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Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly 2016 Iowa State University

Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly

Basil Nikolau

Background: Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids.

Results: To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acylACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were ...


Investigating The Modulation Of Aggregating Amyloid Beta 40, Marlee J. Motes 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Modulation Of Aggregating Amyloid Beta 40, Marlee J. Motes

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid beta protein has been linked to the formation of Alzheimer’s disease in patients.¹ Plaques form from amyloid beta fibrils. The formation of these plaques between neural connections in the brain are associated with Alzheimer’s disease.² The reduction of the formation of fibrils can be linked to utilizing protein mimics. The protocols that are used to reproduce the simulation of amyloid beta in the brain can be very important. Also, the structure of the protein mimic that is being used to inhibit the formation of fibrils can determine how the amyloid beta plaques are reduced.

The ...


Model Validation And Transition To Turbulence In Orbiting Culture Dishes., Jonathan Michael D. Thomas 2016 University of Louisville

Model Validation And Transition To Turbulence In Orbiting Culture Dishes., Jonathan Michael D. Thomas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wall shear stress (WSS) is commonly accepted as the primary influence affecting characteristics of anchored endothelial cells when subjected to fluid flow. Orbital shakers are commonly used to study cellular responses due to their ease of use, ability to run several experiments simultaneously, and since they exert physiologically relevant oscillatory shear. These studies require comprehensive resolution of WSS, however the fluid dynamics inside orbiting culture dishes has not yet been well described since the flow is complex and difficult to quantify analytically. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of flow in an orbiting dish has been developed that yields detailed ...


In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of a secure and sustainable energy economy is likely to require the production of fuels and commodity chemicals in a renewable manner. There has been renewed interest in biological commodity chemical production recently, in particular focusing on non-edible feedstocks. The fields of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have arisen in the past 20 years to address the challenge of chemical production from biological feedstocks. Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool for studying the metabolism of an organism and predicting the effects of metabolic engineering strategies. Various techniques have been developed for modeling cellular metabolism, with the underlying principle ...


The Development Of A Virtual Sensor In Glucose Monitoring For Non-Insulin Dependent People, Sophia Masters, Sarah Jacobson 2016 Iowa State University

The Development Of A Virtual Sensor In Glucose Monitoring For Non-Insulin Dependent People, Sophia Masters, Sarah Jacobson

Honors Projects and Posters

The project involves an Android application that acts as a continuous-time monitor of glucose levels for people with Type II diabetes. Our objective was to get information from a glucose lancet meter to automatically upload via Bluetooth into the application. This allows a person to easily monitor their insulin levels without manually inputting glucose levels into the application. The glucose meter used was a ForaCare Test N’ Go system. To aid in the Bluetooth process, we were granted open access to the glucose meter from Fora Care. The process involved using the programming language of Java in the Android software ...


Minor Whey Protein Purification Using Ion-Exchange Column Chromatography, Naeimeh Faraji Dizaji 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Minor Whey Protein Purification Using Ion-Exchange Column Chromatography, Naeimeh Faraji Dizaji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is concerned with application of mechanistic models for recovery and purification of two minor milk proteins to develop an efficient and robust process. A fundamental and quantitative understanding of the underlying mechanisms assists to evaluate chances and challenges in non-linear chromatography.

The first chapter considers adsorption isotherm data of two minor whey proteins on cation exchanger under various conditions and used as the basis to develop a predictive approach for correlating adsorption behavior using a mechanistic isotherm model. The SMA isotherm model explicitly considers the contributions of protein-adsorbent and protein-protein interactions in the simulation of salt gradients in ...


Sustained Cell Differentiation Of 2d H9 Human Embryonic Stem Cells Into Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hannah M. Christian 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sustained Cell Differentiation Of 2d H9 Human Embryonic Stem Cells Into Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hannah M. Christian

UCARE Research Products

This experiment consisted of the controlled differentiation of H9 embryonic stem cells to mesenchymal stem cells. Though this experiment was repeated twice and improvement was seen in these repetitions, the cells were only able to be partially differentiated. However, the morphology of the differentiated cells is similar to those of healthy adult mesenchymal stem cells.

