Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, 2017 Murray State University
Evaluating The Impact Of Two Contrasting Tillage Practices On Soil Properties In Central Kentucky, Emily Cook
Farming practices such as no tillage and plowing can institute change on soil physical and chemical characteristics. In this research, the effects of long-term conventional and no-tillage systems on the selected soil properties were determined in a continuous corn system on a farm with Maury silt loam soil. These samples were taken from University of Kentucky's Research Farm (Spindletop Farm). The field used was tilled in 1969 from bluegrass sod and the first time research was conduced was in 1970. Each plot is 20 ft. by 40 ft. and for many years each plot was split with winter cover ...
Growth And Development Of Two Broiler Strains With Low Protein And Crystalline Amino Acid Supplemented Diets, 2017 Louisiana State University
Growth And Development Of Two Broiler Strains With Low Protein And Crystalline Amino Acid Supplemented Diets, Chaoyang Li
LSU Master's Theses
The objective of this research was to compare the growth performance of broilers from two commercial breeds with control, low protein and low protein supplemented with crystalline amino acids diets. This was a randomized block design, and identical experiments were conducted on successively in two years. In each experiment, day-old chicks, Ross 708 broilers and Cobb 405 broilers, were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments: 1) positive control, 2) low crude protein (LP), and 3) LP + crystalline amino acids (CAA). A three phase feeding program was used. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. On d 12, 19, 26, 33, 40 ...
Genomic Relatedness Strengthens Genetic Connectedness Across Management Units, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Genomic Relatedness Strengthens Genetic Connectedness Across Management Units, Haipeng Yu, Matthew L. Spangler, Ronald M. Lewis, Gota Morota
Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science
Genetic connectedness refers to a measure of genetic relatedness across management units (e.g., herds and flocks). With the presence of high genetic connectedness in management units, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is known to provide reliable comparisons between estimated genetic values. Genetic connectedness has been studied for pedigree-based BLUP; however, relatively little attention has been paid to using genomic information to measure connectedness. In this study, we assessed genomebased connectedness across management units by applying prediction error variance of difference (PEVD), coefficient of determination (CD), and prediction error correlation r to a combination of computer simulation and real data ...
Supplemental Effects Of Ruminal Bypass Arginine And Lysine For Improving Meat Quality And Oxidative Stability Of Aged Beef Loins, Jacob Tuell, Hyun-Wook Kim, Juliana Guedes, Derico Setyabrata, Jin-Kyu Seo, Jon Schoonmaker, Yuan H. Brad Kim
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Postmortem aging is widely practiced in the beef industry to improve eating quality characteristics. However, the oxidative stability of aged beef muscle could be negatively affected by extending aging period. The use of ruminal bypass amino acids allows levels of crude protein in the diet to be lowered and may also positively impact oxidative stability of aged beef muscle. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ruminal bypass arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of beef loins (M. longissimus lumborum, LL) under two durations of postmortem aging (14 and 28 days). A ...
Effects Of Labeling And Consumer Health Trends On Preferred Ground Beef Color Characteristics, Fat Content, And Palatability In Simulated Retail Display, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Effects Of Labeling And Consumer Health Trends On Preferred Ground Beef Color Characteristics, Fat Content, And Palatability In Simulated Retail Display, Fred W. Pohlman Ii
Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
Nutritional concerns and attempts to limit fat in the diet over the past decades have impacted the protein market, decreasing red meat consumption as well as prompting the advent of lean and extra lean ground beef. Such lean blends of ground beef may suffer in palatability, however, resulting in less satisfied consumers turning to other protein sources. While consumers are demanding lean ground beef, fatter blends may be more palatable. This study seeks to bridge the gap between perceived health and palatability by evaluating preferred fat content and instrumental color characteristics between labeled and unlabeled packages of ground beef in ...
Supplemental Trace Minerals (Zn, Cu, And Mn) As Sulfates Or Hydroxy Trace Mineral Sources For Beef Heifers, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Supplemental Trace Minerals (Zn, Cu, And Mn) As Sulfates Or Hydroxy Trace Mineral Sources For Beef Heifers, Randy Hunter Burnett
Theses and Dissertations
Crossbred heifers (n = 286, 255 ± 4.5 kg initial BW, 295 ± 16.5 d of age) were used over a 2-yr period to determine the effects of mineral source on beef heifer development at 2 locations (n = 71 and n = 72, Fayetteville, blocks 1 and 4; n = 72 in each of 2 breeding groups, Batesville, blocks 2 and 3). Heifers were stratified based on initial BW, age, health, prior research projects, and sire, and then assigned to 6 groups of 12 heifers, that were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 trace mineral treatments. The 2 treatments were trace mineral supplementation ...
