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Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson 2022 Eastern Washington University

Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson

2022 Symposium

The Sandwich Bluff Formation of the James Ross Basin of Antarctica has recently yielded a group of five late Cretaceous dinosaurs that lived contemporaneously with each other, a first for Antarctica. These five dinosaurs include fragmentary remains of two differently sized elasmarian ornithopods, a possible megaraptor, a hadrosaur, and a nodosaur. In this study we will construct a model of the ecological relationships of late Cretaceous Antarctica. Additionally, we will look at what specific factors allowed this group of four herbivores and a carnivore to coexist in a restricted locality and what niches were filled by each species. Methods to ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. DeSmet 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Sabrina Cox 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Sabrina Cox

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The first cases of coronavirus reported in the United States came in January 2020 (World Health Organization, 2020). In the two years since then, countries around the world have been affected by COVID-19 and the subsequent social, economic, and mental health issues. Previous research shows that the animal healthcare field is already overrun with burnout, substance abuse, depression, and increased levels of stress (Gardner & Hini, 2006), and the pandemic has only compounded these issues (Mair et al., 2020). Observing a lack of meaningful reporting on the issues affecting veterinary staff led the researchers to investigate staff members’ practices, day- to-day ...


Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of A Cattle Crossing On Water Quality Along A Tributary Of The Muddy Fork Of The Illinois River, Northwest Arkansas, Nicholas Valentini

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cattle are known to have an effect on water quality in various bodies of water. Studying how cattle impact water quality along various streams and tributaries is important to understanding how certain water parameters may be affected at the individual farm level. It is known that unrestricted access to a cattle crossing has been shown to increase the occurrence of downstream pollutants such as E. coli, ammonium, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and turbidity. However, many studies focus on large-scale operations and neglect the individual farm level. In this study, samples were collected twice for each parameter ...


Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Feral hogs are an invasive species found in 35 U.S. states without an effective control method to limit their population growth. According to a 2019 survey of 467 landowners in Arkansas, feral hogs caused an estimated $12 million in damages (Cook, 2019). While there are current control methods such as hunting and trapping, 65% of the feral hog population must be eliminated in a specific area to prohibit population growth (Cook, 2019). It is theorized that gossypol, a phenolic compound known to negatively impact reproductive function in other species, could cause sterility in boars. In this preliminary research study ...


A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese 2022 The Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc.

A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

The Great Plains were once a vast grassland ecosystem, but, due to agricultural and human development, are one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America. What remains is generally fragmented, threatened by invasive species, and lacks the natural ecosystem processes that shaped these grasslands such as periodic wildfire and bison grazing. Since 1978, the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc. (dba “Crane Trust”) has worked to maintain the function of grassland and riparian habitats to benefit endangered Whooping Cranes, Sandhill Cranes, and other migratory bird species. They protect ~8,100 acres, including the largest contiguous portion of lowland ...


Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls 2022 University of South Alabama

Methods For Assessing Cellular Phenotypes Related To Aging And Longevity In Turtles, Stephanie E. Bulls

Theses and Dissertations

There are many costs associated with increased body size and longevity in animals, including the accumulation of genotoxic and cytotoxic damage that comes with having more cells and living longer. Yet, some species have overcome these barriers and have evolved remarkably large body sizes and long lifespans. Organisms with these unique phenotypes have come under recent genomic scrutiny to discover mechanisms of healthy aging and tumor suppression but little physiological work to validate these mechanisms has been conducted outside of mammals. Here I propose that reptiles, especially testudines (turtles), would be an excellent system to investigate the topics of size ...


Fragile Foal Syndrome: Its Past, Present, And Future, Alena Martin, Alena M. Martin 2022 Murray State University

Fragile Foal Syndrome: Its Past, Present, And Future, Alena Martin, Alena M. Martin

Honors College Theses

Though Fragile Foal Syndrome (FFS) has been around for some time, the public interest in FFS is recent. The hype spread rapidly from a public media announcement that a stallion at a prominent North American stud farm was a carrier (Brooks, 2021). As with most genetic mutations, FFS likely arose due to the increased inbreeding that results from human selection (Orlando & Librado, 2019). Fragile Foal Syndrome affects the enzyme responsible for developing the connective tissues. Two recent case studies highlighted the devastating effect of FFS on every part of the equine body (Metzger, et al., 2020; Grillos, 2021). So far, no one knows for sure where the mutation originated, but the strongest theory is that the origin lies with the Thoroughbred and its progenitors (Brooks, 2021). Future advances in reproductive technologies and techniques could reduce ...