The progression of the differentiation can be seen in the microscope slide photos below. Throughout the differentiation, there occurred a decrease in cell survival and reduction of cell growth, but an increase in mesenchymal stem cell morphology. Throughout the last week of the differentiation, very ...


Effect Of Packaging Material On Color Properties Of Catsup Tomato Sauce, Naser Kohan-nia, Babak Pakbin, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Omid Fakhri 2016 Department of Food Health and Safety, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

Effect Of Packaging Material On Color Properties Of Catsup Tomato Sauce, Naser Kohan-Nia, Babak Pakbin, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Omid Fakhri

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Catsup and tomato sauce products currently are one of the most popular and commercially available table sauces particularly consumed by young people and families around the world in recent decades. In this study colorimetric properties of catsup sauce samples including L*, a* and b* values in different packaging materials including PP, PE, PET, Glass and Sachet have been investigated during and after 180 days storage time at 22̊ C (environmental temperature). Hunter Lab system has been used to evaluate the color values of sauce samples. According to obtained results of experimental measurements and sensory evaluations, PP and PE packaging materials ...


Brain Tumor In A Dish: Glioma/Astrocyte Co-Cultures As A Model For In Vitro Studies, Erin Eickman, Christina Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Brain Tumor In A Dish: Glioma/Astrocyte Co-Cultures As A Model For In Vitro Studies, Erin Eickman, Christina Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi

UCARE Research Products

This study seeks to engineer an in vitro co-culture model to elucidate the role of glioma-astrocyte interactions on molecular changes in the tumor microenvironment. The use of patterned co-cultures created with polyelectrolyte multilayers and micromolding in capillaries will allow tthe investigation of cell-cell communication. This study will lead to better understanding of the role of healthy cells in cancer progression and potential treatment options.


Ionic Driven Embedment Of Hyaluronic Acid Coated Liposomes In Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films For Local Therapeutic Delivery, Stephen Lawrence Hayward, David Francis, Matthew J. Sis, Srivatsan Kidambi 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Ionic Driven Embedment Of Hyaluronic Acid Coated Liposomes In Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films For Local Therapeutic Delivery, Stephen Lawrence Hayward, David Francis, Matthew J. Sis, Srivatsan Kidambi

UCARE Research Products

The ability to control the spatial distribution and temporal release of a therapeutic remains a central challenge for biomedical research. Here, we report the development and optimization of a novel substrate mediated therapeutic delivery system comprising of hyaluronic acid covalently functionalized liposomes (HALNPs) embedded into polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) platform via ionic stabilization. The PEM platform was constructed from sequential deposition of Poly-LLysine (PLL) and Poly(Sodium styrene sulfonate) (SPS) “(PLL/SPS)4.5” followed by adsorption of anionic HALNPs. An adsorption affinity assay and saturation curve illustrated the preferential HALNP deposition density for precise therapeutic loading. (PLL/SPS)2.5 ...


C4 Operations Optimization, Michael Moroney, Evan M. Smith, Marissa E. Thompson, Fernando Torres 2016 University of Pennsylvania

C4 Operations Optimization, Michael Moroney, Evan M. Smith, Marissa E. Thompson, Fernando Torres

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The primary objective of the project chronicled in this report was to design a model that optimizes C4 operations. This model will optimize the options for processing both “crude C4” and “Cat BB” streams, taking the feed stream makeup, market pricings, and capacity constraints into account. Crude C4 streams contain butanes, butenes, and butadienes, while “Cat BB” streams are similar in makeup but do not include butadienes.

It is assumed that the equipment for all unit operations is readily available. In addition, the plant will already have a baseload of feedstock that does not fully utilize all the equipment in ...