Economies Of Size, Tax Reform And Profitability Of Alternative Midwestern Feedlot Systems, 2017 United States Department of Agriculture
Economies Of Size, Tax Reform And Profitability Of Alternative Midwestern Feedlot Systems, Mark R. Weimar, Arne Hallam, Larry D. Trede
The Tax Reform Act of 1986 may have substantial impacts on cattle feeding operations in the Midwest. Changes in the tax laws may encourage different investment patterns in feedlots as to size, type of facility, feeding programs, and age of animal fed. Cost and returns are computed for a variety of feeding systems under the new and old tax laws.Substantial economies of size were found under both tax laws, bu they were more extreme under the new tax system.
Factors Impacting Production And Economic Variability In Traditional Midwest Swine Enterprises, 2017 Iowa State University
Factors Impacting Production And Economic Variability In Traditional Midwest Swine Enterprises, John D. Lawrence, John Shaffer, Arne Hallam, Thomas J. Baas
Traditional swine enterprises report competitive cost of production for the “top one-third”herds.Further analysis shows that individual herds are seldom in the most profitable group every year, and nearly all farms have an occasional good year.While long-run differences exist in cost of production across farms, the wide variability from year to year in efficiency, costs, and returns provides a greater challenge to existing swine enterprises.
The Results Of A Cattle Feeding Test, 2017 Iowa State College
The Results Of A Cattle Feeding Test, W. J. Kennedy, F. R. Marshall
The problem of most vital importance to the cattle feeder of the middle west at the present day is, how to produce beef more economically. The marked advance in the value of farm lands and the strenuous competition of the range territory coupled with the high priced feeding-stuffs have materially changed conditions from what they were less than two decades ago. Can he afford to feed fifty-five or sixty cent corn to cattle and hope to realize a profit? Can he, by the addition of some by-product or condimental food, secure better returns from the corn fed? These have been ...
An Overview Of Functional Non-Meat Ingredients In Meat Processing: The Current Toolbox, 2017 Iowa State University
An Overview Of Functional Non-Meat Ingredients In Meat Processing: The Current Toolbox, Joseph G. Sebranek
Joseph G. Sebranek
My “assignment” as part of this discussion of the challenges facing meat processors trying to meet consumer demands for clean labels is to review the critical functional roles of the fundamental non-meat ingredients that are essential for processed meats. The market pressure for shorter, simpler, easier-to-understand ingredient statements is providing considerable motivation for processors to reduce or even eliminate some of the traditional, wellestablished non-meat ingredients. However, the practical applications of many of the traditional non-meat ingredients have been developed and refined as a result of years, decades or even centuries of use, and have clearly evolved to play very ...
Steer And Heifer Beef., 2017 Iowa State College
Steer And Heifer Beef., James Wilson, C. F. Curtiss
The heifer is rarely as well fed as the steer, but is sold to local butchers at a low price, or sent east to be sold cheaper than the steer in the same condition. When the heifer is well fed custom consigns her to a lower class than a steer of equal breeding, while heifer beef in some countries sells higher than steer beef. The beef from spayed heifers is popularly supposed to be superior to that of Open heifers, and there is reason to believe that the spayed heifer feeds better, Little has been done along these lines in ...
The Changing Label Of Processed Meats: Consumers, Science And Implications, 2017 Iowa State University
The Changing Label Of Processed Meats: Consumers, Science And Implications, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.
Antimicrobial Ingredients, 2017 Iowa State University
Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.
Proteolysis Influences Tenderness Of Aged Pork Loins, 2017 Iowa State University
Proteolysis Influences Tenderness Of Aged Pork Loins, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Amanda Outhouse, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan
Steven M. Lonergan
Aged pork loins were selected to have similar ultimate pH, color, lipid content, and purge. The star probe values (kg) obtained from these loins were evaluated and loins were sorted into either a low star probe (LSP) group or a high star probe (HSP) group. Loins were evaluated for autolysis of calpain-1 and degradation of troponin-T, desmin, and titin. Results showed calpain-1 was completely autolyzed in all samples. LSP pork loins exhibited more degradation of troponin-T, desmin, and titin, demonstrating proteolysis influences measured tenderness in aged pork.
