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Exploring Shape-Memory Polymers From Silicone I And 1,10-Decanediol Blends, Kristina Nguyen 2020 The University of Akron

Exploring Shape-Memory Polymers From Silicone I And 1,10-Decanediol Blends, Kristina Nguyen

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are polymeric materials that have dual-shape capabilities. These materials can deform to a temporary shape and will recover to their permanent original shape when induced by an external stimulus such as heat. The purpose of this project was to investigate the thermo-mechanical properties and shape-memory behavior of various blends of Silicone I and 1,10-decanediol to determine if a unique blend of these components can be utilized to develop shape memory surface relief patterns.

Careful iterative experiments were used to develop a robust procedure for the fabrication of crosslinked sheets of blends of Silicone I and 1 ...


Design Of Pigments For Use In “Cool” Coatings, Tyler Laughorn 2020 The University of Akron

Design Of Pigments For Use In “Cool” Coatings, Tyler Laughorn

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project was focused on the development and testing of several novel pigments that exhibit high NIR-reflectance and therefore show potential for use in “cool” coatings. A “cool” coating will reflect more solar radiation than other standard coatings, and so a coated structure would require less energy to keep cool. Four sets of pigments were synthesized: Co1-xMgxCr2O4 (teal), Co0.25Mg0.75Cr2-yAlyO4 (blue), Ti1-x-yNixSbyO2 (yellow), and Cr2-xFexO3 (black). NIR and TSR values were ...


Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher DeJean 2020 The University of Akron

Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher Dejean

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Electrospinning uses high voltages to form polymer nanofiber membranes. These membranes have potential for use in filtration, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and catalysis. The nonwoven fiber mat is malleable but has a low tensile strength compared to a solid film of the same polymer. Joining the fibers with a thin film is desired to balance the strength and flexibility. Three methods of producing a film on fiber membrane were tested. The techniques are spraying then melting, spin coating, and dip coating. Electrospinning setup conditions, solvent ratios, damage to fibers, and spin coating speeds were determined. Research was abruptly stopped and ...


Testing The Effectiveness Of Reflective "Cool" Pigments, Ashleigh Carpenter 2020 The University of Akron

Testing The Effectiveness Of Reflective "Cool" Pigments, Ashleigh Carpenter

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project is an exploration of reflective "cooling" pigments used in coatings for the exterior of a structure in order to control the temperature inside. The pigments reflect sunlight to reduce the heating effect inside a structure. While the project will include the synthesis and testing of these pigments, the focus will be on the design and construction of an apparatus to test the effectiveness of these pigments. An apparatus will be constructed with a heat source and two structures of identical dimensions. The set-up will allow for the temperature of the inside of the structures to be recorded at ...


Effects Of Crosslinking Conditions On Biofouling Of Polymer Substrates With A Hydrogel Layer, Laura Davila 2020 The University of Akron

Effects Of Crosslinking Conditions On Biofouling Of Polymer Substrates With A Hydrogel Layer, Laura Davila

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The introduction of a hydrogel coating to a surface has been looked at for different benefits. Certain hydrogels offer antifouling properties that are beneficial to different applications like medical components. Previous attempts (2) (3)have been done to introduce a hydrogel surface to plastic substrates. One of them is to use grafting brushes which works properly but it is not sufficient since the layer is too thin and therefore can be damaged. The second method have a bulkier coating without crosslinking. Opposite to grafting brushes this method has too thick of a layer. Additionally, there is no crosslink therefore the ...


Aqueous And Oil Products From Hydrothermal Liquefaction Of Manure Digestate, Kenzie Burns 2020 Bucknell University

Aqueous And Oil Products From Hydrothermal Liquefaction Of Manure Digestate, Kenzie Burns

Honors Theses

Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising thermochemical waste-to-energy (WtE) technology for conversion of wet biomasses, such as manure and digested manure, into value-added products, namely energy-rich biofuel and a nutrient-rich aqueous product. WtE technologies can address environmental issues relating to overproduction of organic wastes and increasing dependence on fossil fuels, which leads to climate change. HTL has not been implemented on a commercial scale, in part due to the uncertainty regarding specific reaction pathways for different feedstocks and ideal conditions for production of the most valuable products.