Large-Scale Fermentation Of E. Coli For The Production Of High-Purity Isoprene, Phillip A. Taylor, Yuta Inaba, Ian J. Pinto 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Large-Scale Fermentation Of E. Coli For The Production Of High-Purity Isoprene, Phillip A. Taylor, Yuta Inaba, Ian J. Pinto

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

We present a process for the production of isoprene via the fermentation of glucose. Based on our current specifications, we conclude that the use of recombinant E.coli for the fermentation of glucose is a novel yet unprofitable venture. Our current design entails the continuous production of isoprene using 3 pre-seed, 3 seed, and 5 production fermenters each with a production fermentation time of 72 hours. Our scheduling of the fermenters allowed us to produce isoprene continuously at a steady rate, and the liquid by-products of the fermentation were removed and sterilized at the end of each batch. Isoprene was ...


High-Purity Oxygen Production Using Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting Sorbents, Chandler C. Dorris, Eric Lu, Sangjae Park, Fabian H. Toro 2016 University of Pennsylvania

High-Purity Oxygen Production Using Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting Sorbents, Chandler C. Dorris, Eric Lu, Sangjae Park, Fabian H. Toro

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project evaluates the potential of new, mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) materials in the production of high-purity oxygen. Analyzing today’s proven MIEC properties, we design an optimized process for the production of oxygen at 30 metric tons/day. This report includes a detailed model of MIECs performance in a vacuum swing adsorption system. A sensitivity analysis is also included, which is used to optimize the operating conditions and other design variables. Based on an oxygen selling price of $40 per ton, the realized process would operate at a loss in today’s economy. The total capital investment of the ...


Propane Dehydrogenation By Autothermal Reforming, Jeffrey W. Barsamian, Jayant A. Rao, Patrick J. Staiber, Eric Wamakima 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Propane Dehydrogenation By Autothermal Reforming, Jeffrey W. Barsamian, Jayant A. Rao, Patrick J. Staiber, Eric Wamakima

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The proposed design is for the the production of propene through propane dehydrogenation using Thyssen Krupp’s STAR technology and a hybrid membrane separation. The plant has a capacity of 700 kT/yr and will be located in the Middle East. At current propane/propene prices, the use of Thyssen Krupp’s STAR process and hybrid membrane separation is not economical and has a negative IRR. The NPV of this project at current market prices is -$865MM. However, economic feasibility depends on volatile market conditions. The process begins with the oxydehydrogenation section, consisting of four reformers connected to four oxyreactors ...


Recycling Of Neodymium And Dysprosium From Permanent Magnets, Alan X. Dai, Connor A. Lippincott, Michael E. Nissan, Richard Shim 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Recycling Of Neodymium And Dysprosium From Permanent Magnets, Alan X. Dai, Connor A. Lippincott, Michael E. Nissan, Richard Shim

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project seeks to recycle neodymium and dysprosium from used neodymium-iron-boron, NdFeB, permanent magnets. Our alternative recycling strategy is based on a method developed by Dr. Eric Schelter of the University of Pennsylvania Department of Chemistry and his research group. This process involves the use of a novel tripodal nitroxide ligand, H3TriNOX. The proposed process design converts used NdFeB magnets to neodymium and dysprosium. The goal production of neodymium oxide is 126,000 kg/year and of dysprosium oxide is 14,000 kg/year, which would cost $12,500,000 with the current price rate of neodymium and ...


Production Of Propylene Oxide From Propylene Using Patented Silver Based Catalyst, Eric W. Schultz, Mitchell B. Schwartz, Kyle M. Yu 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Production Of Propylene Oxide From Propylene Using Patented Silver Based Catalyst, Eric W. Schultz, Mitchell B. Schwartz, Kyle M. Yu

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Propylene oxide (PO) is an important intermediate in the manufacture of propylene glycol (PG), polyether polyols and many other products. Conventional production of propylene oxide has many drawbacks. The most common method, the chlorohydrin process produces chlorinated by products which must be disposed of. Other processes produce a co-product, like styrene, which adversely affects production economics. A team of scientists at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in New Delhi has recently applied for a patent for a catalyst that oxidizes propylene to PO in high yield. The primary motivation behind this project was the production of PO ...