Thinking Outside The Box Of Evaluation Platforms: Adapting Qualtrics For Virtual 4-H Judging Competitions, Maria Calvert, Ty Peckman 2022 University of Missouri

Thinking Outside The Box Of Evaluation Platforms: Adapting Qualtrics For Virtual 4-H Judging Competitions, Maria Calvert, Ty Peckman

The Journal of Extension

Competitive events represent a major component of 4-H programming. These events are typically held in person; however, unforeseen circumstances, like the COVID-19 pandemic, have required Extension professionals to adapt these programs to virtual settings. This paper outlines some unique features of Qualtrics, a web-based tool commonly used to build surveys, that led Missouri 4-H to use the platform to administer agriculture and natural resource science contests.


The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey 2022 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey

Independent Research Projects

Decomposition plays an important ecological role in carbon and nutrient cycling that supply food and energy resources to food webs. This study investigates the potential role that leaf decomposition of different leaf species may play in macroinvertebrate assemblages in upper Midwest streams. We hypothesized that the different decomposition rates experienced with different leaf species and in different streams would have an effect on invertebrate colonization due to the variance in nutrient availability. Due to altered fire regimes and other influences, forests are experiencing declines in fire-adapted, heliophytic species such as oaks and compositional shifts toward shade-tolerant, mesophytic species such as ...


Ontogenetic Drivers Of Morphological Evolution In Monitor Lizards And Allies (Squamata: Paleoanguimorpha), A Clade With Extreme Body Size Disparity, Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Damien Esquerré, J. Scott Keogh 2022 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Ontogenetic Drivers Of Morphological Evolution In Monitor Lizards And Allies (Squamata: Paleoanguimorpha), A Clade With Extreme Body Size Disparity, Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Damien Esquerré, J. Scott Keogh

Publications and Research

Background

Heterochrony, change in the rate or timing of development, is thought to be one of the main drivers of morphological evolution, and allometry, trait scaling patterns imposed by size, is traditionally thought to represent an evolutionary constraint. However, recent studies suggest that the ontogenetic allometric trajectories describing how organisms change as they grow may be labile and adaptive. Here we investigated the role of postnatal ontogenetic development in the morphological diversification of Paleoanguimorpha, the monitor lizards and allies, a clade with extreme body size disparity. We obtained linear and geometric morphometric data for more than 1,600 specimens belonging ...


Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high ...


Characteristics And Motivational Factors Of American Equine Journalists, Zoe B. Bowden, Ricky W. Telg, Lisa K. Lundy 2022 University of Florida

Characteristics And Motivational Factors Of American Equine Journalists, Zoe B. Bowden, Ricky W. Telg, Lisa K. Lundy

Journal of Applied Communications

The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic characteristics, career motivations, and professional development of American equine journalists. An online survey was distributed to equine journalists identified through their professional organizational membership. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Equine journalists were found to be predominately female, Caucasian, and averaged 53 years old. Nearly half were exposed to the equine industry prior to their career and have been working in the industry for over 15 years. Respondents were well educated and were most motivated towards their career as an equine journalist because of their interest in horses ...


Characterizing The Internal Porous Structure Of Equine Proximal Sesamoid Bones Subjected To Race Training Using Fast Fourier Transforms, Joseph Erik Davis 2022 University of Kentucky

Characterizing The Internal Porous Structure Of Equine Proximal Sesamoid Bones Subjected To Race Training Using Fast Fourier Transforms, Joseph Erik Davis

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The equine racing industry is one of the main proponents in Kentucky’s economic infrastructure. In this industry there has come a need to investigate the nature of the proximal sesamoid bone (PSB). Breakdowns involving the PSBs are the leading cause in racehorse deaths in the industry, with still little known about what causes this bone to fracture. This study seeks to shed insight by investigating the internal structure of the PSB. Using microCT scanning, the internal porous structure was captured. From there, noticeable differences in the pores were noticed and quantified using fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis.

The dominant ...


Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John 2022 University of Montana

Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The complex population dynamics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) were studied to determine the patterns of their population cycles and the processes driving them. It is well established, via previous archaeological research and Indigenous knowledge, that large migrating caribou herds found in and around the tundra at northern latitudes experience population boom and busts roughly every several decades. However, the processes driving the dynamics of these cycles are relatively unknown, which makes managing caribou herds for recreational and subsistence harvests difficult. It has been hypothesized that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors shape these cycles, with density-dependence, predation, harvest, climate ...


Hotline Number To Reach And Offer Agricultural Information To Plain Anabaptists During The Covid-19 Workplace Closures, Emily Shoop, Carly Becker, Nathan Glenn Briggs, Danielle Smarsh 2021 Pennsylvania State University

Hotline Number To Reach And Offer Agricultural Information To Plain Anabaptists During The Covid-19 Workplace Closures, Emily Shoop, Carly Becker, Nathan Glenn Briggs, Danielle Smarsh

Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies

The Penn State Extension Animal Systems Team developed a toll-free hotline phone number to convey short educational messages to maintain contact and outreach to Pennsylvania’s animal producing Amish, Mennonite, and other plain Anabaptist populations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Penn State Extension’s programming went largely online via webinars, online courses, and emails. This change in programming excluded a large sector of Pennsylvania farmers who do not use or have access to the internet and, as such, were liable to miss important best management practice reviews and timely updates in animal agriculture. The Animal Systems Hotline offered callers the choice ...


Coyote Management In San Francisco, Matthew Greer 2021 The University of San Francisco

Coyote Management In San Francisco, Matthew Greer

Master's Projects and Capstones

As cities in North America grow, coyotes have become progressively more important species in urban ecosystems. Moreover, as coyotes increasingly use these urban spaces, human-coyote conflicts have become more common, creating a need for new management strategies. This paper will explore how the city of San Francisco could create a new coyote management plan for its highly visible coyote population. San Francisco has had a persistent coyote population since the early 2000s (Todd, 2018). Currently, the coyote population is close to 100 individuals and is still growing (J. Young, Presidio Trust, pers. comm.). To explore this topic a literature review ...


Forest Disturbance And Occupancy Patterns Of Carnivores: Results Of A Large-Scale Field Study In Maine, Usa, Bryn E. Evans 2021 University of Maine

Forest Disturbance And Occupancy Patterns Of Carnivores: Results Of A Large-Scale Field Study In Maine, Usa, Bryn E. Evans

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding trends in the abundance and distribution of carnivores is important at global, regional and local scales due to their ecological role, their aesthetic and economic value, and the numerous threats to their populations. Carnivores in Maine range from the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to numerous native mesocarnivore species, such as American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Pekania pennanti), coyote (Canis latrans), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), bobcat (Lynx rufus), Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and to two small weasel species (Mustela erminea and Neogale frenata). Though smaller than their apex carnivore cousins, Mesocarnivores are essential components of ecosystems and have complex ...


Going Vegan Or Vegetarian: Motivations & Influences, Faunalytics, Jo Anderson, Marina Milyavskaya 2021 Faunalytics

Going Vegan Or Vegetarian: Motivations & Influences, Faunalytics, Jo Anderson, Marina Milyavskaya

Diet

After studying hundreds of U.S. and Canadian consumers during their transition to vegetarianism or veganism (collectively referred to as veg*nism), a new report from research organization Faunalytics found that 42% of people’s veg*n journeys were motivated by health, 20% by animal protection, and 18% by environmental concern. For animal advocates interested in helping new vegans and vegetarians maintain their change of lifestyle, study results suggest a focus on self-driven motivations (like personal values or moral identity) and experiences with animal advocacy.


Development Of Comprehensive Theoretical Morphospaces For Canine Cranial Morphology, Alexa Ortega, Nicholas Hebdon, Lindsay Waldrop 2021 Chapman University

Development Of Comprehensive Theoretical Morphospaces For Canine Cranial Morphology, Alexa Ortega, Nicholas Hebdon, Lindsay Waldrop

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Throughout the evolution of the family Canidae, there is a continuous belief that canines have an exceptional olfactory system which allows them to have a heightened sense of smell. Because of this olfactory sophistication, canines have become prevalent as detection animals in the military, homeland security, law enforcement, forensics, and civilian applications. However, while the trait is highly regarded, the exact role of nasal morphology is understudied. We aim to investigate the influences of nasal cavity and internal structure morphology in odor detection. However, nasal structure is a sophisticated morphological target and requires innovative solutions to capture the key variables ...


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