Impact Of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene Exposure On Connexin Gap Junction Proteins In Cultured Rat Ovaries, 2019 Iowa State University
Impact Of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene Exposure On Connexin Gap Junction Proteins In Cultured Rat Ovaries, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating
7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) destroys ovarian follicles in a concentration-dependent manner. The impact of DMBA on connexin (CX) proteins that mediate communication between follicular cell types along with pro-apoptotic factors p53 and Bax were investigated. Postnatal day (PND) 4 Fisher 344 rat ovaries were cultured for 4 days in vehicle medium (1% DMSO) followed by a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO) or DMBA (12.5 nM or 75 nM) and cultured for 4 or 8 days. RT-PCR was performed to quantify Cx37, Cx43, p53 and Bax mRNA level. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were performed to determine ...
Acute 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene Exposure Causes Differential Concentration-Dependent Follicle Depletion And Gene Expression In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Jill A. Madden, Patricia B. Hoyer, Patrick J. Devine, Aileen F. Keating
Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or ...
Enhanced Susceptibility Of Ovaries From Obese Mice To 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene-Induced Dna Damage, 2019 Iowa State University
Enhanced Susceptibility Of Ovaries From Obese Mice To 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene-Induced Dna Damage, Shanthi Ganesan, Jackson Nteeba, Aileen F. Keating
7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18 wks of age, for 14 days. Total ovarian RNA and protein were isolated and abundance of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm), X-ray repair complementing defective ...
Demographics Regarding Belief In Non-Human Animal Sentience And Emotional Empathy With Animals: A Pilot Study Among Attendees Of An Animal Welfare Symposium, Amelia Cornish, Bethany Wilson, David Raubenheimer, Paul Mcgreevy
Paul McGreevy, PhD
Attitudes to animals are linked to beliefs about their ability to experience pain and suffering, their cognition, and their sentience. Education and awareness-raising play a pivotal role in increasing society’s consideration of non-human animal welfare. The current pilot study explores the attitudes towards animal welfare among a unique population of people who attended an animal welfare symposium at the University of Sydney. It involved administration of a validated questionnaire that assessed attitudes to animals; specifically exploring participants’ (n = 41) beliefs about the sentience of animals and their emotional empathy with animals. The resultant data revealed significant associations between participants ...
Welfare-Adjusted Life Years (Waly): A Novel Metric Of Animal Welfare That Combines The Impacts Of Impaired Welfare And Abbreviated Lifespan, Kendy Tzu-Yun Teng, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Charline Maerten De Noordhout, Peter Bennett, Paul Mcgreevy, Po-Yu Chiu, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio, Navneet Dhand
Paul McGreevy, PhD
Currently, separate measures are used to estimate the impact of animal diseases on mortality and animal welfare. This article introduces a novel metric, the Welfare-Adjusted Life Year (WALY), to estimate disease impact by combining welfare compromise and premature death components. Adapting the Disability-Adjusted Life Year approach used in human health audits, we propose WALY as the sum of a) the years lived with impaired welfare due to a particular cause and b) the years of life lost due to the premature death from the same cause. The years lived with impaired welfare are the product of the average duration of ...
Work-Type Influences Perceived Livestock Herding Success In Australian Working Kelpies, 2019 University of Sydney
Work-Type Influences Perceived Livestock Herding Success In Australian Working Kelpies, Jonathan B. Early, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Lisa J. Mascord, Diane Van Rooy, Paul Mcgreevy, Claire M. Wade
Paul McGreevy, PhD
Working dog handlers and breeders have very different behavioural requirements in the animals that they employ for managing livestock. The Australian Working Kelpie breed may be used in several working contexts, notably yards, paddocks and a combination of both. The working context influences the skillsets required and gives rise to three corresponding work-types: Yard, Paddock and Utility Kelpies. In particular, dogs used for working stock in the confines of yards and trucks interact with stock more forcefully than those mustering in larger areas (paddocks) where they can herd stock effectively from a greater distance. This article explores owner assessments ...
Effects Of Heat Stress On Ovarian Physiology In Growing Pigs, 2019 Iowa State University
Effects Of Heat Stress On Ovarian Physiology In Growing Pigs, Jackson Nteeba, Lance H. Baumgard, Jason W. Ross, Aileen F. Keating
Ovaries were obtained from growing pigs that had been heat-stressed and were evaluated for alterations in a signaling pathway known to play a critical role in ovarian physiology. Our results indicate that hyperthermia alters this pathway in a short space of time (after 7 days). Identifying how and why heat stress alters ovarian physiology are important in developing therapeutic approaches to prevent the reduction in reproductive performance associated with warm summer months.
