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Analyzing Drug Release Kinetics From Water-Soluble Polymers, Sean M. Kelly, Arun K. Upadhyay, Akash Mitra, Balaji Narasimhan 2019 Iowa State University

Analyzing Drug Release Kinetics From Water-Soluble Polymers, Sean M. Kelly, Arun K. Upadhyay, Akash Mitra, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The ability to develop predictive mathematical models of therapeutic release from pharmaceutical formulations has enormous potential to enhance our understanding of such systems and improve the controlled release of the payload. The current work describes the development and testing of a one-dimensional model of drug transport from amorphous, swelling/dissolving polymers. Model parameters such as the diffusivities of water and drug, the initial loading of the drug, the polymer dissolution rate, drug-polymer interactions, and the tablet thickness were varied, demonstrating the ability to tune the release to be controlled by either drug diffusion or polymer chain disentanglement. In addition, predictions ...


Enhancing The Co-Utilization Of Biomass-Derived Mixed Sugars By Yeasts, Meirong Gao, Deon Ploessl, Zengyi Shao 2019 Iowa State University

Enhancing The Co-Utilization Of Biomass-Derived Mixed Sugars By Yeasts, Meirong Gao, Deon Ploessl, Zengyi Shao

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Plant biomass is a promising carbon source for producing value-added chemicals, including transportation biofuels, polymer precursors, and various additives. Most engineered microbial hosts and a select group of wild-type species can metabolize mixed sugars including oligosaccharides, hexoses, and pentoses that are hydrolyzed from plant biomass. However, most of these microorganisms consume glucose preferentially to non-glucose sugars through mechanisms generally defined as carbon catabolite repression. The current lack of simultaneous mixed-sugar utilization limits achievable titers, yields, and productivities. Therefore, the development of microbial platforms capable of fermenting mixed sugars simultaneously from biomass hydrolysates is essential for economical industry-scale production, particularly for ...


Single Enzyme Synthesis And Bio-Imitation Of Functional Nanocrystals, Abdolhamid Sadeghnejad 2019 Lehigh University

Single Enzyme Synthesis And Bio-Imitation Of Functional Nanocrystals, Abdolhamid Sadeghnejad

Theses and Dissertations

Green synthesis methods of inorganic materials have gained lots of attention due to lower pollution and toxic precursors during the synthesis. One of the modern green methods of synthesis is biosynthesis in which a DNA, small peptide molecule, or amino acids plays the main role of synthesis. Biomineralization, the biosynthesis process happens in the nature by elements, has been considered as a green, low cost, and scalable method of synthesis. In comparison with conventional synthesis methods, biomineralization happens under ambient conditions in aqueous phase that can be applied for synthesis of inorganic nanostructure metal sulfide semiconductors gained interest due to ...


How Crosslinking Mechanisms Of Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels Alter Macrophage Phenotype, Zhuqing Li, Kaitlin M. Bratlie 2018 Iowa State University

How Crosslinking Mechanisms Of Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels Alter Macrophage Phenotype, Zhuqing Li, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

In tissue engineering scaffolds, macrophages play a critical role in determining the host response to implanted biomaterials. Macrophage phenotype is dynamic throughout the host response, and a balance of phenotypes is essential for timely progression from injury to proper wound healing. Therefore, it is important to predict how materials will modulate the response of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effect of methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels on macrophage phenotype and proliferation with the ultimate goal of improving rational design of biomedical implants. Naïve, along with classically and alternatively activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were seeded on methacrylated gellan gum ...


Lipid Extraction From Spirulina Sp. And Schizochytrium Sp. Using Supercritical Co2 With Methanol, Shihong Liu, Husam A. Abu Hajar, Guy Riefler, Ben J. Stuart 2018 Old Dominion University

Lipid Extraction From Spirulina Sp. And Schizochytrium Sp. Using Supercritical Co2 With Methanol, Shihong Liu, Husam A. Abu Hajar, Guy Riefler, Ben J. Stuart

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Microalgae are one of the most promising feedstocks for biodiesel production due to their high lipid content and easy farming. However, the extraction of lipids from microalgae is energy intensive and costly and involves the use of toxic organic solvents. Compared with organic solvent extraction, supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) has demonstrated advantages through lower toxicity and no solvent-liquid separation. Due to the nonpolar nature of SCCO2, polar organic solvents such as methanol may need to be added as a modifier in order to increase the extraction ability of SCCO2. In this paper, pilot scale lipid extraction using ...


