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Numerical Simulation Of Turbulent Gas-Particle Flow In A Riser Using A Quadrature-Based Moment Method, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox 2017 Iowa State University

Numerical Simulation Of Turbulent Gas-Particle Flow In A Riser Using A Quadrature-Based Moment Method, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox

Rodney O. Fox

Gas-particle flows are used in many industrial applications in the energy, oil and gas fields, such as coal gasification, production of light hydrocarbons by fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic combustion and different treatments aiming to reduce or eliminate pollutants. The particle phase of a gas-particle flow is described by analogy to a granular gas, by finding an approximate solution of the kinetic equation in the velocity-based number density function. In the recent past, many studies have been published on the mathematical modeling of gas-particle flows using hydrodynamic models (e.g. Enwald et al. 1996), where Navier-Stokes-type equations are solved to describe ...


Magnetic Stimulation On The Growth Of The Microalga Nannochloropsis Oculata, Manuella Oliveira 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Magnetic Stimulation On The Growth Of The Microalga Nannochloropsis Oculata, Manuella Oliveira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fossil fuels, our principal sources of energy supply, are non-renewable and research is needed on alternatives that are renewable and potentially more environmentally friendly. Microalgae have been investigated as a future feedstock alternative to petroleum but the technology is still expensive and improvements are needed. Reduction in costs might be achieved by increasing algal biomass and lipid productivity. The lipids can be used to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and biojet fuel. The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata grows well and can accumulate high lipid content. In this study, the effects of static magnetic field stimulation (SMF) of 0 (control), 5 ...


Cellulose–Hemicellulose And Cellulose–Lignin Interactions During Fast Pyrolysis, Jing Zhang, Yong S. Choi, Chang G. Yoo, Tae H. Kim, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks 2017 Iowa State University

Cellulose–Hemicellulose And Cellulose–Lignin Interactions During Fast Pyrolysis, Jing Zhang, Yong S. Choi, Chang G. Yoo, Tae H. Kim, Robert C. Brown, Brent H. Shanks

Brent H Shanks

Previously, the primary product distribution resulting from fast pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin was quantified. This study extends the analysis to the examinations of interactions between cellulose–hemicellulose and cellulose–lignin, which were determined by comparing the pyrolysis products from their native mixture, physical mixture, and superposition of individual components. Negligible interactions were found for both binary physical mixtures. For the native cellulose–hemicellulose mixture, no significant interaction was identified either. In the case of the native cellulose–lignin mixture, herbaceous biomass exhibited an apparent interaction, represented by diminished yield of levoglucosan and enhanced yield of low molecular weight ...


Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, JoEllyn M. McMillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman 2017 Iowa State University

Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, Joellyn M. Mcmillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman

Balaji Narasimhan

Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can ...


High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi

Donald Sakaguchi

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a powerful cellular resource and have been used in numerous studies as potential candidates to develop strategies for treating a variety of diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize MSCs as cellular vehicles engineered for delivery of therapeutic factors as part of a neuroprotective strategy for rescuing the damaged or diseased nervous system. In this study we used mouse MSCs that were genetically modified using lentiviral vectors, which encoded brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), together with green fluorescent protein (GFP).

Before proceeding ...


Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, JoEllyn M. McMillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman 2017 Iowa State University

Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, Joellyn M. Mcmillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman

Donald Sakaguchi

Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can ...


Soluble Factors From Neocortical Astrocytes Enhance Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Rat Hippocampus On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Jisun Oh, Jennifer B. Recknor, Justin C. Recknor, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

Soluble Factors From Neocortical Astrocytes Enhance Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Rat Hippocampus On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Jisun Oh, Jennifer B. Recknor, Justin C. Recknor, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Donald Sakaguchi

Rat adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) are self-renewing, multipotent neural progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia. Previously, we demonstrated that coculture of AHPCs with postnatal day two, type 1 cortical astrocytes on laminin-coated micropatterned polymer substrates facilitates selective neuronal differentiation of the AHPCs 1. Under this condition, multi-dimensional cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix interactions, as well as possible soluble factors released from astrocytes provided spatial and temporal control selectively enhancing neuronal differentiation and neurite alignment on topographically different regions of the same substrate. To investigate the potential role of astrocyte-derived soluble factors as cues involved ...


Amphiphilic Polyanhydride Films Promote Neural Stem Cell Adhesion And Differentiation, Latrisha K. Petersen, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya K. Mallapragada, Balaji Narasimhan 2017 Iowa State University

Amphiphilic Polyanhydride Films Promote Neural Stem Cell Adhesion And Differentiation, Latrisha K. Petersen, Jisun Oh, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya K. Mallapragada, Balaji Narasimhan

Donald Sakaguchi

Several challenges currently exist for rational design of functional tissue engineering constructs within the host, which include appropriate cellular integration, avoidance of bacterial infections, and low inflammatory stimulation. This work describes a novel class of biodegradable, amphiphilic polyanhydrides with many desirable protein-material and cell-material attributes capable of confronting these challenges. The biocompatible amphiphilic polymer films were shown to release laminin in a stable and controlled manner, promote neural cell adhesion and differentiation, and evade inflammatory responses of the immune system. Using high-throughput approaches, it was shown that polymer chemistry plays an integral role in controlling cell-film interactions, which suggests that ...


