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Ecological Response Of Phytoplankton To The Oil Spills In The Oceans, Danling Tang, Jing Sun, Li Zhou, Sufen Wang, Ramesh P. Singh, Gang Pan 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ecological Response Of Phytoplankton To The Oil Spills In The Oceans, Danling Tang, Jing Sun, Li Zhou, Sufen Wang, Ramesh P. Singh, Gang Pan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Oil spills in oceans have substantial influence on marine ecosystems. This study investigates 21 oil spills in the world. Analyzing Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomerer (MODIS) data after Penglai oil spills on 4 June 2011, found a bloom with peak value of Chl-a (13.66 mg m−3) spread over an area of 800 km2 during 18–25 June 2011, and a pronounced increase in the monthly Chl-a concentration (6.40 mg m−3) on June 2012 in the Bohai Sea. Out of the 21 oil spills, 14 blooms were observed, while 11 ...


A Global Reassessment Of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins, Laetitia Nunny, Mark P. Simmonds 2019 Wild Animal Welfare

A Global Reassessment Of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins, Laetitia Nunny, Mark P. Simmonds

Personality

Dolphins are typically regarded as highly social animals. However, some individuals live apart from their own species and may come to socialize with people through a recognized series of stages which are presented and expanded on in this paper. The term “solitary-sociable dolphins” has been used to describe these animals and such individuals have been identified from several different species and reported in many parts of the world. In many instances, the interactions with people that may follow their original isolation, and which typically become more intense over time, have created situations where the welfare of the animal has been ...


Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins 2019 Central Washington University

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel ...


Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright 2018 East Tennessee State University

Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms adapt to their environments by adjusting their biochemistry and physiology; such adaptation is limited by resource availability and physiological constraints. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna inhabits a wide range of environments and must survive and reproduce within a range of temperatures. One limit to low-temperature adaptation is thought to be the availability of unsaturated fatty acids necessary to maintain proper fluidity of cellular membranes. D. magna maintained at 10 ºC on a diet poor in unsaturated fatty acids have been observed to produce clutches that fail to develop. However, this has not been observed on a diet rich in ...


Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wildlife damage management (WDM) is an exciting field with many opportunities to provide solutions to the complex issues involved in human-wildlife interactions. In addition, WDM wildlife control operators (WCO) face a variety of threats to their physical well-being. Injuries can result from misused (Figure 1), faulty, or poorly maintained equipment, inexperience, mishandled wildlife, harsh weather, and dangerous situations, such as electrical lines. The goals of this publication are to: * Develop an awareness of safety issues and adopt a mindset of “Safety First”, * Review the major safety threats that WCOs face, * Provide basic information for WCOs to protect themselves, and * List ...


Beaver Foraging Preferences And Impacts On Forest Structure In New York’S Adirondack Mountains, Michael Mahoney 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Beaver Foraging Preferences And Impacts On Forest Structure In New York’S Adirondack Mountains, Michael Mahoney

Honors Theses

Beavers (Castor canadensis) are ecosystem engineers, causing changes at the landscape level due to a combination of their damming and foraging activities. As beaver dam streams, create ponds, and maintain canopy openings, the comprehensive impacts of beaver constitute a rare source of ongoing disturbance in the forests of northeastern North America. Though the behaviors and impacts of beaver on riparian communities have been well studied in several forest regions, they are poorly understood within forests of the northeastern United States, where beaver populations are still rebounding following regional extirpation, and beaver impacts to the forest potentially represent an important source ...


Surveillance And Evaluation Of Manure Treatment Practices For Mitigation Of The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) In A Commercial Swine Farm Setting, Erin Boyles 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Surveillance And Evaluation Of Manure Treatment Practices For Mitigation Of The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) In A Commercial Swine Farm Setting, Erin Boyles

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The emergence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) in the United States in 2013 resulted in billions of dollars in annual losses for the U.S. swine industry. Infection with PEDv causes severe diarrhea and vomiting in pigs, spreads rapidly through ingestion of infected manure, and produces nearly 100% mortality in pre-weaned piglets. Because swine manure slurry is a valuable crop nutrient source, concerns about virus persistence in stored manure remain a major barrier to proper manure management. Proper manure handling and application practices are necessary to control the risk of pathogen re-infection at affected production sites or infecting ...


