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Pyrolysis Of Plastic Waste From Medical Services Facilities Into Potential Fuel And/Or Fuel Additives, Bright Kweku Ansah Baiden 2018 Western Michigan University

Pyrolysis Of Plastic Waste From Medical Services Facilities Into Potential Fuel And/Or Fuel Additives, Bright Kweku Ansah Baiden

Master's Theses

Limited space and high costs for landfilling as well as increasing regulations in plastic waste disposal, has led to high operating costs for organizations involved in managing plastic waste from medical facilities which led to the need to investigate an alternative option such as pyrolysis. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate pyrolysis as a means to repurpose plastic waste obtained from medical service facilities into fuel and fuel additive compounds, with two objectives involving, (1) to examine the effect of heat input (as voltage) and reaction/residence time; and (2) to evaluate the effect of the plastic ...


Design Of Peptoid-Based Coating To Reduce Biofouling In Gas Exchange Devices, Neda Mahmoudi 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of Peptoid-Based Coating To Reduce Biofouling In Gas Exchange Devices, Neda Mahmoudi

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, membrane technology has been used commonly in biomedical area. However, membrane fouling is a widespread problem in different applications. One method to minimize fouling is through surface modification of membranes. My research explores a novel polymer to minimize nonspecific protein adsorption in biomedical applications.

It firstly focuses on grafting the electrically neutral NMEG peptoid, containing 2-methoxyethyl side chains, to polysulfone (PSU) membrane via polydopamine. Contact angle measurements indicated that the hydrophilicity of the peptoid-grafted membranes was significantly improved while the pore size and strength of the membranes remained unchanged. The modified membranes showed an improved fouling resistance ...


Thermal Fluid Model Development Of Steam Methane Reformer Using Artificial Neural Network, M. A. Rafe Biswas 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Thermal Fluid Model Development Of Steam Methane Reformer Using Artificial Neural Network, M. A. Rafe Biswas

M. A. Rafe Biswas

NASA’s Johnson Space Center has recently begun efforts to eventually integrate air-independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems, with landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH4, for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, provides the opportunity to use such systems as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. To ensure fuel reformation in the systems, Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) are being employed. Various lead-up activities, such as hardware testing and computational modelling, have been initiated to assist with this developmental effort. One modeling approach, currently being explored ...


Diverse Lignocellulosic Feedstocks Can Achieve High Field‐Scale Ethanol Yields While Providing Flexibility For The Biorefinery And Landscape‐Level Environmental Benefits, Yaoping Zhang, Lawrence G. Oates, Jose Serate, Dan Xie, Edward Pohlman, Yury Bukhman, Rebecca Garlock Ong, et al. 2018 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Diverse Lignocellulosic Feedstocks Can Achieve High Field‐Scale Ethanol Yields While Providing Flexibility For The Biorefinery And Landscape‐Level Environmental Benefits, Yaoping Zhang, Lawrence G. Oates, Jose Serate, Dan Xie, Edward Pohlman, Yury Bukhman, Rebecca Garlock Ong, Et Al.

Department of Chemical Engineering Publications

Increasing the diversity of lignocellulosic feedstocks accepted by a regional biorefinery has the potential to improve the environmental footprint of the facility; harvest,storage, and transportation logistics; and biorefinery economics. However, feedstocks can vary widely in terms of their biomass yields and quality characteristics (chemical composition, moisture content, etc.). To investigate how the diversity of potential biofuel cropping systems and feedstock supply might affect process and field‐scale ethanol yields, we processed and experimentally quantified ethanol production from five different herbaceous feedstocks: two annuals (corn stover and energy sorghum) and three perennials (switchgrass, miscanthus, and mixed prairie). The feedstocks werepretreated ...


