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Factors Influencing Egg Production I. The Influence Of Maturity Upon Egg Production In S. C. White Leghorns, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

Factors Influencing Egg Production I. The Influence Of Maturity Upon Egg Production In S. C. White Leghorns, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. A consistent correlation existed between early maturity and high winter egg production in all four years.

2. The correlation between maturity and winter egg production was shown, in graph form, to be negative.

3. Early maturity had a direct negative rectilinear prediction value with winter egg production.

4. Maximum winter egg production was obtained when birds matured in less than 220 days.

5. Very little if any relationship existed between maturity and spring egg production.

6. Great variation in the relation of maturity and total egg pro-production existed from year to year.

7. Maturity bore a high curvilinear correlation ...


Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris 2017 Rollins College

Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris

Thesis Projects

Feather plucking (FP) is a maladaptive behavior observed in captive avian species. This self-injurious behavior results in damage to and removal of feathers and skin tissue, resulting in animal welfare and financial consequences. The etiology and maintenance of FP have been hypothesized through medical and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. The current study investigated the environmental variables maintaining the FP of a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), as well as evaluated a function-based treatment for this behavior. The behavior was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. Treatment consisted of ...


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis

Master's Theses

Increases in oceanic shipping are a global phenomenon, and a leading cause of concern for marine animal welfare. While it may be difficult to assess the effect of boat traffic on all species in all contexts, it is vital to report anthropogenic impacts where longitudinal data is available, and doubly so where a dearth of information exists. The purpose of this study is to describe how dolphin behavior changed in the presence of boats in the Mississippi Sound between 2006 and 2012, and more specifically, to detail how different boat types impacted dolphins’ behavioral states. This study is unique in ...


Evaluation Of Protein And Fiber From Distillers Grains Plus Solubles In Finishing Beef Cattle Diets, Zachary E. Carlson 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Protein And Fiber From Distillers Grains Plus Solubles In Finishing Beef Cattle Diets, Zachary E. Carlson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Four studies were conducted to evaluate the components of distillers grains plus solubles in finishing beef cattle diets. Experiment 1 evaluated the effects of five composites of feedstuffs formulated to be similar in nutrient composition to DDGS on finishing performance of cattle. Experiment 2 evaluated isolating the protein from distillers grains using a feedstuff from the wet milling ethanol industry to determine the impacts of protein on the feeding value of WDGS in finishing performance of cattle. Experiments 3 and 4 evaluated the effects of protein from distillers grains with the diets used in Exp. 2 on site of digestion ...


Use Of Byproducts In Forage-Based, Post-Weaning Beef Systems And Effects Of Serial Slaughter On Performance And Profitability, Robert G. Bondurant Jr. 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Use Of Byproducts In Forage-Based, Post-Weaning Beef Systems And Effects Of Serial Slaughter On Performance And Profitability, Robert G. Bondurant Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Crude glycerin was included in high-forage beef growing diets at 0, 4, 8, and 12% diet DM to determine the effect on fiber digestion by evaluating changes in microbial species abundance, NDF digestibility, and VFA concentrations. Total tract NDF digestibility decreased with increasing inclusion of GLY in high-forage diets. However, there was no decrease in in situ NDF digestibility and Fibrobacter succinogenes microbial populations were unaffected, indicating that fiber digestion was not directly affected by inclusion of GLY. Acetate decreased while propionate and butyrate VFA proportions increased as GLY increased.

Spayed heifers were utilized in a 2-yr study to evaluate ...


Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno

Master's Theses

Social structures are critical to the success of many species and have repercussions on health, well-being, and adaptation, yet little is known about the factors which shape these structures aside from ecology and life history strategies. Dyadic bonds are the basis of all social structures; however, mechanisms for formations of specific bonds or patterns in which individuals form which types of bonds have yet to be demonstrated. There is a variety of evidence indicating personality may be a factor in shaping bonds, but this relationship has not been explored with respect to bond components and is yet to be demonstrated ...


Evaluation Of Absorbezz On Swine Reproductive Health And A Comparative Study Of Two Commercially Available Swine Show Feeds, Scott G. Sutton 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Evaluation Of Absorbezz On Swine Reproductive Health And A Comparative Study Of Two Commercially Available Swine Show Feeds, Scott G. Sutton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The efficacy of a feed supplement fed to gilts and sows was tested in study I. The supplement was stated to improve reproductive soundness, conception rates, immune health, and overall well-being of livestock. Thirty gilts were split into a control group (Base diet) and a treatment group (Absorbezz® 0.32 mL on base diet). Upon completion of the trial results indicate the treatment group significantly underperformed (

Two commercially available show pig growing rations were tested in study II to find a high quality, cost efficient product. A total of 10 pigs (5 barrows, 5 gilts), at an average weight of ...


Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this thesis was to identify polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2) genes and to associate genotypes between the above mentioned polymorphisms and production traits in crossbred cattle. The hypothesis was that polymorphisms will exist for GR and CXCR2 genes and will be linked to production traits. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproduction health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during ...


Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale

Dissertations

Environmental enrichment is a key component to improving the psychological and physiological well being of animals in human care. Enrichment can be achieved through a variety of modalities, including the addition of objects and scents, or by providing the animals with additional challenges. The effectiveness of specific enrichment should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the desired result is achieved. Environmental enrichment devices (EED’s) can be utilized to present novel problems to animals in human care. When confronted with a novel problem, dolphins can plan their behavior to create a more efficient strategy then previously modeled ...


Comparison Of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements For Cows Grazing Tall Fescue, J. K. Farney 2017 Kansas State University

Comparison Of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements For Cows Grazing Tall Fescue, J. K. Farney

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two sources of organic trace mineral and two sources of magnesium supplementation on cow performance of springcalving cows on K31 endophyte-infected fescue. The two treatments were organic trace minerals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn)) offered free choice as an amino-acid chelate with magnesium (Mg) as an amino acid chelate (CHEL) or organic trace mineral supplement with amino-acid complex with magnesium supplied as magnesium oxide (COMP). Mineral was offered free-choice beginning 30 days before breeding season on 4 ranches with 6 pastures per treatment (cows n = 203). Blood ...


Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2017 Kansas State University

Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010 and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that ...


Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2017 Kansas State University

Effects Of Interseeding Ladino Clover Into Tall Fescue Pastures Of Varying Endophyte Status On Grazing Performance Of Stocker Steers, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sixty-four yearling steers grazing tall fescue pastures were used to evaluate the effects of fescue cultivar and interseeding ladino clover on grazing gains and available forage. Fescue cultivars evaluated were high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ and ‘MaxQ.’ Steers that grazed pastures of low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ gained significantly more (P < 0.05) and produced more (P < 0.05) gain/a than those that grazed high-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31’ pastures. Gains of cattle that grazed low-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ were similar (P > 0.05). High-endophyte ‘Kentucky 31’ pastures had more (P < 0.05) available forage than lowendophyte ‘Kentucky 31,’ ‘HM4,’ or ‘MaxQ’ pastures.


Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer 2017 Kansas State University

Evaluation Of Supplemental Energy Source For Grazing Stocker Cattle, L. W. Lomas, J. K. Farney, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 108 steers grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to evaluate the effects of supplemental energy source on available forage, grazing gains, subsequent finishing gains, and carcass characteristics in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Supplementation treatments evaluated were: no supplement, a supplement with starch as the primary source of energy, and a supplement with fat as the primary source of energy. Supplements were formulated to provide the same quantity of protein and energy per head daily. Supplementation with the starch-based or fat-based supplement during the grazing phase resulted in higher (P < 0.05) grazing gains than feeding no supplement during all three years. In 2014 and 2016, grazing gains of steers supplemented with the starch-based or fat-based supplement were similar (P > 0.05). In 2015, steers supplemented with the ...


Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2017 Kansas State University

Effects Of Supplementation With Corn Or Dried Distillers Grains On Gains Of Heifer Calves Grazing Smooth Bromegrass Pastures, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 90 heifer calves grazing smooth bromegrass pastures were used to compare supplementation with 0.5% of body weight per head daily of corn or dried distillers grains (DDG) in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of heifers supplemented with corn or DDG were similar (P > 0.05).


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Maternally Provisioned Cues For Phenotypic Plasticity In The Annual Killifish, Austrofundulus Limnaeus, Amie L. Romney, Jason E. Podrabsky 2017 Portland State University

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Maternally Provisioned Cues For Phenotypic Plasticity In The Annual Killifish, Austrofundulus Limnaeus, Amie L. Romney, Jason E. Podrabsky

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Genotype and environment can interact during development to produce novel adaptive traits that support life in extreme conditions. The development of the annual killifsh Austrofundulus limnaeus is unique among vertebrates because the embryos have distinct cell movements that separate epiboly from axis formation during early development, can enter into a state of metabolic dormancy known as diapause and can survive extreme environmental conditions. The ability to enter into diapause can be maternally programmed, with young females producing embryos that do not enter into diapause. Alternately, embryos can be programmed to “escape” from diapause and develop directly by both maternal ...


Effects Of Environmental Factors On The Distribution Of Coenobita Clypeatus On St. John, Brandon Martinez 2017 Georgia State University

Effects Of Environmental Factors On The Distribution Of Coenobita Clypeatus On St. John, Brandon Martinez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. Mcelligott

Social Cognition

Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take ...


Cattlemen’S Day 2017, Full Report, 2017 Kansas State University Libraries

Cattlemen’S Day 2017, Full Report

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Full Cattlemen's Day 2017 publication, including research articles on beef cattle management, nutrition, and meat science.


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