Effects Of Parafluvial Flows On Interstitial Ammonia And Freshwater Mussels In The Buffalo National River, David Alan Johnson 2018 Missouri State University

Effects Of Parafluvial Flows On Interstitial Ammonia And Freshwater Mussels In The Buffalo National River, David Alan Johnson

MSU Graduate Theses

Freshwater mussel populations and distributions have declined over the past several decades in the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Among many possible causes, this study tested the hypothesis that ammonia concentrations in parafluvial flows through gravel bars might be high enough to impair the survival and growth of juvenile mussels. Ammonia, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were measured in interstitial and water column samples from gravel bars to test for possible longitudinal gradients. Samples were taken along 3 large bars at locations within the Buffalo National River, at approximate bi-weekly intervals between June and September of 2010. Water sample ammonia concentrations were ...


Profitability Of Developing Beef Heifers On Stockpiled Winter Forages, Zachary David McFarlane, Chris Boyer, J. Travis Mulliniks 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Profitability Of Developing Beef Heifers On Stockpiled Winter Forages, Zachary David Mcfarlane, Chris Boyer, J. Travis Mulliniks

Journal of Applied Farm Economics

We estimate the profitability of developing heifers on one stockpiled cool-season grass and two stockpiled warm-season grasses during the winter months by comparing distributions of net present value (NPV) over an 11-year useful life. Furthermore, distributions of payback period and the break-even price for each calf over the heifer’s production life were generated for each forage species. These results are compared across forages as well as to a simulated drylot system for heifer development. Data comes from a grazing experiment in Tennessee, where heifers grazed big bluestem and Indian grass combination (BBIG), switchgrass (SW), or endophyte-infected tall fescue (TF ...


Automatic Identification Of Animals In The Wild: A Comparative Study Between C-Capsule Networks And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks., Joel Kamdem Teto, Ying Xie 2018 Kennesaw State University

Automatic Identification Of Animals In The Wild: A Comparative Study Between C-Capsule Networks And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks., Joel Kamdem Teto, Ying Xie

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

The evolution of machine learning and computer vision in technology has driven a lot of

improvements and innovation into several domains. We see it being applied for credit decisions, insurance quotes, malware detection, fraud detection, email composition, and any other area having enough information to allow the machine to learn patterns. Over the years the number of sensors, cameras, and cognitive pieces of equipment placed in the wilderness has been growing exponentially. However, the resources (human) to leverage these data into something meaningful are not improving at the same rate. For instance, a team of scientist volunteers took 8.4 ...


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König 2018 Chapman University

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both ...


An Investigation Of Habitat Suitability Factors And Their Interactions For Predicting Gopher Tortoise Habitat, Abigail V. Lavallin 2018 University of South Florida

An Investigation Of Habitat Suitability Factors And Their Interactions For Predicting Gopher Tortoise Habitat, Abigail V. Lavallin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis evaluates the interaction between four habitat factors vital to the gopher tortoise in Florida. Federally and state listed as threatened throughout its entire range, the gopher tortoise is vital to protect, not only for itself individually but its burrows provide an essential habitat to over 300 species making it a key stone species within its environment. Historic habitat modeling methods are reviewed for the gopher tortoise to highlight the gap on this topic. This research expanded on the methods utilized by Baskaran et al. (2006) evaluating the soil, landcover, percentage of canopy cover and the depth to water ...