Feed Efficiency Effects On Barrow And Gilt Behavioral Reactivity To Novel Stimuli Tests, 2019 Iowa State University
Feed Efficiency Effects On Barrow And Gilt Behavioral Reactivity To Novel Stimuli Tests, Jessica D. Colpoys, Caitlyn Abell, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Jennifer M. Young, Anna Johnson
Increasing feed efficiency is an important goal for improving sustainable pork production and profitability for producers. To study feed efficiency, genetic selection based on residual feed intake (RFI) was used to create 2 divergent lines. Low-RFI pigs consume less feed for equal weight gain compared to their less efficient, high-RFI counterparts. Therefore, our objective was to assess how a pig’s behavioral reactivity toward fear-eliciting stimuli related to RFI selection and improvement of feed efficiency. In this study, behavioral reactivity of pigs divergently selected for RFI was evaluated using human approach (HAT) and novel object (NOT) tests. Forty low-RFI and ...
Effects Of Genetic Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Behavioral Reactivity Of Castrated Male Pigs To Novel Stimuli Tests, Jessica D. Colpoys, Caitlyn Abell, Jennifer M. Young, Aileen F. Keating, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Butters-Johnson
Increasing feed efficiency in swine is important for increasing sustainable food production and profitability for producers; therefore, this is often selected for at breeding. Residual feed intake (RFI) can be used for the genetic selection of pigs for feed efficiency. In our selection project, low-RFI pigs consume less feed for equal weight gain compared to their less efficient, high-RFI counterparts. However, little is known about how feed efficiency influences the pig's behavioral reactivity toward fear-eliciting stimuli. In this study, behavioral reactivity of pigs divergently selected for RFI was evaluated using human approach- (HAT) and novel object tests (NOT). Forty ...
Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, 2019 Iowa State University
Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson
The objective of this study was to evaluate approachability of gilts divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) to a novel human. Twenty low-RFI and 19 high-RFI gilts were tested using a human approach test. Testing occurred over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours. Gilts were tested individually within a 4.9 x 2.4 m test arena. Throughout the test, latency to first enter, duration of time spent, and frequency of entrances within 1 m and 0.5 m of the human were recorded. These results suggest that divergent selection for RFI did not alter gilt approach ...
Intestinal Integrity, Endotoxin Transport And Detoxification In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Venkatesh Mani, A. J. Harris, Aileen F. Keating, Thomas E. Weber, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler
Microbes and microbial components potentially impact the performance of pigs through immune stimulation and altered metabolism. These immune modulating factors can include endotoxin from gram negative bacterial outer membrane component, commonly referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, our objective was to examine the relationship between intestinal barrier integrity, endotoxin and inflammation with feed efficiency (FE), using pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) as a model. Twelve gilts (62 ± 3 kg BW) from the low RFI (LRFI, more efficient) and 12 from the high RFI (HRFI, less efficient) were used. Individual performance data was recorded for ...
Foxo3 Expression And Function In The Pig Oocyte And Embryo, 2019 Iowa State University
Foxo3 Expression And Function In The Pig Oocyte And Embryo, Caixia Yang, Elane C. Wright, Benjamin J. Hale, Aileen F. Keating, Jason W. Ross
Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), a member of the FOXO subfamily of Forkhead transcription factors, has been shown to play critical roles in apoptosis, oxidative stress, cell cycle and DNA repair. The objective of this study was to characterize FOXO3 expression and its function during oocyte maturation and early embryo development in the pig.We found: (1) FOXO3 is dynamically expressed at both mRNA and protein level in the maturing oocyte and early in vitro fertilized embryos. (2) FOXO3 protein is localized in the cytoplasm of pig maturing oocytes. (3) Co-culture with Doxorubicin (DOX, 2 µM) significantly altered the total FOXO3 ...
Basal Diet Determined Long-Term Composition Of The Gut Microbiome And Mouse Phenotype To A Greater Extent Than Fecal Microbiome Transfer From Lean Or Obese Human Donors, Daphne Michelle Rodriguez Jimenez, Abby D. Benninghoff, Niklas D.J. Aardema, Sumira Phatak, Korry J. Hintze
Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications
The Western dietary pattern can alter the gut microbiome and cause obesity and metabolic disorders. To examine the interactions between diet, the microbiome, and obesity, we transplanted gut microbiota from lean or obese human donors into mice fed one of three diets for 22 weeks: (1) a control AIN93G diet; (2) the total Western diet (TWD), which mimics the American diet; or (3) a 45% high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet. We hypothesized that a fecal microbiome transfer (FMT) from obese donors would lead to an obese phenotype and aberrant glucose metabolism in recipient mice that would be exacerbated by consumption ...