Methods And Systems For Identifying A Particle Using Dielectrophoresis, Adrienne Minerick, Jeana Collins, Kaela M. Leonard, Tayloria N.G. Adams 2018 Michigan Technological University

Methods And Systems For Identifying A Particle Using Dielectrophoresis, Adrienne Minerick, Jeana Collins, Kaela M. Leonard, Tayloria N.G. Adams

Michigan Tech Patents

A system for identifying a particle. The system includes a microfluidic device; a microelectrode array including a plurality of electrodes, the microelectrode array disposed within the microfluidic device; a plurality of particles suspended in a solution and delivered to the microelectrode array using the microfluidic device; a signal generator operatively coupled to the microelectrode array; a particle detector adjacent to the microelectrode array; and a controller in operative communication with the signal generator and the particle detector. The controller is configured to apply an oscillating voltage signal to the microelectrode array between a low frequency and a high frequency at ...


Smart Technologies For Oil Production With Rod Pumping, Brigham Wheeler Hansen 2018 Brigham Young University

Smart Technologies For Oil Production With Rod Pumping, Brigham Wheeler Hansen

All Theses and Dissertations

This work enables accelerated fluid recovery in oil and gas reservoirs by automatically controlling fluid height and bottomhole pressure in wells. Several literature studies show significant increase in recovered oil by determining a target bottomhole pressure but rarely consider how to control to that value. This work enables those benefits by maintaining bottomhole pressure or fluid height. Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) determines uncertain well parameters using only common surface measurements. A Model Predictive Controller (MPC) adjusts the stroking speed of a sucker rod pump to maintain fluid height. Pump boundary conditions are simulated with Mathematical Programs with Complementarity Constraints (MPCCs ...


Homogeneous Reaction Kinetics Of Carbohydrates With Viologen Catalysts For Biofuel Cell Applications, Hilary Bingham 2018 Brigham Young University

Homogeneous Reaction Kinetics Of Carbohydrates With Viologen Catalysts For Biofuel Cell Applications, Hilary Bingham

All Theses and Dissertations

Energy usage is continually on the rise and significant efforts are being extended to provide more renewable energy. One area of exploration is the development of fuel cells, which includes biofuel cells that can extract energy from carbohydrates obtained from biomass. Recently, viologen catalysts have been shown to enhance reaction rates of energy extraction and improve carbohydrate conversion efficiencies. However, characterizing the effects of process parameters such as pH, reactant concentrations, and carbohydrate exposure time to buffer solutions with a rigorous model is lacking. This thesis characterizes the homogeneous reaction between carbohydrates and a methyl viologen catalyst to provide insights ...


Integrated Scheduling And Control In Discrete-Time With Dynamic Parameters And Constraints, Logan Beal, Damon Petersen, David R. Grimsman, Sean Warnick, John Hedengren 2018 Brigham Young University

Integrated Scheduling And Control In Discrete-Time With Dynamic Parameters And Constraints, Logan Beal, Damon Petersen, David R. Grimsman, Sean Warnick, John Hedengren

All Faculty Publications

Integrated scheduling and control (SC) seeks to unify the objectives of the various layers of optimization in manufacturing. This work investigates combining scheduling and control using a nonlinear discrete-time formulation, utilizing the full nonlinear process model throughout the entire horizon. This discrete-time form lends itself to optimization with time-dependent constraints and costs. An approach to combined SC is presented, along with sample pseudo-binary variable functions to ease the computational burden of this approach. An initialization strategy using feedback linearization, nonlinear model predictive control, and continuous-time scheduling optimization is presented. The formulation is applied with a generic continuous stirred tank reactor ...


Significant Improvement In Tio₂ Photocatalytic Activity Through Controllable Zro₂ Deposition, Xiaofeng Wang, Rajankumar L. Patel, Xinhua Liang 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Significant Improvement In Tio₂ Photocatalytic Activity Through Controllable Zro₂ Deposition, Xiaofeng Wang, Rajankumar L. Patel, Xinhua Liang

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

ZrO2 was deposited on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles using 5-80 cycles of atomic layer deposition (ALD). The photocatalytic activity of all samples was evaluated based on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under UV light. The TiO2 sample with 45 cycles of ZrO2 deposition (45c-Zr/TiO2, 1.1 wt% ZrO2) was proved to be the most efficient catalyst with a degradation kinetic constant 10 times larger than that of the pure TiO2 sample. All samples were characterized using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy ...


Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of A Mars Sample Return Earth-Entry Vehicle, Daniel A. Boyd 2018 Old Dominion University

Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of A Mars Sample Return Earth-Entry Vehicle, Daniel A. Boyd

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Because of the severe quarantine constraints that must be imposed on any returned extraterrestrial samples, the Mars sample return Earth-entry vehicle must remain intact through sample recovery. Vehicles returning on a Mars-Earth trajectory will attain velocities exceeding any that have been experienced by prior space exploration missions, with velocities approaching 14 km/s. Velocities as high as these will encounter significant heating during atmospheric re-entry to Earth.

The purpose of this study has been to systematically investigate the aerothermodynamic challenges that will result from a Mars sample return, Earth-entry vehicle design. The goal was to enable efficient estimation of maximum ...


Synthesis Of Double Network Hydrogels Which Can Be Shaped Freely, Natsuki Morimoto, Norie Kato 2018 Tokyo Tech High School of Science and Technology

Synthesis Of Double Network Hydrogels Which Can Be Shaped Freely, Natsuki Morimoto, Norie Kato

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Double network (DN) hydrogels have specific characters such as flexibility and high mechanical strength. They are expected to use biomaterials such as artificial cartilages and meniscuses. The purpose of this study is to synthesize DN gels which can be shaped freely. DN gels were synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a mold, 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) as a first monomer, N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAA) as a crosslinker, 2-oxoglutalic acid (OGA) as an initiator and acrylamide (AAm) as a second monomer. First, PVA (polymerization degree; 2000) was dissolved in the water and prepared to 15 % of aqueous solution. It was poured ...


An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn 2018 Korea Science Academy

An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn

The International Student Science Fair 2018

In this research, an entirely new molecular glue is reported. This ‘coordination polymer glue’ is synthesized from zinc metal and BDC-NPE(2,5-bis{4-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylamino]butoxy}terephthalic acid). Molecular glue transforms from 1D coordination polymer to a 3D cross-linked framework, resulting in a phase change of solution to solid. The carboxylate group of this glue makes the preformed MOF bind to its framework. Therefore, when the solution of molecular glue is mixed with preformed MOF powder and heated, homogeneous and thin MOF film – MOF/ZnNPE film – is fabricated. The film is irrelevant to the kind of its substrate ...


Autohydrolysis Pretreatment Of Mixed Lignocellulosic Biomass, Claudio Lira 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Autohydrolysis Pretreatment Of Mixed Lignocellulosic Biomass, Claudio Lira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural and forestry residues, can be transformed into valuable fuels and chemicals. However, the high cost of feedstock handling and the complex nature of cellulosic biomass processing and conversion remain two major challenges in biorefineries. This thesis aims to tackle these challenges by assessing the transformation of multi-feedstock using autohydrolysis pretreatment.

Corn cobs and stover (residues from corn processing), poplar chips (forestry residue), bagasse and wheat straw (agricultural residues) are abundant and often under-utilized cellulosic residues. These feedstocks were used to investigate the effects of biomass characteristics on the composition of the autohydrolysis pretreatment products. Moreover ...


Chemically Modified Gellan Gum Hydrogels With Tunable Properties For Use As Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Zihao Xu, Zhuqing Li, Shan Jiang, Kaitlin M. Bratlie 2018 Iowa State University

Chemically Modified Gellan Gum Hydrogels With Tunable Properties For Use As Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Zihao Xu, Zhuqing Li, Shan Jiang, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Gellan gum is a naturally occurring polymer that can cross-link in the presence of divalent cations to form biocompatible hydrogels. However, physically cross-linked gellan gum hydrogels lose their stability under physiological conditions, thus restricting the applications of these hydrogels in vivo. To improve the mechanical strength of the gels, we incorporated methacrylate into the gellan gum and chemically cross-linked the hydrogel through three polymerization methods: step growth through thiol–ene photoclick chemistry, chain-growth via photopolymerization, and mixed model in which both mechanisms were employed. Methacrylation was confirmed and quantified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared ...


