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Identification Of Developmental Stage And Anatomical Fraction Contributions To Cell Wall Recalcitrance In Switchgrass, Jacob D. Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G. Ong, David B. Hodge 2017 Michigan State University

Identification Of Developmental Stage And Anatomical Fraction Contributions To Cell Wall Recalcitrance In Switchgrass, Jacob D. Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G. Ong, David B. Hodge

Rebecca Ong

Background

Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode.

Results

Substantial differences in both cell wall composition ...


Identification Of Developmental Stage And Anatomical Fraction Contributions To Cell Wall Recalcitrance In Switchgrass, Jacob D. Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G. Ong, David B. Hodge 2017 Michigan State University

Identification Of Developmental Stage And Anatomical Fraction Contributions To Cell Wall Recalcitrance In Switchgrass, Jacob D. Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G. Ong, David B. Hodge

Department of Chemical Engineering Publications

Background

Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode.

Results

Substantial differences in both cell wall composition ...


High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

High Throughput Characterization Of Adult Stem Cells Engineered For Delivery Of Therapeutic Factors For Neuroprotective Strategies, Anup D. Sharma, Pavel A. Brodskiy, Emma M. Petersen, Melih Dagdeviren, Eun-Ah Ye, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald Sakaguchi

Surya K Mallapragada

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a powerful cellular resource and have been used in numerous studies as potential candidates to develop strategies for treating a variety of diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize MSCs as cellular vehicles engineered for delivery of therapeutic factors as part of a neuroprotective strategy for rescuing the damaged or diseased nervous system. In this study we used mouse MSCs that were genetically modified using lentiviral vectors, which encoded brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), together with green fluorescent protein (GFP).

Before proceeding ...


Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, JoEllyn M. McMillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman 2017 Iowa State University

Enabling Nanomaterial, Nanofabrication And Cellular Technologies For Nanoneuromedicines, Surya K. Mallapragada, Timothy M. Brenza, Joellyn M. Mcmillan, Balaji Narasimhan, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anup D. Sharma, Svitlana Zbarska, Howard E. Gendelman

Surya K Mallapragada

Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can ...


Soluble Factors From Neocortical Astrocytes Enhance Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Rat Hippocampus On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Jisun Oh, Jennifer B. Recknor, Justin C. Recknor, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald S. Sakaguchi 2017 Iowa State University

Soluble Factors From Neocortical Astrocytes Enhance Neuronal Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells From Adult Rat Hippocampus On Micropatterned Polymer Substrates, Jisun Oh, Jennifer B. Recknor, Justin C. Recknor, Surya K. Mallapragada, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Surya K Mallapragada

Rat adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) are self-renewing, multipotent neural progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia. Previously, we demonstrated that coculture of AHPCs with postnatal day two, type 1 cortical astrocytes on laminin-coated micropatterned polymer substrates facilitates selective neuronal differentiation of the AHPCs 1. Under this condition, multi-dimensional cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix interactions, as well as possible soluble factors released from astrocytes provided spatial and temporal control selectively enhancing neuronal differentiation and neurite alignment on topographically different regions of the same substrate. To investigate the potential role of astrocyte-derived soluble factors as cues involved ...


Numerical Simulation Of Turbulent Gas-Particle Flow In A Riser Using A Quadrature-Based Moment Method, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox 2017 Iowa State University

Numerical Simulation Of Turbulent Gas-Particle Flow In A Riser Using A Quadrature-Based Moment Method, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox

Rodney O. Fox

Gas-particle flows are used in many industrial applications in the energy, oil and gas fields, such as coal gasification, production of light hydrocarbons by fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic combustion and different treatments aiming to reduce or eliminate pollutants. The particle phase of a gas-particle flow is described by analogy to a granular gas, by finding an approximate solution of the kinetic equation in the velocity-based number density function. In the recent past, many studies have been published on the mathematical modeling of gas-particle flows using hydrodynamic models (e.g. Enwald et al. 1996), where Navier-Stokes-type equations are solved to describe ...


Measurement Of Stress Changes During Growth And Dissolution Of Anodic Oxide Films On Aluminum, Ömer Ö. Çapraz, Pranav Shrotriya, Kurt R. Hebert 2017 Iowa State University

Measurement Of Stress Changes During Growth And Dissolution Of Anodic Oxide Films On Aluminum, Ömer Ö. Çapraz, Pranav Shrotriya, Kurt R. Hebert

Pranav Shrotriya

While stress is thought to play an important role in the development of self-organized porous films, mechanisms of stress generation during anodizing are not yet understood. In order to reveal depth distributions of stress in anodic films, phase-shifting curvature interferometry was used to monitor force transients (in-plane stress integrated through the sample thickness) during formation of anodic oxides on aluminum in phosphoric acid, aswell as subsequent open-circuit dissolution. Themeasurements were not influenced significantly by electrostatic stress, internal stress in the metal samples, thermal stress, or stress induced by open-circuit dissolution. At typical current densities, the force became more compressive during ...


