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Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt 2020 University of South Dakota

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


Usu Equine-Assisted Activities And Therapies Facilities Designed Master Plan, Lindsie C. Smith 2020 Utah State University

Usu Equine-Assisted Activities And Therapies Facilities Designed Master Plan, Lindsie C. Smith

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) is recognized as a therapeutic approach for persons with disabilities. The USU Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences Department provides EAAT instruction and services; however, they do not have the appropriate facilities to model best-practices in the delivery of these services. This design research entailed the development of a phased masterplan to support the instruction and delivery of equine-assisted activities and therapies in an innovative and accessible environment that supports animal-assisted intervention and natural equine behaviors.

The methodology used to approach the master plan design was derived from Norman K. Booth’s (1990) design process, as ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Pilot Testing A Qualitative Methodology To Evaluate The Perceived Benefits And Stressors Of Sole-Dog Ownership In Full-Time College Students, Emma Williams 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pilot Testing A Qualitative Methodology To Evaluate The Perceived Benefits And Stressors Of Sole-Dog Ownership In Full-Time College Students, Emma Williams

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The number of individuals acquiring pets is continually increasing, with 71.5% of Americans owning a pet in 2012. Companion animals are a huge source of benefits but owning them can also come with several stressors. However, little research has been conducted on the negative aspects of dog ownership. This pilot test evaluates the perceived stressors and benefits of sole dog ownership in full-time college students. The pilot aimed to hold three focus groups from which qualitative thematic data were collected and quantitative were collected from a demographic survey of participants. Participants were asked a series of questions about sole ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


The Effects Of Phosphate On Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov, Dennis Ferraro 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Phosphate On Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov, Dennis Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study seeks examine the effects of elevated phosphate levels on the larval stage of the Western Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium). Hypothesis: Additional phosphate in the water will cause the larval salamanders to have a slower metamorphosis rate than the control group with no additional phosphates. This hypothesis is based off of research that showed that additional nitrogen in the water caused a slower growth rate in the Western Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) (Griffis-Kyle, 2007).

The hypothesis was rejected. The dates the larvae morphed alternated between treatment and control. The treatment metamorphosis was not slowed. Temperature was found ...


Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger 2020 Susquehanna University

Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger

Senior Scholars Day

Ball pythons (Python regius), like other snakes in the Boidae family, use heat-sensitive pit organs and odor-sensitive Jacobson’s organ (vomernasal organ) to detect prey. The discrimination sensitivity and interaction of these organs to influence prey detection and choice however have been poorly tested. We performed a series of two-choice experiments to determine ball python preference for specific odors and/or biologically-relevant thermal stimuli. We tested the following pairs of stimuli: 1) rat odor vs. water, 2) anterior vs posterior odors of a rat, 3) rat (familiar) vs rabbit (unfamiliar) odor, 4) rat vs orange peel odor, 5) odor from ...


Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston 2020 Susquehanna University

Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston

Senior Scholars Day

Herbicides can potentially impact feeding behavior of beneficial predators in agricultural systems and subsequently compromise integrated pest management efficacy. We measured variation in feeding behaviors of an agriculturally abundant wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, when exposed to soil with field-relevant concentrations of five commonly used herbicides. Tested herbicides included atrazine, S-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, mesotrione, glyphosate, a mixture of all five herbicides, and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or water control. Tested spiders were collected from two adjacent fields: one kept under continuous crop rotation for over twenty years ...


Lethal Effects Of Common Herbicides On An Agriculturally Important Wolf Spider (Pardosa Milvina), William Ward 2020 Susquehanna University

Lethal Effects Of Common Herbicides On An Agriculturally Important Wolf Spider (Pardosa Milvina), William Ward

Senior Scholars Day

Herbicide use in crop systems has increased dramatically over the last fifty years yet the effects of chronic exposure to these chemicals on beneficial non-target arthropods have been poorly tested. We tested the lethal effects of field-relevant dosages of five commonly used herbicides on the economically important wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. Tested herbicides included atrazine, S-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, mesotrione, glyphosate, a mixture of all five herbicides, and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or a water control. Tested spiders were collected from two nearby fields; one field was ...