Influence Of Feed Efficiency On Meat Tenderness Attributes Of Beef Steers, 2017 Iowa State University
Influence Of Feed Efficiency On Meat Tenderness Attributes Of Beef Steers, Christopher Blank, Jason Russell, Steven Lonergan, Stephanie Hansen
Steven M. Lonergan
Meat tenderness was assessed on steaks from steers considered highly or lowly feed efficient (FE). Overall, minimal differences were noted for tenderness attributes. There was a tendency for greater calpastatin activity in steaks from steers classified as highly feed efficient (HFE). Despite a tendency for increased calpastatin activity in steaks from HFE steers, there were no differences in calpain 1 autolysis or d 2, or d 14 troponin-T degradation due to feed efficiency (FE) classification. Analysis of d 2 troponin-T degradation indicated no differences due to diet type; however, d 14 troponin-T degradation was greater in steaks from steers finished ...
A Study Of The Factors That Influence Consumer Attitudes Towards Beef Products Using The Conjoint Market Analysis Tool, Brian E. Mennecke, Anthony M. Townsend, Dermot J. Hayes, Steven M. Lonergan
Steven M. Lonergan
Beef producers looking for a competitive edge in today's markets need information about the qualities that consumers consider most important. Using conjoint marketing analysis allowed the investigators to sort out the most relevant characteristics for meat purchasers.
Desmin And Peroxiredoxin-2 Are Potential Biomarkers For Pork Tenderness, 2017 Iowa State University
Desmin And Peroxiredoxin-2 Are Potential Biomarkers For Pork Tenderness, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan
Steven M. Lonergan
Aged pork loins were selected to have similar ultimate pH, color, lipid content, and purge. The star probe values (kg) obtained from these loins were evaluated and loins were sorted into either a low star probe (LSP) group or a high star probe (HSP) group. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to identify differences insarcoplasmic proteomes between LSP and HSP groups. Metabolic, stress response, structural, and regulatory protein spots were identified to be significantly different between classification groups. The structural protein desmin was identified to be more abundant in LSP samples and the stress response protein peroxiredoxin-2 was ...
Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl
Steven M. Lonergan
With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...
Degradation Of Filamin In Aged Pork Loins Classified By High And Low Star Probe Values, 2017 Iowa State University
Degradation Of Filamin In Aged Pork Loins Classified By High And Low Star Probe Values, Amanda C. Outhouse, Kelsey B. Carlson, Chris A. Fedler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Prusa, Steven M. Lonergan
Steven M. Lonergan
Filamin is necessary to maintain the integrity of muscle structure. Postmortem degradation of filamin results in loss of organizational structure at the Z-disk and improves meat tenderness. Intact and degraded filamin was successfully identified in aged pork loin. The removal of amino acids to form this degradation product is likely the first cleavage of intact filamin observed in postmortem muscle. A significant decrease in abundance of intact filamin in low star probe (SP) value samples demonstrates that degradation of filamin varies when aging period and pH are similar. Filamin degradation was significantly different in SP groups, suggesting that filamin proteolysis ...
Qtls Associated With Dry Matter Intake, Metabolic Mid-Test Weight, Growth And Feed Efficiency Have Little Overlap Across 4 Beef Cattle Studies, Mahdi Saatchi, Jonathan E. Beever, Jared E. Decker, Dan B. Faulkner, Harvey C. Freetly, Stephanie L. Hansen, Helen Yampara-Iquise, Kristen A. Johnson, Stephen D. Kachman, Monty S. Kerley, Jaewoo Kim, Daniel D. Loy, Elisa Marques, Holly L. Neibergs, E. John Pollak, Robert D. Schnabel, Christopher M. Seabury, Daniel W. Shike, W. M. Snelling, Matthew L. Spangler, Robert L. Weaber, D. J. Garrick, Jeremy F. Taylor
Stephanie L. Hansen
Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies and functional analyses using 50 K and 770 K SNP genotypes scored in 5,133 animals from 4 independent beef cattle populations (Cycle VII, Angus, Hereford and Simmental × Angus) with phenotypes for average daily gain, dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test body weight and residual feed intake. Results: A total of 5, 6, 11 and 10 significant ...