This research investigates the compositions of the aqueous and oil products from HTL of ...


Why Do I Have To Know This? Engineering In A Globalized Society, Caleb Cunningham 2020 Bucknell University

Why Do I Have To Know This? Engineering In A Globalized Society, Caleb Cunningham

Honors Theses

Through a pilot comparative study, this thesis examines the problem-solving of chemical engineering students and chemical engineering faculty. Specifically, the thesis examines the extent to which individuals include global factors (cultural, social, environmental, and economic) into their engineering solutions as specified by ABET. Several hypotheses were investigated in this pilot study: (i) having a study abroad experience would increase the likelihood that participants included the global factors of interest, (ii) the type (PUI, Research Intensive, Unique) of institution students attended would impact how individuals approached the problem, (iii) students with similar career aspirations would approach the problems similarly, (iv) having ...


Characterization And Electrochemical Performance Of Dopamine-Sensitized Titania Thin Films, Joshua Garay 2020 University of Kentucky

Characterization And Electrochemical Performance Of Dopamine-Sensitized Titania Thin Films, Joshua Garay

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Sensitization of mesoporous titania films with dopamine and polydopamine for visible light photoelectrochemical activity is investigated. Sensitization effectiveness is compared with 8 mM dopamine solutions of varying pH (acidic, basic, and neutral), as well as with a basic polydopamine solution. Vibrational changes due to dopamine attachment are determined from detached powders by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to quantify organics attached. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of intact films probes the chemically induced charge shift from dopamine attachment. Cyclic voltammetry identifies the irreversible dopamine oxidation and tin reduction voltages. Finally, chronoamperometric curves are used to compare ...


Fabrication, Characterization And Applications Of Highly Conductive Wet-Spun Pedot:Pss Fibers, Ruben Sarabia Riquelme 2020 University of Kentucky

Fabrication, Characterization And Applications Of Highly Conductive Wet-Spun Pedot:Pss Fibers, Ruben Sarabia Riquelme

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Smart electronic textiles cross conventional uses to include functionalities such as light emission, health monitoring, climate control, sensing, storage and conversion of energy, etc. New fibers and yarns that are electrically conductive and mechanically robust are needed as fundamental building blocks for these next generation textiles.

Conjugated polymers are promising candidates in the field of electronic textiles because they are made of earth-abundant, inexpensive elements, have good mechanical properties and flexibility, and can be processed using low-cost large-scale solution processing methods. Currently, the main method to fabricate electrically conductive fibers or yarns from conjugated polymers is the deposition of the ...


Effect Of Silica Nanoconfinement Of Lipid Bilayers On Its Phase Transition And On The Colloidal Stability Of Silica Nanoparticles, Aniruddha Atul Shirodkar 2020 University of Kentucky

Effect Of Silica Nanoconfinement Of Lipid Bilayers On Its Phase Transition And On The Colloidal Stability Of Silica Nanoparticles, Aniruddha Atul Shirodkar

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

In this work, we incorporated 4-(N-Boc-aminometyl) phenylboronic acid (BA), at different concentrations, into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers confined within nanopores of two different mean pore diameters of 7.4 nm and 11.7 nm of micron sized silica particles. The confinement of DPPC into nanopores resulted in the depression in the main phase transition temperatures compared to the liposomal system. The addition of BA was found to induce disruptions in the acyl chains of the lipid molecules at all concentrations of the solute. The lipid bilayer cooperativity was found to be higher in the confined systems compared to ...


Silica Nanoporous Confinement Effects On Ionic Liquid Properties For Better Design Of Small Molecule Separation, Electrochemical Devices And Drug Delivery, Yuxin He 2020 University of Kentucky

Silica Nanoporous Confinement Effects On Ionic Liquid Properties For Better Design Of Small Molecule Separation, Electrochemical Devices And Drug Delivery, Yuxin He

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Silica nanoconfinement provides a high level of control of ionic liquids (ILs) in localizing catalysts, creating distinct environment for tuning reactivity and controlling the partition of solvents, reactants and products. Silica thin films with two different pore sizes (2.5 nm and 8 nm) were synthesized to study the effect of nanopore confinement on ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]). Silica thin films with accessible 8 nm pore diameters were synthesized using evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) with Pluronic P123 as templating surfactant on a chemically neutral modified substrate. The silica films with similar orthogonal aligned ...