Biomass Utilization Of Carbon, Kathryn M. Hopfensperger, Catherine Brame, Mary Uselmann, Traci Reusser 2017 University of Wyoming

Biomass Utilization Of Carbon, Kathryn M. Hopfensperger, Catherine Brame, Mary Uselmann, Traci Reusser

Honors Theses AY 16/17

The goal of this project was to address the environmental implications of an algae biomass system that sequesters carbon dioxide to produce economically valuable products. The Algalrithm, a theoretical company driven by reducing CO2 emissions, chose a final product based upon the results of economic analyses that considered potential carbon capture and utilization incomes, as well as the value of diverse products under various commodity pricing constraints. Many algae-based bio-products were considered before narrowing in on a specific product that would encompass the volume of typical utility-scale electricity producing plants, a wide range of future carbon costs, and the ...


Lignin To Adipic Acid, Jose A. Cabrera Rodas, Amanda McAliney, Kristina Quick, Holly Ramseier, Sedona Rockwood 2017 University of Wyoming

Lignin To Adipic Acid, Jose A. Cabrera Rodas, Amanda Mcaliney, Kristina Quick, Holly Ramseier, Sedona Rockwood

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Second-generation lignocellulosic ethanol plants make a byproduct consisting primarily of lignin, a heterogeneous mixture of largely-aromatic polymers that provides plant cell walls their structural strength and recalcitrance to biologic attack. The chemical industry has not been able to make money from lignin because a boiler to generate steam and electricity from lignin is expensive. This capital would be avoided if an alternative use for lignin is found. An economical projection estimated that lignin, as raw material, would be available at a price of half of its fuel value (Humbird et al, 2011). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working ...


Activated Carbon-Based Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Process, Eric Chen, Katie Rolin, Zachary Stillman 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Activated Carbon-Based Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Process, Eric Chen, Katie Rolin, Zachary Stillman

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This process uses activated carbon to adsorb 65 tonnes of CO2 from a coal-fired power plant per day using activated carbon sorbents at 93% purity using a two-stage adsorption process that uses vacuum-swing adsorption. The flue gas first is pressurized and dehydrated using cooling and chilled water. The stream is then sent into a packed activated carbon column at 1.11 bar until CO2 saturation, upon which the column is depressurized to 0.5 bar and the CO2 is desorbed. The gas is then sent into a second adsorption stage at 1 bar until CO2 saturation ...


On The Production Of High-Purity Docosahexaenoic Acid From Heterotrophic Microalgae, Andrew Zhu, Lea Nowack, Min Young Jeong 2017 University of Pennsylvania

On The Production Of High-Purity Docosahexaenoic Acid From Heterotrophic Microalgae, Andrew Zhu, Lea Nowack, Min Young Jeong

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Omega-3 fatty acids provide significant health benefits and are a popular nutritional supplement in the nutraceuticals industry. Omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) have been reported to improve heart health and mental health. In addition, DHA consumption has been tied to improvements in infant cognitive development. Therefore, high-purity DHA is a desired ingredient in the production of infant formula. The omega-3 oils originating from fish tend to have carcinogenic risks in addition to a bad odor. In recent years, the industry trend has shifted to producing these omega-3 fatty acids via microalgae species– making ...


Brewer's Spent Grain To Xylitol & Polylactic Acid, Alexander George, Kelsey Simet, Anthony Carradorini, Nabila Faour 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Brewer's Spent Grain To Xylitol & Polylactic Acid, Alexander George, Kelsey Simet, Anthony Carradorini, Nabila Faour

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

With this project, the authors seek to present a desirable and novel process for converting brewers’ spent grain into two value-added products: the alternative sweetener, xylitol, and a biodegradable plastic, polylactic acid. This particular process is based in the Philadelphia Naval Yard, and uses the spent grain from surrounding breweries and microbreweries as its input. However, while the collection logistics and input quantity may change, the process is one that may be implemented anywhere, with varying degrees of success.

The process consists of collection, universal pretreatment, then a split to feed one of two continuous fermenters. A highly acidophilic strain ...


An Efficient And Safe Cooking Stove For Las Delicias, El Salvador, Maria Castaner, Daniel Li, Nicolas Minor 2017 University of Pennsylvania

An Efficient And Safe Cooking Stove For Las Delicias, El Salvador, Maria Castaner, Daniel Li, Nicolas Minor

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The primary objective of this project was to design an efficient and safe cooking stove based on the resources available in El Salvador while ensuring it could be inexpensive to produce. The stove is a cuboid, 18"×18"×12" in dimension, and weighs 75 lbs. It has a top cover to cook on, and a unique three-chamber design: a chamber for combustion, a chamber to pump hot air into the combustion chamber with a bellows, and a third chamber to add insulation material. A ventilation tube connects the inner chamber with the exterior to safely vent flue gas to the ...