Lessons In Membrane Engineering For Octanoic Acid Production From Environmental Escherichia Coli Isolates, Yingxi Chen, Michael Reinhardt, Natalia Neris, Lucas Kerns, Thomas J. Mansell, Laura R. Jarboe 2018 Iowa State University

Lessons In Membrane Engineering For Octanoic Acid Production From Environmental Escherichia Coli Isolates, Yingxi Chen, Michael Reinhardt, Natalia Neris, Lucas Kerns, Thomas J. Mansell, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Fermentative production of many attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals is limited by product toxicity in the form of damage to the microbial cell membrane. Metabolic engineering of the production organism can help mitigate this problem, but there is a need for identification and prioritization of the most effective engineering targets. Here, we use a set of previously characterized environmental Escherichia coli isolates with high tolerance and production of octanoic acid, a model membrane-damaging biorenewable product, as a case study for identifying and prioritizing membrane engineering strategies. This characterization identified differences in the membrane lipid composition, fluidity, integrity, and cell surface ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic material can be subjected to pyrolysis to yield pyrolysis liquid, biochar, and gas. The pyrolysis liquid resulting from the condensation of vapours can be separated into a rich organic condensate and an acidic “aqueous pyrolysis condensate” (APC) which may be considered a waste. The target of this research is subjecting APC to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas that can be energy purposed, and to reduce the organic load of APC to acceptable levels for possible disposal. From this study, it was found that without any treatment, the inoculum requires 50 to 60 days of adaptation period to reduce the ...


Targeted Epigenetic Editing Using Optogenetic Tools, Joshua Hahn, Chongli Yuan 2018 Purdue University

Targeted Epigenetic Editing Using Optogenetic Tools, Joshua Hahn, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Epigenetics markers, such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, are modifications to the structure of DNA that impact gene expression without altering the genetic code. Among them, DNA methylation plays a critical role in various biological processes including the differentiation of stem cells, regulation of gene expression, and adaptation to environmental signals. The ability to modify DNA methylation at particular genes in various cell types is thus desirable for engineering specific cell phenotypes. Although technologies exist that can alter DNA methylation at target genes, these techniques lack spatial and temporal resolution and are not able to selectively edit individual ...


Uncoupling Fermentative Synthesis Of Molecular Hydrogen From Biomass Formation In Thermotoga Maritima, Raghuveer Singh, Derrick White, Yaşar Demirel, Robert Kelley, Kenneth Noll, Paul H. Blum 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Uncoupling Fermentative Synthesis Of Molecular Hydrogen From Biomass Formation In Thermotoga Maritima, Raghuveer Singh, Derrick White, Yaşar Demirel, Robert Kelley, Kenneth Noll, Paul H. Blum

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

When carbohydrates are fermented by the hyperthermophilic anaerobe Thermotoga maritima, molecular hydrogen (H2) is formed in strict proportion to substrate availability. Excretion of the organic acids acetate and lactate provide an additional sink for removal of excess reductant. However, mechanisms controlling energy management of these metabolic pathways are largely unexplored. To investigate this topic, transient gene inactivation was used to block lactate production as a strategy to produce spontaneous mutant cell lines that overproduced H2 through mutation of unpredicted genetic targets. Single-crossover homologous chromosomal recombination was used to disrupt lactate dehydrogenase (encoded by ldh) with a truncated ldh ...


Preparation Of Supramolecular Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin Bilayer Vesicles For Pharmaceutical Applications, Kate E. Frischkorn 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Preparation Of Supramolecular Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin Bilayer Vesicles For Pharmaceutical Applications, Kate E. Frischkorn

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Recent pharmaceutical developments have investigated using supramolecular nanoparticles in order to increase the bioavailability and solubility of drugs delivered in various methods. Modification of the carbohydrate cyclodextrin increases the ability to encapsulate hydrophobic pharmaceutical molecules by forming a carrier with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic exterior. Guest molecules are commonly added to these inclusion complexes in order to add stability and further increase targeting abilities of the carriers. One such guest molecule is adamantine combined with a poly(ethylene glycol) chain. Vesicles are formed by hydrating a thin film of amphiphilic cyclodextrin and guest molecules in buffer solution that mimics ...


Elucidating The Action Of A Regulatory Lipid Ligand Via Molecular Simulation: Cholesterol Swarms And The Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel, Belinda Akpa, Nicolas Barbera, Irena Levitan 2018 North Carolina State University

Elucidating The Action Of A Regulatory Lipid Ligand Via Molecular Simulation: Cholesterol Swarms And The Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel, Belinda Akpa, Nicolas Barbera, Irena Levitan

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong 2018 Oklahoma State University - Main Campus

Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Learning In Bio-Molecular Computing Systems, Lauren Braun 2018 Portland State University

Learning In Bio-Molecular Computing Systems, Lauren Braun

Undergraduate Research & Mentoring Program

Many potential applications of biochemical computers involve the detection of highly adaptable and dynamic chemical systems, such as emerging pathogens. Current technology is expensive to develop and unique to each application, thus causing limitations in accessibility. In order to make this type of computing a realistic solution to problems in the medical field, a biochemical computer would need to be adaptable to work in a variety of applications. Banda et al. (2014) previously proposed a first dynamic biochemical system that was capable of autonomous learning. For this project we studied a framework similar to Banda’s but in two separate ...