Operationalizing Ecological Resilience Concepts For Managing Species And Ecosystems At Risk, 2019 USDA FS, Reno, NV
Operationalizing Ecological Resilience Concepts For Managing Species And Ecosystems At Risk, Jeanne C. Chambers, Craig R. Allen, Samuel A. Cushman
Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications
This review provides an overview and integration of the use of resilience concepts to guide natural resources management actions. We emphasize ecosystems and landscapes and provide examples of the use of these concepts from empirical research in applied ecology. We begin with a discussion of definitions and concepts of ecological resilience and related terms that are applicable to management. We suggest that a resilience-based framework for management facilitates regional planning by providing the ability to locate management actions where they will have the greatest benefits and determine effective management strategies. We review the six key components of a resilience-based framework ...
Zika Virus Associated Pathology And Antigen Presence In The Testicle In The Absence Of Sexual Transmission During Subacute To Chronic Infection In A Mouse Model, Chad S. Clancy, Arnaud J. Van Wettere, John D. Morrey, Justin G. Julander
John D. Morrey
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arboviral infection that has been shown to be sexually transmitted. The study outlined herein aims to determine if accessory sex glands and epididymal epithelial cells are sources of viral persistence in subacute and chronic ZIKV infection, and if infection of these organs is important in sexual transmission during long-term (chronic) infection. Male interferon type I receptor knockout (Ifnar−/−) mice were challenged with ZIKV and reproductive tissues were harvested 14 and 35 days post infection (DPI) for inoculation studies and 14, 35 and 70 DPI for histopathology. Artificial insemination fluid derived from epididymal flush and seminal ...
The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: I. Gilt Reproductive Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross
Animal Science Publications
Supplemental Arg during gestation purportedly benefits fetal development. However, the benefits of a gestational Arg dietary strategy in commercial production are unclear. Therefore, objectives of this study examined Arg supplementation during different gestational stages and the effects on gilt reproductive performance. Pubertal gilts (n = 548) were allocated into four treatment groups: Control (n = 143; 0% supplemental Arg) or one of three supplemental Arg (1% as fed) treatments: from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); from 15 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); or from 85 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). At farrowing ...
Co-Expression Networks Reveal Potential Regulatory Roles Of Mirnas In Fatty Acid Composition Of Nelore Cattle, 2019 Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste
Co-Expression Networks Reveal Potential Regulatory Roles Of Mirnas In Fatty Acid Composition Of Nelore Cattle, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Luiz L. Coutinho, Aline S. M. Cesar, Wellison J. Da Silva Diniz, Marcela M. De Souza, Bruno G. Andrade, James E. Koltes, Gerson B. Mourão, Adhemar Zerlotini, James M. Reecy, Luciana C. A. Regitano
Animal Science Publications
Fatty acid (FA) content affects the sensorial and nutritional value of meat and plays a significant role in biological processes such as adipogenesis and immune response. It is well known that, in beef, the main FAs associated with these biological processes are oleic acid (C18:1 cis9, OA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11), which may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we performed differential expression and co-expression analyses, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and partial correlation with information theory (PCIT), to uncover the complex interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs expressed in ...
Hunting And Mountain Sheep: Do Current Harvest Practices Affect Horn Growth?, 2019 Univeristy of Wyoming
Hunting And Mountain Sheep: Do Current Harvest Practices Affect Horn Growth?, Tayler N. Lasharr, Ryan A. Long, James R. Heffelfinger, Vernon C. Bleich, Paul R. Krausman, R. Terry Bowyer, Justin M. Shannon, Robert W. Klaver, Clay E. Brewer, Mike Cox, A. Andrew Holland, Anne Hubbs, Chadwick P. Lehman, Jonathatn D. Muir, Bruce Sterling, Kevin L. Monteith
Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications
The influence of human harvest on evolution of secondary sexual characteristics has implications for sustainable management of wildlife populations. The phenotypic consequences of selectively removing males with large horns or antlers from ungulate populations has been a topic of heightened concern in recent years. Harvest can affect size of horn‐like structures in two ways: 1) shifting age structure toward younger age classes, which can reduce the mean size of horn‐like structures; or 2) selecting against genes that produce large, fast‐growing males. We evaluated effects of age, climatic and forage conditions, and metrics of harvest on horn size ...
Fishes Are Gaining Academic Respect, 2019 Independent Scientist and Author
Fishes Are Gaining Academic Respect, Jonathan Balcombe
Jonathan Balcombe, PhD
I respond to five commentaries on my 2016 book What a Fish Knows. The commentaries express more harmony than dissent about my interpretation of fishes as cognitive, aware individuals deserving better treatment by humankind.
Chicken Of The Sea, 2019 Independent Scientist and Author
Chicken Of The Sea, Jonathan Balcombe
Jonathan Balcombe, PhD
Marino summarizes research showing that chickens perform cognitively and emotionally at a higher level than previously assumed. Here, I describe capacities of teleost fishes that parallel those of chickens, including the ability to recognize human faces, perspective-taking, and referential communication. Research on chickens and on fishes reveals an emerging trend in cognitive ethology: abilities once thought limited to a scant few highly intelligent non-humans may actually occur broadly across taxa.