Analysis Of An Agent-Based Model For Integrated Pest Management With Periodic Control Strategies, Timothy Comar, Elizabeth Rodriguez 2018 Benedictine University

Analysis Of An Agent-Based Model For Integrated Pest Management With Periodic Control Strategies, Timothy Comar, Elizabeth Rodriguez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Time-Delayed Model Of Apis Mellifera, Jun Chen 2018 Illinois State University

A Time-Delayed Model Of Apis Mellifera, Jun Chen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger 2018 Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey collection of mites of the family Spinturnicidae from Peruvian bats includes 11 species of Periglischrus (acutisternus, gameroi, grandisoma, herrerai, hopkinsi, iheringi, micronycteridis, ojasti, paracutisternus, paravargasi, and ramirezi) and 2 Spinturnix (americanus and bakeri); almost all represent new locality records. This survey collection is available for further study at the following repositories: The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; and the Laboratório de Espeleobiologia y Acarologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. When spinturnicid mites are collected to avoid cross-contamination by mites among species of bats, parasitic associations are ...


Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Monica Padilla de la Torre, Christian Nawroth 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Monica Padilla De La Torre, Christian Nawroth

Emotion

Emotions can be defined as an individual’s affective reaction to an external and/or internal event that, in turn, generates a simultaneous cascade of behavioral, physiological, and cognitive changes. Those changes that can be perceived by conspecifics have the potential to also affect other’s emotional states, a process labeled as “emotional contagion.” Especially in the case of gregarious species, such as livestock, emotional contagion can have an impact on the whole group by, for instance, improving group coordination and strengthening social bonds. We noticed that the current trend of research on emotions in livestock, i.e., investigating affective ...


Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth 2018 Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology

Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth

Social Cognition

In addition to domestication, interactions with humans or task-specific training during ontogeny have been proposed to play a key role in explaining differences in human–animal communication across species. In livestock, even short-term positive interactions with caretakers or other reference persons can influence human–animal interaction at different levels and over different periods of time. In this study, we investigated human-directed behaviour in the ‘unsolvable task’ paradigm in two groups of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). One group was positively handled and habituated to a plastic box by the experimenter to retrieve a food reward, while the other group only ...


Goats Prefer Positive Human Emotional Facial Expressions, Christian Nawroth, Natalia Albuquerque, Carine Savalli, Marie-Sophie Single, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Prefer Positive Human Emotional Facial Expressions, Christian Nawroth, Natalia Albuquerque, Carine Savalli, Marie-Sophie Single, Alan G. Mcelligott

Social Cognition

Domestication has shaped the physiology and the behaviour of animals to better adapt to human environments. Therefore, human facial expressions may be highly informative for animals domesticated for working closely with people, such as dogs and horses. However, it is not known whether other animals, and particularly those domesticated primarily for production, such as goats, are capable of perceiving human emotional cues. In this study, we investigated whether goats can distinguish human facial expressions when simultaneously shown two images of an unfamiliar human with different emotional valences (positive/ happy or negative/angry). Both images were vertically attached to a wall ...


Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan

Pedro J. Llanos (www.AstronauticsLlanos.com)


Suborbital spaceflights, carrying scientific payloads, allow scientists not only to test the feasibility of their payloads, but they also provide the basis for refining scientific hypotheses to be later tested on the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, it is essential to establish robust pre-flight procedures in order to take advantage of this unique research platform to facilitate payload delivery. In the present study, we assessed zebrafish larvae behavior as a precursor for the future suborbital spaceflight involving research on the musculoskeletal system. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to the same physiological stressors they would encounter during suborbital spaceflight: alterations in light ...


Sniffer Dogs, Kayla Holland 2018 University of Mississippi

Sniffer Dogs, Kayla Holland

International Journal of Security Studies

Sniffer dogs have worked alongside law enforcement officers, military units, border patrols and search and rescue teamss since the 1980s. There are two training locations for canines. One is located in Front Royal, Virginia. The headquarters of the Customs and Border Protection Canine Training center is located in El Paso, Texas. There has been many different studies conducted on sniffer dogs and their ability to detect certain odors. One of those studies was conducted by Osterkamp (2011) who examined how dogs are capable of transporting particular scents in water into their noses. Water dogs have been used in the U ...


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