Predicting The Dynamic Binding Capacities For Adsorbents Using Bsa As A Model Protein, Gaoshan Li 2018 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Predicting The Dynamic Binding Capacities For Adsorbents Using Bsa As A Model Protein, Gaoshan Li

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Research Publications

Membrane adsorbers are one alternative to traditional bead-based chromatography that receive attention in the bioseparation process because of their ability to process material with lower residence times. However some properties of membranes make membrane adsorbers unrealistic for some applications. For example, some membrane adsorbers exhibit lower binding capacities compared with the traditional bead-based chromatography counterparts. The dynamic binding capacity (DBC) in this study is defined as the amount of protein bound in the column when the outlet reaches a certain concentration, which is 10% [2], and the equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) is the binding capacity under the equilibrium conditions, when ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Juan Rodriguez, Thomas Krumpolc, Zach Wiese 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Juan Rodriguez, Thomas Krumpolc, Zach Wiese

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to the increasing prevalence of prescription medication over the past few decades, pharmaceuticals have accumulated in various water sources. This has become a public health concern because many pharmaceuticals have limited research on the effects of chronic low-level exposure.One pharmaceutical of interest that has been detected in water sources is carbamazepine. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a common pharmaceutical prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders, neuropathic pain, and various psychological disorders. It’s mechanism of action is “sodium channel blocking,” which is the impairment of conduction of sodium ions in sodium channels. This, in effect, reduces nervous-system conductivity in ...


Comparing Stenotic Blood Flow In Three- And Two-Dimensional Arterial Renderings Using Computational Fluid Dynamics And Multiphase Mean Age Theory., Jacob S. Garza 2018 University of Louisville

Comparing Stenotic Blood Flow In Three- And Two-Dimensional Arterial Renderings Using Computational Fluid Dynamics And Multiphase Mean Age Theory., Jacob S. Garza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over one million invasive coronary angiography procedures are performed annually in patients who experience chest pain or are known to have coronary artery disease. The procedure is carried out to ascertain the degree of arterial blockage (stenosis) that hinders blood flow to the heart. A cardiologist performing the procedure determines the physiological degree of a stenosis by either visual estimation, which is routine practice, or by invasively measuring fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is the current gold standard that has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes and temper the cost of healthcare. Nevertheless, FFR is performed in only 10–20 ...


Biobutanol Production From Cellulosic And Sugar-Based Feedstock From The Corn Plant, Reyna Gomez-Flores 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Biobutanol Production From Cellulosic And Sugar-Based Feedstock From The Corn Plant, Reyna Gomez-Flores

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, biobutanol production by biological fermentation was investigated from the corn plant, integrating two approaches. The first one was to utilize corn cobs, a cellulosic-based material. The second, using a new sugar-based material, sugarcorn juice. Utilizing suitable Clostridia strains for each substrate, these approaches converged into a biorefinery concept to produce renewable biofuels in Ontario, Canada. The corn cob pretreatment was carried out by a dilute acid method resulting in temperature as the variable with most significant effect towards glucose liberation. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed utilizing a very low concentration of an enzymatic stock solution with approximately ...


Oxy Fuel For Clean Energy Generation, Patrick J. Hally, Najib M. Muqeem, Colin B. Richter, Timothy R. Schanstra 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Oxy Fuel For Clean Energy Generation, Patrick J. Hally, Najib M. Muqeem, Colin B. Richter, Timothy R. Schanstra

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This process explores several concentrations of oxygen-enriched air streams (oxy fuel) in combination with natural gas to generate steam for a steam turbine power plant with 30 MW capacity. The proposed location for this plant is the gulf coast of the United States. The oxy fuel concentrations tested were 36 mol. %, 53 mol. %, and 95 mol. %. Nitrogen removed from air would be sold as well as the 30 MW of electricity. The three oxygen purities were not profitable for the most realistic prices of electricity, nitrogen, and natural gas. However, the scenarios were all profitable with prices of nitrogen above ...


Bio-Dodecanedioic Acid (Ddda) Production, Brandon M. Mills, Meghavi M. Talati, Gregory A. Winter 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Bio-Dodecanedioic Acid (Ddda) Production, Brandon M. Mills, Meghavi M. Talati, Gregory A. Winter

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The demand for dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) is steadily increasing each year with demand expected to exceed 90.4 kilotons per month in 2023.1.1 DDDA is an intermediate chemical used in a variety of end products. Thus, the increase in DDDA demand can largely be attributed to increasing demand for manufacturing nylon, paints, adhesives, and powder coatings. Regionally, Asia Pacific has been observing the fastest growth of all regions at over 6% CAGR.1.2 The robust manufacturing base for nylon, along with a growing automotive industry in India and China, will propel DDDA growth into the next decade ...


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