the Western Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium). Hypothesis: Additional phosphate in the water will cause the larval salamanders to have a slower metamorphosis rate than the control group with no additional phosphates. This hypothesis is based off of research that showed that additional nitrogen in the water caused a slower growth rate in the Western Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) (Griffis-Kyle, 2007).

The hypothesis was rejected. The dates the larvae morphed alternated between treatment and control. The treatment metamorphosis was not slowed. Temperature was found ...


Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger 2020 Susquehanna University

Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger

Senior Scholars Day

Ball pythons (Python regius), like other snakes in the Boidae family, use heat-sensitive pit organs and odor-sensitive Jacobson’s organ (vomernasal organ) to detect prey. The discrimination sensitivity and interaction of these organs to influence prey detection and choice however have been poorly tested. We performed a series of two-choice experiments to determine ball python preference for specific odors and/or biologically-relevant thermal stimuli. We tested the following pairs of stimuli: 1) rat odor vs. water, 2) anterior vs posterior odors of a rat, 3) rat (familiar) vs rabbit (unfamiliar) odor, 4) rat vs orange peel odor, 5) odor from ...


Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston 2020 Susquehanna University

Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston

Senior Scholars Day

Herbicides can potentially impact feeding behavior of beneficial predators in agricultural systems and subsequently compromise integrated pest management efficacy. We measured variation in feeding behaviors of an agriculturally abundant wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, when exposed to soil with field-relevant concentrations of five commonly used herbicides. Tested herbicides included atrazine, S-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, mesotrione, glyphosate, a mixture of all five herbicides, and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or water control. Tested spiders were collected from two adjacent fields: one kept under continuous crop rotation for over twenty years ...


Lethal Effects Of Common Herbicides On An Agriculturally Important Wolf Spider (Pardosa Milvina), William Ward 2020 Susquehanna University

Lethal Effects Of Common Herbicides On An Agriculturally Important Wolf Spider (Pardosa Milvina), William Ward

Senior Scholars Day

Herbicide use in crop systems has increased dramatically over the last fifty years yet the effects of chronic exposure to these chemicals on beneficial non-target arthropods have been poorly tested. We tested the lethal effects of field-relevant dosages of five commonly used herbicides on the economically important wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. Tested herbicides included atrazine, S-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, mesotrione, glyphosate, a mixture of all five herbicides, and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or a water control. Tested spiders were collected from two nearby fields; one field was ...


What Roadkills Did We Miss In A Driving Survey? A Comparison Of Driving And Walking Surveys In Baldwin County, Georgia, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead 2020 Georgia College & State University

What Roadkills Did We Miss In A Driving Survey? A Comparison Of Driving And Walking Surveys In Baldwin County, Georgia, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Accurate estimates of vertebrate road mortalities are necessary prior to the consideration of mitigation measures by resource managers. Due to ease of implementation, driving surveys are more common than walking surveys. From February 2018 to February 2019, two survey methods, driving and walking, were used to monitor a 1.16 km section of Highway 212 in Baldwin County, Georgia. Roadkills were identified and monitored for persistence from sunrise to noon two days a week. Twenty-nine roadkills were recorded over the survey period: 48.3% mammals (14/29), 27.6% herpetofauna (8/29), and 24.1% birds (7/29). Forty-eight percent ...


Pasture Management To Improve Dry Matter Intake, Marcus F. Rose, Earl Creech, Blair L. Waldron, S. Clay Isom, Michael Peel, Kara Thornton-Kurth, Jacob Hadfield, Kerry A. Rood 2020 Utah State University

Pasture Management To Improve Dry Matter Intake, Marcus F. Rose, Earl Creech, Blair L. Waldron, S. Clay Isom, Michael Peel, Kara Thornton-Kurth, Jacob Hadfield, Kerry A. Rood

All Current Publications

Agricultural producers are constantly looking for ways to maximize returns while reducing input costs. On dairy operations, a move from confinement feeding to pasture grazing offers the potential to reduce costs associated with harvest and storage of feed. In such a transition, producers sometimes report a decline in milk production and growth of livestock—both of which can strongly correlate to dry matter intake. Fortunately, dry matter intake is something that can be influenced by management practices. In this publication, we discuss the pasture management practices to improve dry matter intake.