Mgcl2 And Kcl Recovery From Brine Wastewater, Arthur M. Rempel, Kyra G. Berger, Elyssa A. Gensib, Aspen N. Walker 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Mgcl2 And Kcl Recovery From Brine Wastewater, Arthur M. Rempel, Kyra G. Berger, Elyssa A. Gensib, Aspen N. Walker

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project’s aim was to design an improved brine wastewater treatment system for desalination facilities. While a multitude of methods exist to do so, General Electric (GE)’s brine concentrator is leading the market by providing a method that not only treats the brine waste, but also recovers anywhere from 60- 94% of the water from the feed. However, their brine concentrator is relatively inefficient from both a financial and energetic perspective; our goal was to develop a system to match their results, while limiting costs and energy usage as best possible.

We subsequently designed a system (referred to ...


Cocoa Liquor, Butter, & Powder Production, Mack Asselstine, Joseph M. Mollo, Jesus M. Morales, Vasiliki Papanikolopoulos 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Cocoa Liquor, Butter, & Powder Production, Mack Asselstine, Joseph M. Mollo, Jesus M. Morales, Vasiliki Papanikolopoulos

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project recommends a design for a cocoa processing plant to produce cocoa liquor, powder, and butter from fermented cocoa beans, in accordance with US Patent 6,066,350. The recommended design minimizes the use of external utilities by optimizing various heat integration strategies. The plant has a capacity of 120,000 tonnes/year and will be located in Tema, Ghana. The proposed design yields 25,000 tonnes/year of alkalized cocoa liquor with 54% fat, 52,000 tonnes/year of cocoa butter, 36,000 tonnes/year of 3% fat alkalized cocoa powder, and 9,000 tonnes/year of below ...


Industrial-Scale Manufacture Of Oleosin 30g For Use As Contrast Agent In Echocardiography, Steven P. Casey, Hailey I. Edelstein, Rebecca L. Michelson, Nikita S. Rao 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Industrial-Scale Manufacture Of Oleosin 30g For Use As Contrast Agent In Echocardiography, Steven P. Casey, Hailey I. Edelstein, Rebecca L. Michelson, Nikita S. Rao

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

In ultrasound sonography, microbubbles are used as contrasting agents to improve the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging. Monodisperse microbubbles are required to achieve the optimal image quality. In order to achieve a uniform size distribution, microbubbles are stabilized with surfactant molecules. One such molecule is Oleosin, an amphiphilic structural protein found in vascular plant oil bodies that contains one hydrophobic and two hydrophilic sections. Controlling the functionalization of microbubbles is a comprehensive and versatile process using recombinant technology to produce a genetically engineered form of Oleosin called Oleosin 30G. With the control of a microfluidic device, uniformly-sized and resonant microbubbles can ...


High-Temperature Nuclear Power Cycle Using Either Helium Or S-Co2, Sally E. Mink, Stephanie E. Gedal, Dillon M. Weber, Abhinav Dantuluri 2016 University of Pennsylvania

High-Temperature Nuclear Power Cycle Using Either Helium Or S-Co2, Sally E. Mink, Stephanie E. Gedal, Dillon M. Weber, Abhinav Dantuluri

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The goal of this process was to model the helium-based modular, nuclear reactor power cycle after the existing MIT Pebble-Bed Nuclear Reactor Power Cycle (Kadak, 2005), and to improve on the design by changing the working fluid to supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2). The power output of the process as specified in the problem statement, provided by Adam Brostow, was 120 MW. S-CO2 is a much denser fluid, and should theoretically require smaller equipment sizes, making it the more economically viable option for this process. However, it was found that with a return on investment (ROI) of -2.13 ...


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