Bioethanol Production Using Saccharomyces Cerevisae Cultivated In Sugarcorn Juice, Thirumalai Nambi Thiruvengadathan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Bioethanol Production Using Saccharomyces Cerevisae Cultivated In Sugarcorn Juice, Thirumalai Nambi Thiruvengadathan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For the first time, juice extracted from sugarcorn, a new Canadian energy crop, was used for bioethanol production. Physical and chemical characteristics of sugarcorn juice (SCJ) were determined. SCJ contained a maximum of 145 g/L of carbohydrates, with sucrose, glucose and fructose together contributing 80%. Effect of autoclaving and carbon filtration on juice sugars were investigated.

Shake flask fermentations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in yeast extract supplemented SCJ produced a maximum of 45.6 g/L ethanol in 72 h. Bioreactor studies using un-supplemented SCJ achieved 40 g/L ethanol in 26 h, yielding a maximum of 0.46 ...


Yqhd: A Broad-Substrate Range Aldehyde Reductase With Various Applications In Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Yqhd: A Broad-Substrate Range Aldehyde Reductase With Various Applications In Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is ...


Metabolic Engineering For Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals: Contributions Of Synthetic Biology, Laura R. Jarboe, Xueli Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jonathan C. Moore, K. T. Shanmugam, Lonnie O. Ingram 2017 Iowa State University

Metabolic Engineering For Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals: Contributions Of Synthetic Biology, Laura R. Jarboe, Xueli Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jonathan C. Moore, K. T. Shanmugam, Lonnie O. Ingram

Laura R. Jarboe

Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemicalbased production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use ...


Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram 2017 Iowa State University

Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram

Laura R. Jarboe

Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Carboxylic Acid Challenge In Escherichia Coli: Beyond Membrane Damage, Liam A. Royce, Erin E. Boggess, Yao Fu, Ping Liu, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Julie A. Dickerson, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Carboxylic Acid Challenge In Escherichia Coli: Beyond Membrane Damage, Liam A. Royce, Erin E. Boggess, Yao Fu, Ping Liu, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Julie A. Dickerson, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical. Enormous progress has been made in engineering microbes for production of these compounds though titers remain lower than desired. Here we used transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli during exogenous challenge with octanoic acid (C8) at pH 7.0 to probe mechanisms of toxicity. This analysis highlights the intracellular acidification and membrane damage caused by C8 challenge. Network component analysis identified transcription factors with altered activity including GadE, the activator of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system (AR2) and Lrp, the amino acid biosynthesis regulator. The intracellular acidification was quantified during exogenous challenge, but was ...


Metabolic Engineering Of Biocatalysts For Carboxylic Acids Production, Ping Liu, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Metabolic Engineering Of Biocatalysts For Carboxylic Acids Production, Ping Liu, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Fermentation of renewable feedstocks by microbes to produce sustainable fuels and chemicals has the potential to replace petrochemical-based production. For example, carboxylic acids produced by microbial fermentation can be used to generate primary building blocks of industrial chemicals by either enzymatic or chemical catalysis. In order to achieve the titer, yield and productivity values required for economically viable processes, the carboxylic acid-producing microbes need to be robust and wellperforming. Traditional strain development methods based on mutagenesis have proven useful in the selection of desirable microbial behavior, such as robustness and carboxylic acid production. On the other hand, rationally-based metabolic engineering ...


Identification Of Soil Microbes Capable Of Utilizing Cellobiosan, Jieni Lian, Jinlyung Choi, Yee Shiean Tan, Adina C. Howe, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of Soil Microbes Capable Of Utilizing Cellobiosan, Jieni Lian, Jinlyung Choi, Yee Shiean Tan, Adina C. Howe, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Approximately 100 million tons of anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and cellobiosan, are produced through biomass burning every year. These sugars are also produced through fast pyrolysis, the controlled thermal depolymerization of biomass. While the microbial pathways associated with levoglucosan utilization have been characterized, there is little known about cellobiosan utilization. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of six cellobiosan-utilizing microbes from soil samples. Each of these organisms is capable of using both cellobiosan and levoglucosan as sole carbon source, though both minimal and rich media cellobiosan supported significantly higher biomass production than levoglucosan. Ribosomal sequencing was used to identify ...