Polyether Plant Design, Christina Hum, Carol Wang, Mauricio Tassano 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Polyether Plant Design, Christina Hum, Carol Wang, Mauricio Tassano

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

In recent years, the global market for polyethers has seen rapid expansion due to the growth of the construction, automobile, and foam industries. Polyethers are principally sold to polyurethane plants to produce a wide range of flexible and rigid foams that are used in a wide range of applications from automotive upholstery to inks. Consequently, the process for manufacturing polyethers is extremely vital to the consumer goods market and for maintaining the quality of life to which many people have grown accustomed. In this report, a plant has been designed in the Asia-Pacific region to produce 100 million pounds of ...


Coffee To Biofuels, Chelsea Giller, Bhavish Malkani, Josh Parasar 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Coffee To Biofuels, Chelsea Giller, Bhavish Malkani, Josh Parasar

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project proposes a production plant that will utilize 9.58 million kg/year of spent coffee grounds in order to produce 1.03 million liters/year of coffee biofuel and 2.56 million kg/year of biomass pellets. This plant will be located in northern New Jersey, where the maximum amount of spent coffee grounds can be obtained every day from each of the five boroughs in New York City. Practically, trucks could obtain grounds from 875 Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts coffee shops, collected 3-4 times per week. Overall uptime is taken to be 90%. The biodiesel is formed ...


Food Waste To Bio-Products, Elizabeth Handen, Mauricio Diaz Padilla, Hannah Rears, Lyle Rodgers 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Food Waste To Bio-Products, Elizabeth Handen, Mauricio Diaz Padilla, Hannah Rears, Lyle Rodgers

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The goal of this project was to design and evaluate a project for the collection and processing of food waste and spent oil in Philadelphia. The project was designed to handle 5% of the total commercial waste generated in Philadelphia. This amounted to approximately 9,700 tons/year of food waste and 73,000 gallons/year of spent oil. The process was designed to utilize a BIOFerm™ Dry Fermentation Digestion System. Following the digestion, the biogas produced is passed through a Caterpillar CG132-12 Generator Set, producing electricity to be sold back to the local grid. The digestate from the anaerobic ...


Low-Cost, Commercial Scale Production Of Sofosbuvir, Joseph Solomon, Jake Hsu, Cynthia Tong, Ryan Bliss 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Low-Cost, Commercial Scale Production Of Sofosbuvir, Joseph Solomon, Jake Hsu, Cynthia Tong, Ryan Bliss

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Recent advances in antiviral therapeutics have produced highly effective small molecule drugs to treat Hepatitis C, a deadly infection of the liver. Sofosbuvir, a hepatitis C drug developed by Gilead Sciences, is a breakthrough treatment due to its low side effects and high cure rate. However, the cost of treatment is extraordinarily high, priced at $84,000 per treatment in the US. In response to backlash regarding the cost barriers in developing countries, Gilead has reached licensing agreements with generic pharmaceutical companies to produce the drug for markets in low-income countries such as India, Kenya, and Cuba among others. The ...


Direct Route To Phenol From Benzene, Bryan Daowdat, Gerard D. Hoeltzel, Robert Tannenbaum 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Direct Route To Phenol From Benzene, Bryan Daowdat, Gerard D. Hoeltzel, Robert Tannenbaum

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Phenol production, expected to exceed 13MM metric tons in 2017, is a significant global industry with many flaws in its current manufacturing method. The Hock process essentially converts high value propylene to low value acetone. The proposed process design, detailed in this report, provides an alternative reaction pathway that utilizes a direct synthesis from benzene, as developed at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in New Delhi, India. The endorsed proposal is in accordance with US Patent 8,772,552 B2, that describes the production of phenol via vapor phase oxidation of benzene over a copper chromium oxide ...


Optimization Of Oleosin 30g Production For Echocardiography, Annette Krysiewicz, Andrew Parsons, Sergio Rodriguez-Labra 2017 University of Pennsylvania - Biostatistics

Optimization Of Oleosin 30g Production For Echocardiography, Annette Krysiewicz, Andrew Parsons, Sergio Rodriguez-Labra

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Provided they are uniform in size, monodisperse microbubbles behave as contrast agents to enhance echocardiographic imaging. Compounds like Oleosin 30G with surfactant-like properties help stabilize microbubbles - thereby ensuring their uniform size. Designed herein is an industrial-scale plant to produce medical-grade Oleosin 30G with a process consisting of three steps: 1) upstream production via recombinant E. coli in an integrated batch bioprocessing model, 2) downstream purification, and 3) processing by microfluidic manifolds. Ultimately Oleosin 30G-coated microbubbles are manufactured, ready for injection within one month. Owing to its unique properties and cost-effective production, Oleosin 30G has the potential to outcompete current market ...


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