An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn 2018 Korea Science Academy

An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn

The International Student Science Fair 2018

In this research, an entirely new molecular glue is reported. This ‘coordination polymer glue’ is synthesized from zinc metal and BDC-NPE(2,5-bis{4-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylamino]butoxy}terephthalic acid). Molecular glue transforms from 1D coordination polymer to a 3D cross-linked framework, resulting in a phase change of solution to solid. The carboxylate group of this glue makes the preformed MOF bind to its framework. Therefore, when the solution of molecular glue is mixed with preformed MOF powder and heated, homogeneous and thin MOF film – MOF/ZnNPE film – is fabricated. The film is irrelevant to the kind of its substrate ...


Corrosion Scale Characteristics And Lead Oxide Dissolution In Chloraminated Water, Daoping Guo 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Corrosion Scale Characteristics And Lead Oxide Dissolution In Chloraminated Water, Daoping Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of lead in drinking water is a common issue for utilities where lead pipes are used as service lines in drinking water distribution systems. Dissolved lead concentrations have been linked to the destabilization of stratified lead corrosion scales formed at the inner walls of lead pipe used as drinking water service lines. To develop a framework for lead dissolution control, it is necessary to fully describe the characteristics of the surface layer of the lead corrosion scale in direct contact with drinking water. In the first part of this thesis, a thorough lead corrosion scale characterization is carried ...


Process Analytics From Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring During Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating In Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Allan Carter 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Process Analytics From Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring During Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating In Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Allan Carter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Piezoelectric microphones were attached to a top spray fluidized bed to provide valuable process signatures. Relationships were developed between sound waves and conditions within the fluidized bed to relay critical quality and performance information. Deep learning analytics were used to extract valuable information from experimental data. Advancements in passive acoustic emissions monitoring will play a key role in optimizing pharmaceutical manufacturing pathways to ensure drug quality and performance.


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Liquid-Assisted Gas-Lift Unloading, Renato Peixoto Coutinho 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Liquid-Assisted Gas-Lift Unloading, Renato Peixoto Coutinho

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The case for a unique form of gas-lift unloading, termed “Liquid-Assisted Gas-Lift (LAGL),” is presented. This work demonstrates that the injection of a gas-liquid mixture allows transport of gas to a deep injection point utilizing injection pressure considerably lower than single-phase gas injection. The LAGL is demonstrated in a 2,880 ft deep test well. The test well is kicked-off using an injection pressure that would normally be lower than the pressure for single-point single-phase gas injection at this depth. Experimental results indicate that the LAGL can lower the injection pressure by up to 75%.

This work breaks the LAGL ...


Process Intervention For Water Recovery In Food Manufacture, Christian Michael Wisniewski 2018 Rowan University

Process Intervention For Water Recovery In Food Manufacture, Christian Michael Wisniewski

Theses and Dissertations

A case study has been conducted for the recovery of water from complex wastewater at a soluble coffee manufacturing factory. The study has evaluated separation methods for process intervention based on environmental and economic assessments. Water recovery was identified in two possible wastewater streams at the factory: the overall plant effluent and an intermediate stream before it enters on-site pre-treatment. A novel vibratory field membrane separation was tested at the laboratory scale using real factory wastewater and scaled-up using appropriate design protocols. Recovery of water from the intermediate stream proved the most effective, both environmentally and economically. The full-scale vibratory ...


Sustainability In Chemical Engineering, Alec T. Raber 2018 University of Dayton

Sustainability In Chemical Engineering, Alec T. Raber

Undergraduate Voices

For much of the past century, the world has seen industrial and technological progress that has helped make life better for humans but hurt the environment while doing so. Once people realized the damage that was being done, it was observed that this kind of development was not sustainable, meaning it did not “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland, 1987, p. 3). While different experts may define the term “sustainability” (or “sustainable development”), differently, they will all share the substance of Brundtland’s definition. Ever since the ...


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