Prey Selection By Birds Of Prey, Anisha Pokharel 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Prey Selection By Birds Of Prey, Anisha Pokharel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Prey selection is key to determine predator prey interaction and understanding the complexity of food web structure. In this thesis, we used two different approaches to understanding prey selection by North American birds of prey. Using a conventional method, in Chapter 1 we compared pellet analysis and trapping data to assess patterns of prey selection of barn owls in western Nebraska. Microtus spp. comprised 55.8% of the prey items in the barn owl’s diet. The proportion of several prey types in the diet were significantly different from the expected proportion based on trapping. This pattern may indicate barn ...


Size And Scope Of Carbon County Agriculture 2019, Ryan Feuz, Ryan Larsen, Steven Price 2020 Utah State University

Size And Scope Of Carbon County Agriculture 2019, Ryan Feuz, Ryan Larsen, Steven Price

All Current Publications

Carbon County is located south of Duchesne and Wasatch counties in east-central Utah. Along with Emery County to the south, it is often referred to as Utah’s Castle Country. The county became industrialized very early after statehood with the arrival of the railroads and discovery of many coal beds for which the county is named. It is also a large producer of natural gas within the state. Its primary economic base today comes from regional services, retail, tourism, recreation and resource extraction. As of 2017, the population was estimated at 20,295. Price is the largest city and county ...


Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms 2020 University of New Hampshire

Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms

Biological Sciences Scholarship

Cylindrical silk gland (CY) spigots distinguish a large clade of modern spiders, the CY spigot clade, which includes all entelegyne spiders and their closest relatives. Following a widespread paradigm, CYs and their spigots are only known to occur in female spiders and they produce silk used in the construction of egg sacs. Here we report the occurrence of a CY spigot or CY nubbin on each posterior median spinneret (PMS) in males (5th stadium and later) of the spider Australomimetus maculosus. Late juvenile males had a CY spigot on each PMS, whereas adult males either had a CY spigot or ...


Outperformed: Exploration And Comparison Of The Tongue-And-Cheek Tragedies Of Women-Animal Relationships In Selected Short Stories By Samanta Schweblin And In Apichatpong Weerasethakul’S Film, Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives, Sawnie Smith 2020 University of Oxford

Outperformed: Exploration And Comparison Of The Tongue-And-Cheek Tragedies Of Women-Animal Relationships In Selected Short Stories By Samanta Schweblin And In Apichatpong Weerasethakul’S Film, Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives, Sawnie Smith

Vernacular: New Connections in Language, Literature, & Culture

The unsettling short stories that comprise Samanta Schweblin’s 2008 collection Pájaros en la boca are textured and populated by the flesh of not only humans, but also the skins of species that belong to a wider zoological and mythical scope. Those creatures in Schweblin’s literary output who possess scales, feathers, and wings find themselves variously rubbing up against, crushed under, and orally engulfed by human dermis. This essay seeks to explore the charge of gender politics that courses through interactions between human women and (demi-) animals in two short stories from this collection: “El hombre sirena” and “Olingiris ...


Effect Of Calcium Supplement On Eyesight Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Abigail Horner, Dennis Ferraro 2020 Univeristy of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Calcium Supplement On Eyesight Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Abigail Horner, Dennis Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

There has been some discussion in herpetoculture about adding calcium supplements to the diets of salamanders. Adding calcium supplements to a salamander’s diet has been indicated to contribute to blindness. Calcium supplements are usually given to reptiles and amphibians to prevent dietary deficiencies, particularly metabolic bone disease. The link between lack of calcium and metabolic bone disease is well established in reptiles, but is lacking significant research with regards to amphibians. Within the eye of a salamander, there are calcium channels that mediate photosynthetic rods in the absence of light. With a calcium rich diet, it is believed that ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Utah's Own Habitat Guidelines For Sage-Grouse, David K. Dahlgren, Michel Kohl, Eric Thacker, S. Nicole Frey, Terry Messmer 2020 Utah State University

Utah's Own Habitat Guidelines For Sage-Grouse, David K. Dahlgren, Michel Kohl, Eric Thacker, S. Nicole Frey, Terry Messmer

All Current Publications

Those living and working within western North America’s sagebrush landscapes have most likely been exposed to sage-grouse issues for many years now and may have felt anxiety concerning the potential impacts that could result from implementing conservation measures designed to help this iconic species persist. Society’s challenge to seek the delicate balance between the conservation of nature and the growth related to human endeavors exemplifies the need to use the best available science as we move forward. Representative information, especially at the landscape level related to sage-grouse, has been hard to come by. However, due to the vast ...