Effect Of Calcium Supplement On Eyesight Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Abigail Horner, Dennis Ferraro 2020 Univeristy of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Calcium Supplement On Eyesight Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Abigail Horner, Dennis Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

There has been some discussion in herpetoculture about adding calcium supplements to the diets of salamanders. Adding calcium supplements to a salamander’s diet has been indicated to contribute to blindness. Calcium supplements are usually given to reptiles and amphibians to prevent dietary deficiencies, particularly metabolic bone disease. The link between lack of calcium and metabolic bone disease is well established in reptiles, but is lacking significant research with regards to amphibians. Within the eye of a salamander, there are calcium channels that mediate photosynthetic rods in the absence of light. With a calcium rich diet, it is believed that ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Numbering in the tens of millions of birds, grackle populations in North America can cause a variety of conflicts with people. Grackles eat agricultural crops and livestock feed, damage property, spread pathogens, and collide with aircraft. Their large roosts can be a nuisance in urban and suburban areas. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion, and lethal removal may help to reduce grackle damage.

Grackles adapt easily to human-dominated environments, and exploit human food and other features of human landscapes. Thus, an integrated damage management approach to grackle damage focuses on reducing and eliminating the damage, rather than simply controlling grackle ...


Bodyweight Management And Relationship To Health In The Horse (Equus Caballus), Beverly Ann Gartland 2020 Western Kentucky University

Bodyweight Management And Relationship To Health In The Horse (Equus Caballus), Beverly Ann Gartland

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The health of the horse is of interest to animal caretakers. Horses that fall within a prescribed range of bodyweight and body condition may be healthier than horses that are lower or higher. Two studies were conducted related to body weight and condition of the horse. The first study examined if restricting the amount of space available for horses to graze could reduce bodyweight without having a strong impact on time budgets of the horse or removing horses from pasture. This method was determined to be effective in preventing weight gain, although there was an increase in grazing behavior displayed ...


Range Extension For Dekay’S Brownsnake (Storeria Dekayi) In South-Central Nebraska, Macy K. Cool, Keith Geluso 2020 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Range Extension For Dekay’S Brownsnake (Storeria Dekayi) In South-Central Nebraska, Macy K. Cool, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Dekay’s Brownsnake (Storeria dekayi) generally occurs in southeastern parts of the state, where the species was known from 16 counties. Herein, we update the distribution of S. dekayi in the state and briefly comment on habitat and abundance from observations in September and October 2018. We documented 7 new county records that extend its distribution in south-central Nebraska. We observed that S. dekayi does not only reside in mesic wooded habitats in Nebraska but also occupies open environments, including areas with upland grasslands and row-crop agriculture. Dekay’s Brownsnake currently is listed as a species of concern in Nebraska ...


Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König 2020 Chapman University

Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Social interactions are critically important for survival and impact overall-health, but also impose costs on animals, such as exposure to contagious agents. The immune system can play a critical role in modulating social behavior when animals are sick, as has been demonstrated within the context of “sickness behaviors.” Can immune molecules affect or be affected by social interactions even when animals are not sick, therefore serving a role in mediating pathogen exposure? We tested whether markers of immune function in both the blood and the brain are associated with gregariousness, quantified as number of animals interacted with per day. To ...


Common Ravens, Luke W. Peebles, Jack O. Spencer Jr. 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, Crawford, Nebraska

Common Ravens, Luke W. Peebles, Jack O. Spencer Jr.