Engineering Inhibitor Tolerance For The Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Lu, Liam Royce 2017 Iowa State University

Engineering Inhibitor Tolerance For The Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Lu, Liam Royce

Laura R. Jarboe

Metabolic Engineering has enabled the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals from biomass using recombinant bacteria. The economic viability of these processes is often limited by inhibition of the biocatalyst by the metabolic product, such as a carboxylic acid or alcohol, or by contaminant compounds in the biomass-derived sugars, such as acetic acid or furans. Historically, selection-based methods have been used to improve biocatalyst tolerance to these inhibitors. But recently, genome-wide analysis has been used to both identify the mechanism of inhibition and reverse engineer inhibitor-tolerant strains, enabling the rational, predictive manipulation of bacteria in order to increase inhibitor tolerance ...


Engineering Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli For Levoglucosan Utilization, Donovan S. Layton, Avanthi Ajjarapu, Dong Won Choi, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Engineering Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli For Levoglucosan Utilization, Donovan S. Layton, Avanthi Ajjarapu, Dong Won Choi, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Levoglucosan is a major product of biomass pyrolysis. While this pyrolyzed biomass, also known as bio-oil, contains sugars that are an attractive fermentation substrate, commonly-used biocatalysts, such as Escherichia coli, lack the ability to metabolize this anhydrosugar. It has previously been shown that recombinant expression of the levoglucosan kinase enzyme enables use of levoglucosan as carbon and energy source. Here, ethanologenic E. coli KO11 was engineered for levoglucosan utilization by recombinant expression of levoglucosan kinase from Lipomyces starkeyi. Our engineering strategy uses a codon-optimized gene that has been chromosomally integrated within the pyruvate to ethanol (PET) operon and does not ...


Growth Condition Optimization For Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) Production By Moritella Marina Mp-1, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, John A. Rathmacher, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Growth Condition Optimization For Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) Production By Moritella Marina Mp-1, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, John A. Rathmacher, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

The marine organism Moritella marina MP-1 produces the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While the basic metabolic pathway for DHA production in this organism has been identified, the impact of growth conditions on DHA production is largely unknown. This study examines the effect of supplemental carbon, nitrogen and salts, growth temperature and media composition and pH on DHA and biomass production and the fatty acid profile. The addition of supplemental nitrogen significantly increased the overall DHA titer via an increase in biomass production. Supplemental glucose or glycerol increased biomass production, but decreased the amount of DHA per biomass, resulting ...


Cellular, Particle And Environmental Parameters Influencing Attachment In Surface Waters: A Review, Chunyu Liao, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Cellular, Particle And Environmental Parameters Influencing Attachment In Surface Waters: A Review, Chunyu Liao, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Effective modelling of the fate and transport of water-borne pathogens is needed to support federally required pollution-reduction plans, for water quality improvement planning, and to protect public health. Lack of understanding of microbial–particle interactions in water bodies has sometimes led to the assumption that bacteria move in surface waters not associated with suspended mineral and organic particles, despite a growing body of evidence suggesting otherwise. Limited information exists regarding the factors driving interactions between micro-organisms and particles in surface waters. This review discusses cellular, particle and environmental factors potentially influencing interactions and in-stream transport. Bacterial attachment in the aquatic ...


In Situ Nmr Systems, Jacqueline V. Shanks 2017 Iowa State University

In Situ Nmr Systems, Jacqueline V. Shanks

Jacqueline V. Shanks

In situ NMR is becoming an established technology for applications in bioprocessing and metabolic engineering. The in situ NMR biosensor acts as a noninvasive pH, ion, and concentration meter, with 31P and 13C as the two main isotopes of study. A substantial data base now exists for phosphorus and carbon spectra of bacteria and yeast. In situ NMR can provide many of the state variables needed for modeling glycolytic pathway function. NMR micro-reactor technology has improved significantly in the last decade. Several designs for immobilized cell reactors have been tested, and in particular, considerable gains have been made in the ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Carboxylic Acid Challenge In Escherichia Coli: Beyond Membrane Damage, Liam A. Royce, Erin E. Boggess, Yao Fu, Ping Liu, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Julie A. Dickerson, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Carboxylic Acid Challenge In Escherichia Coli: Beyond Membrane Damage, Liam A. Royce, Erin E. Boggess, Yao Fu, Ping Liu, Jacqueline V. Shanks, Julie A. Dickerson, Laura R. Jarboe

Jacqueline V. Shanks

Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical. Enormous progress has been made in engineering microbes for production of these compounds though titers remain lower than desired. Here we used transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli during exogenous challenge with octanoic acid (C8) at pH 7.0 to probe mechanisms of toxicity. This analysis highlights the intracellular acidification and membrane damage caused by C8 challenge. Network component analysis identified transcription factors with altered activity including GadE, the activator of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system (AR2) and Lrp, the amino acid biosynthesis regulator. The intracellular acidification was quantified during exogenous challenge, but was ...


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