Examining Phenotypic Structural Traits As Indicators For Reproductive Longevity Success In Sows, Lindsay Kate Peters, Melanie Dawn Trenhaile-Grannemann, Benny Edd Mote 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Examining Phenotypic Structural Traits As Indicators For Reproductive Longevity Success In Sows, Lindsay Kate Peters, Melanie Dawn Trenhaile-Grannemann, Benny Edd Mote

UCARE Research Products

The objective of this study was to examine structure and body conformation traits of 494 gilts/sows as a prediction of reproductive longevity in sows. This study focused on specific traits including body length, body depth, front and rear pastern angles, knee angle, and hock angle. The primary method of data collection was based on videos. Still images were pulled from the videos when the sow was standing in a natural stance. The images were analyzed and interpreted objectively with Image J which gives the availability to measure distance and angles given known references in the images. The structural data ...


Several Vegetation Characteristics Affect Reproductive Success Of Grassland Birds At A Restored, Warm-Season Grassland In Central Georgia, Kayla B. Allen 2020 Georgia College & State University

Several Vegetation Characteristics Affect Reproductive Success Of Grassland Birds At A Restored, Warm-Season Grassland In Central Georgia, Kayla B. Allen

Biology Theses

Grassland birds are experiencing major population declines due to habitat loss and fire suppression throughout North America. Large-scale grassland restoration efforts are ongoing, but there is little data on breeding bird productivity on restored habitats, nor on the impact of specific vegetation characteristics on reproductive output. Since 2005, agriculture fields at Panola Mountain State Park, GA have been undergoing restoration to warm-season grasslands; however, up until now there has been no monitoring of nest success or productivity. The goals of this project are to 1) quantify reproductive success and 2) determine which vegetation characteristics are associated with reproductive success. From ...


Louisiana Beef Cattle Marketing Strategies, Adam Barrilleaux 2020 Louisiana State University

Louisiana Beef Cattle Marketing Strategies, Adam Barrilleaux

LSU Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to estimate the financial costs and returns of selected marketing strategies for cattle producers in the state of Louisiana. Cattle for the project were from the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center and commercial producers. Cattle were grouped by weight and sex and vaccinated, castrated, and handled using standard best management practices. The standard marketing practice for weaned calves in Louisiana of selling weaned animals at local stockyards was compared against alternative marketing of preconditioned calves through video auctions or after feedlot finishing. Feedlot cattle were sold both on live weight value and carcass weight ...


Theoretical Risk Of Genetic Reassortment Should Not Impede Development Of Live, Attenuated Rift Valley Fever (Rvf) Vaccines Commentary On The Draft Who Rvf Target Product Profile, Thomas P. Monath, Jeroen Kortekaas, Douglas M. Watts, Rebecca C. Christofferson, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Brian B. Gowen, Clarence J. Peters, Darci R. Smith, Robert Swanepoel, John C. Morrill, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Phillip R. Pittman, Brian H. Bird, George Bettinger 2020 Crozet BioPharma LLC

Theoretical Risk Of Genetic Reassortment Should Not Impede Development Of Live, Attenuated Rift Valley Fever (Rvf) Vaccines Commentary On The Draft Who Rvf Target Product Profile, Thomas P. Monath, Jeroen Kortekaas, Douglas M. Watts, Rebecca C. Christofferson, Angelle Desiree Labeaud, Brian B. Gowen, Clarence J. Peters, Darci R. Smith, Robert Swanepoel, John C. Morrill, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Phillip R. Pittman, Brian H. Bird, George Bettinger

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

In November 2019, The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a draft set of Target Product Profiles (TPPs) describing optimal and minimally acceptable targets for vaccines against Rift Valley fever (RVF), a Phlebovirus with a three segmented genome, in both humans and ruminants. The TPPs contained rigid requirements to protect against genomic reassortment of live, attenuated vaccines (LAVs) with wild-type RVF virus (RVFV), which place undue constraints on development and regulatory approval of LAVs. We review the current LAVs in use and in development, and conclude that there is no evidence that reassortment between LAVs and wild-type RVFV has occurred during ...


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