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Damage Management Methods for Common Ravens

Type of Control -- Available Management Options

Exclusion -- Often ineffective or impractical

Fertility Control -- None available

Frightening Devices -- Effigies • Pyrotechnics and propane cannons • Lasers and flashing lights

Habitat Modification -- Bale and bury garbage • Install dumpsters with secure lids • Remove or bury dead livestock • Remove abandoned houses, sheds, and barns to eliminate nesting structures

Nest Treatment -- Allowed with proper Federal and State permits; Egg oiling or addling and nest destruction

Repellents -- Methiocarb (EPA Reg. No. 56228-33) • Methyl anthranilate (food-grade grape flavoring agent)

Shooting -- Allowed with proper Federal and State permits; Requires use of non-toxic/non-lead ammunition ...


Predicting Changes In Bee Assemblages Following State Transitions At North American Dryland Ecotones, Melanie R. Kazenel, Karen W. Wright, Julieta Bettinelli, Terry L. Griswold, Kenneth D. Whitney, Jennifer A. Rudgers 2020 University of New Mexico

Predicting Changes In Bee Assemblages Following State Transitions At North American Dryland Ecotones, Melanie R. Kazenel, Karen W. Wright, Julieta Bettinelli, Terry L. Griswold, Kenneth D. Whitney, Jennifer A. Rudgers

All PIRU Publications

Drylands worldwide are experiencing ecosystem state transitions: the expansion of some ecosystem types at the expense of others. Bees in drylands are particularly abundant and diverse, with potential for large compositional differences and seasonal turnover across ecotones. To better understand how future ecosystem state transitions may influence bees, we compared bee assemblages and their seasonality among sites at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA) that represent three dryland ecosystem types (and two ecotones) of the southwestern U.S. (Plains grassland, Chihuahuan Desert grassland, and Chihuahuan Desert shrubland). Using passive traps, we caught bees during two-week intervals from March–October ...


Social Referencing In The Domestic Horse, Anne Schrimpf, Marie-Sophie Single, Christian Nawroth 2020 Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences

Social Referencing In The Domestic Horse, Anne Schrimpf, Marie-Sophie Single, Christian Nawroth

Recognition Collection

Dogs and cats use human emotional information directed to an unfamiliar situation to guide their behavior, known as social referencing. It is not clear whether other domestic species show similar socio-cognitive abilities in interacting with humans. We investigated whether horses (n = 46) use human emotional information to adjust their behavior to a novel object and whether the behavior of horses differed depending on breed type. Horses were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an experimenter positioned in the middle of a test arena directed gaze and voice towards the novel object with either (a) a positive or (b) a ...


Musical Dogs: A Review Of The Influence Of Auditory Enrichment On Canine Health And Behavior, Abigail Lindig, Paul McGreevy, Angela Crean 2020 University of Sydney

Musical Dogs: A Review Of The Influence Of Auditory Enrichment On Canine Health And Behavior, Abigail Lindig, Paul Mcgreevy, Angela Crean

Stress Collection

Music therapy yields many positive health outcomes in humans, but the effects of music on the health and welfare of nonhuman animals vary greatly with the type of music played, the ethology of the species, and the personality and learning history of individual animals. One context in which music therapy may be used to enhance animal welfare is to alleviate stress in domestic environments. Here, we review studies of the effects of music exposure on dogs as a case study for the implementation of music therapy in veterinary medicine. Nine reports of experimental testing for the therapeutic effects of music ...


Black Bear, Jimmy D. Taylor, James P. Phillips 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Corvallis, Oregon

Black Bear, Jimmy D. Taylor, James P. Phillips

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The American black bear (Ursus americanus, Figure 1) is a challenging species for wildlife agencies to manage due to its size, intelligence, extensive range, food habits, and adaptability, as well as societal views. In North America alone, agencies receive more than 40,000 complaints about black bear annually. Black bears are known as ‘food-driven’ animals, meaning most conflicts result from a bear’s drive to meet its nutritional needs. Not surprisingly, an overwhelming proportion of conflicts are related to their use of anthropogenic (human) food sources, such as garbage, bird food, and crops. Understanding what drives human-bear conflict is the ...


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