Utilizing Virtual High-Throughput Screens To Identify Promising Inhibitors Of Complement Factor C1s, Lyndsey Schmucker 2020 The University of Akron

Utilizing Virtual High-Throughput Screens To Identify Promising Inhibitors Of Complement Factor C1s, Lyndsey Schmucker

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

A large study was conducted to identify possible drug candidates to treat various diseases using computer algorithms, virtual high-throughput screens, and experimental validation of activity. Since the algorithm has the capability to screen millions of compounds, it is beneficial to pharmaceutical development as it allows a larger pool of compounds to be considered that would have otherwise been overlooked. As part of this larger study, this project attempts to identify drug candidates to treat human complement factor C1, a protein which causes tissue damage when underregulated1. A series of designed experiments validate candidates and confirm the performance of the ...


The Effect Of Processing Conditions On The Size And Polydispersity Of Polymer Nanoparticles Prepared With Impingement Jets Mixing, Okkar Min 2020 Bucknell University

The Effect Of Processing Conditions On The Size And Polydispersity Of Polymer Nanoparticles Prepared With Impingement Jets Mixing, Okkar Min

Honors Theses

Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are considered for controlled drug delivery because they are small enough to diffuse through tissues, target specific tissues, and penetrate through cell membranes to deliver drugs more locally, mitigating side effects seen with intravenous injection. There are still difficulties in producing polymer nanoparticles at scale and in a size range (60 nm to 80 nm in diameter) that are large enough to avoid many of the biological barriers and yet small enough to have reasonable diffusion rates through tissue. In this work, the effects of process parameters (Reynolds number, amount of surfactant, location of surfactant, quench volume ...


Towards Wireless Characterization Of Solvated Ions With Uncoated Resonant Sensors, Sadaf Charkhabi, Adam R. Carr, Jiahao Wu, Subhanwit Roy, Andee M. Beierle, Dustin K. Thomas, Leigh Ann M. Long, Michelle L. Soupir, Nathan M. Neihart, Nigel F. Reuel 2020 Iowa State University

Towards Wireless Characterization Of Solvated Ions With Uncoated Resonant Sensors, Sadaf Charkhabi, Adam R. Carr, Jiahao Wu, Subhanwit Roy, Andee M. Beierle, Dustin K. Thomas, Leigh Ann M. Long, Michelle L. Soupir, Nathan M. Neihart, Nigel F. Reuel

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Uncoated resonant sensors are presented here for wireless monitoring of solvated ions, with progress made toward monitoring nitrates in agricultural runoff. The sensor, an open-circuit Archimedean coil, is wirelessly interrogated by a portable vector network analyzer (VNA) that monitors the scattering parameter response to varying ionic concentrations. The sensor response is defined in terms of the resonant frequency and the peak-to-peak amplitude of the transmission scattering parameter profile (|S21|). Potassium chloride (KCl) solutions with concentrations in the range of 100 nM – 4.58 M were tested on nine resonators having different length and pitch sizes to study the effect ...


Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford 2020 West Virginia University

Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties related to cellulose dissolution by tetrabutylphosphonium chloride (TBPCl) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPH)-water mixtures have been calculated via molecular dynamics simulations. For both ionic liquid (IL)-water solutions, water veins begin to form between the TBPs interlocking arms at 80 mol % water, opening a pathway for the diffusion of the anions, cations, and water. The water veins allow for a diffusion regime shift in the concentration region from 80 to 92.5 mol % water, providing a higher probability of solvent interaction with the dissolving cellulose strand. The hydrogen bonding was compared between small and ...


The Use Of Succinonitrile As An Electrolyte Additive For Composite-Fiber Membranes In Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jahaziel Villarreal, Roberto Orrostieta Chavez, Sujay A. Chopade, Timothy P. Lodge, Mataz Alcoutlabi 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

The Use Of Succinonitrile As An Electrolyte Additive For Composite-Fiber Membranes In Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jahaziel Villarreal, Roberto Orrostieta Chavez, Sujay A. Chopade, Timothy P. Lodge, Mataz Alcoutlabi

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

In the present work, the effect of temperature and additives on the ionic conductivity of mixed organic/ionic liquid electrolytes (MOILEs) was investigated by conducting galvanostatic charge/discharge and ionic conductivity experiments. The mixed electrolyte is based on the ionic liquid (IL) (EMI/TFSI/LiTFSI) and organic solvents EC/DMC (1:1 v/v). The effect of electrolyte type on the electrochemical performance of a LiCoO2 cathode and a SnO2/C composite anode in lithium anode (or cathode) half-cells was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt.% succinonitrile (SN) resulted in enhanced ionic conductivity ...


Towards Efficient Water Treatment: Mechanism Of Colloidal Fouling Of Ultrafiltration Membranes, Ikenna Henry Ozofor 2020 Michigan Technological University

Towards Efficient Water Treatment: Mechanism Of Colloidal Fouling Of Ultrafiltration Membranes, Ikenna Henry Ozofor

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This research study first reviewed challenges of conventional and membrane separation systems for water treatment. Though membrane separation systems appeared superior to the conventional counterparts for water and wastewater treatment, wider applications of membrane systems have been limited by some factors, most notably is membrane fouling. Experimental studies were therefore conducted to achieve the goal of this research, which is to investigate how feed properties affect fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by colloids.

Feed salinity, pH, and nanoparticle concentration were the variables studied to unravel how different UF membranes are fouled by model silica colloids (with average diameter of 25nm ...


Detection And Thermal Stabilization Of Virus Based On Surface Properties, Xue Mi 2020 Michigan Technological University

Detection And Thermal Stabilization Of Virus Based On Surface Properties, Xue Mi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Viral diseases take the lives of millions of people each year. The most effective methods to prevent viral disease outbreak are viral detection to reduce contact with viral pathogens and vaccines to prevent disease. To reduce the costs of the detection of viruses and improve vaccine formulation, we explored viral surface properties. The properties we have focused on are viral hydrophobicity and surface charge using chemical force microscopy (CFM). CFM is a single-particle technique that measures the adhesion force of a functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe, and in this study, a virus covalently bound to a surface. The non-enveloped ...


Sparse Identification Of Multiphase Turbulence Closures For Coupled Fluid--Particle Flows, S. Beetham, Rodney O. Fox, J. Capecelatro 2020 University of Michigan

Sparse Identification Of Multiphase Turbulence Closures For Coupled Fluid--Particle Flows, S. Beetham, Rodney O. Fox, J. Capecelatro

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this work, model closures of the multiphase Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are developed for homogeneous, fully-developed gas--particle flows. To date, the majority of RANS closures are based on extensions of single-phase turbulence models, which fail to capture complex two-phase flow dynamics across dilute and dense regimes, especially when two-way coupling between the phases is important. In the present study, particles settle under gravity in an unbounded viscous fluid. At sufficient mass loadings, interphase momentum exchange between the phases results in the spontaneous generation of particle clusters that sustain velocity fluctuations in the fluid. Data generated from Eulerian--Lagrangian simulations are ...


Time-Dependent Reliability Framework For Durability Design Of Frp Composites, Rajneesh Kumar Bharil 2020 West Virginia University

Time-Dependent Reliability Framework For Durability Design Of Frp Composites, Rajneesh Kumar Bharil

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The life-cycle performance, durability, and aging characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP or Structural Composites) have been of keen interest to the engineers engaged in the FRP design, construction, and manufacturing. Unlike conventional construction materials such as steel and concrete, the design guidelines to account for the aging of FRP are somewhat scattered or not available in an approved or consistent format. Loss of strength over time or aging of any structural material should be of concern to engineers as the in-service lifespan of many engineering structures is expected to exceed 100 years. Use of durability strength-reduction factors or factors ...


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