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Engineering Ionomer Materials For Addressing Ohmic Resistances In Electrochemical Desalination And Waste Heat Recovery, Varada Menon Palakkal 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Engineering Ionomer Materials For Addressing Ohmic Resistances In Electrochemical Desalination And Waste Heat Recovery, Varada Menon Palakkal

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Water scarcity and energy availability present important challenges that need to be addressed in the coming centuries. In the front of water technologies, desalting brackish water is of extreme importance for thermal electric power plants, chemical manufacturing plants, and other industrial operations that treat and reuse their water utilities. Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an energy efficient desalination technique that has drawn attention from commercial entities. Most material research studies on MCDI focus on enhancing electrode performance while little emphasis is given to rationale design of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). In this work, the ionic conductivity, permselectivity, and thickness for three ...


Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Analysis Of Blood Purification Studies On Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes, Tony Roller 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Analysis Of Blood Purification Studies On Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes, Tony Roller

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is currently the ninth leading cause of death in the United States, and of the 661,00 Americans diagnosed with ESRD, approximately 468,800 were on hemodialysis in 2016. Hemodialysis refers to a technique where a machine combined with a membrane, often referred to as an artificial kidney, is used to clean blood by removing any waste such as urea, potassium, and other smaller waste products while preserving the concentrations and integrity of cells and proteins in the blood. It has been shown in artificial blood studies that cellulose nanomaterials, like TEMPO/Oxidized cellulose nanoparticles (TOCNs ...


Scale-Up Of Polyaniline Cellulose Membranes, Isaac Bodemann 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Scale-Up Of Polyaniline Cellulose Membranes, Isaac Bodemann

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyaniline coated cellulose membranes show impressive conductive properties that may be used to innovate traditional charged separation techniques, such as electrodeionization. However, these membranes are not sold to consumers, so they cannot be easily integrated into such systems. This research focuses on the scale-up and development of positively charged anion exchange membranes to be used in EDI cells. Novel cellulose membranes were made using lab-specific cellulose. These membranes were then coated using a polyaniline technique adopted from a paper titled, “Flexible Electrically Conductive Nanocomposite Membrane Based on Bacterial Cellulose and Polyaniline." This paper details the methods used to add the ...


Fabrication Of Composite Membranes For Solar-Thermal Desalination, Andrew Mason, Mahdi Mohammadighaleni, Siamak Nejati 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fabrication Of Composite Membranes For Solar-Thermal Desalination, Andrew Mason, Mahdi Mohammadighaleni, Siamak Nejati

UCARE Research Products

With rising human populations, the demand for freshwater is an ever-growing problem. One emerging technology to combat this problem is membrane distillation (MD). MD has several advantages for water desalination such as:

•100% rejection of solute (salt, heavy metals, etc.) •Mergeable with other affordable energy sources (solar heat, electric resistance, etc.)

However, at the moment the specific energy consumption (SEC) of MD is very high due to low water production rates and large energy inputs to heat water. In a solar-assisted design for MD, the high cost of solar collectors (~$200/m2) inhibits low cost of water production in comparison ...


Integrity Testing Of Gas Permeable Silicone Filters, Maggie M. Baker, Thomas P. Humann, Kevin J. Yerina 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Integrity Testing Of Gas Permeable Silicone Filters, Maggie M. Baker, Thomas P. Humann, Kevin J. Yerina

Biomedical Engineering

This report investigates the most reasonable, cost efficient, and reliable ways to integrity test a filter made from a permeable silicone membrane for future biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The goal of the project was to create a fixture that a pharmaceutical company can use to quickly and reliably test the integrity of the filter. A variety of methods are outlined to test the integrity of the filter, after a series of quantitative tests, a single method was established that meet the requirements most thoroughly. The method that was determined to be most effective involves a series of components including a ...


Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher DeJean 2020 The University of Akron

Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher Dejean

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Electrospinning uses high voltages to form polymer nanofiber membranes. These membranes have potential for use in filtration, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and catalysis. The nonwoven fiber mat is malleable but has a low tensile strength compared to a solid film of the same polymer. Joining the fibers with a thin film is desired to balance the strength and flexibility. Three methods of producing a film on fiber membrane were tested. The techniques are spraying then melting, spin coating, and dip coating. Electrospinning setup conditions, solvent ratios, damage to fibers, and spin coating speeds were determined. Research was abruptly stopped and ...


Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger 2020 University of Akron

Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It can be difficult to separate water and oil emulsions through traditional filtration. Therefore, investigations of filtering using thermo-responsive (TR) polymers, in this case poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), was conducted. It’s hypothesized that below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), PVME has an affinity for water while oil substances do not. Above the LCST the opposite will be true. To verify this hypothesis, iterations of filtration designs were created to provide optimum control over the parameters to measure flow. The final optimized experimental apparatus was a Chromaflex glass column which was air tight and controlled all parameters besides ...


Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher DeJean 2020 The University of Akron

Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher Dejean

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Electrospinning uses high voltages to form polymer nanofiber membranes. These membranes have potential for use in filtration, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and catalysis. The nonwoven fiber mat is malleable but has a low tensile strength compared to a solid film of the same polymer. Joining the fibers with a thin film is desired to balance the strength and flexibility. Three methods of producing a film on fiber membrane were tested. The techniques are spraying then melting, spin coating, and dip coating. Electrospinning setup conditions, solvent ratios, damage to fibers, and spin coating speeds were determined. Research was abruptly stopped and ...


Towards Efficient Water Treatment: Mechanism Of Colloidal Fouling Of Ultrafiltration Membranes, Ikenna Henry Ozofor 2020 Michigan Technological University

Towards Efficient Water Treatment: Mechanism Of Colloidal Fouling Of Ultrafiltration Membranes, Ikenna Henry Ozofor

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This research study first reviewed challenges of conventional and membrane separation systems for water treatment. Though membrane separation systems appeared superior to the conventional counterparts for water and wastewater treatment, wider applications of membrane systems have been limited by some factors, most notably is membrane fouling. Experimental studies were therefore conducted to achieve the goal of this research, which is to investigate how feed properties affect fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by colloids.

Feed salinity, pH, and nanoparticle concentration were the variables studied to unravel how different UF membranes are fouled by model silica colloids (with average diameter of 25nm ...


Dynamic Study Of Mo/Zsm-5 Catalyst For Ch4 Dehydroadomation, Hadi Yahya Almusawa 2020 West Virginia University

Dynamic Study Of Mo/Zsm-5 Catalyst For Ch4 Dehydroadomation, Hadi Yahya Almusawa

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Methane dehydroaromatization (CH4-MDA) is a highly promising venture for natural gas utilization/exploitation, i.e., direct conversion of methane (CH4) to liquid aromatics (benzene) and hydrogen. This process is a catalytic reaction and therefore, is subject to all the advantages and constraints of catalysis. This study discussed the structure and reactivity of Mo/ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts and their effect on the active conversion of methane to valuable aromatic products such as benzene: 1) The preparation and characterization of Mo/ZSM-5, which are crucial steps in any catalytic reaction process since a better performing catalyst consequently leads to ...


A Comparison Of Fiber Mat Thickness Measurement Techniques Using Laser Interferometry And Water Displacement, Ryan Seabeck 2020 The University of Akron

A Comparison Of Fiber Mat Thickness Measurement Techniques Using Laser Interferometry And Water Displacement, Ryan Seabeck

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Polymer fiber mats may often be very thin which leads to complications in measuring thickness. The thickness of fiber mats, however, is crucial in understanding their behavior. Thickness affects how well the mat works as a filter as well as the pressure drop across the mat, and herein lies the need for accurate measurement techniques. Currently two of the available techniques for measuring mat thickness are by laser interferometry[1] and by buoyancy force when submerged in water[2]. Instead of measuring the buoyancy force in this experiment, an enclosure intended to measure the thickness via water displacement was fabricated ...


Functional Importance Of Lipin Phosphorylation, Stephanie Elizabeth Hood 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Functional Importance Of Lipin Phosphorylation, Stephanie Elizabeth Hood

Theses and Dissertations

Highly conserved throughout evolution, lipins are dual functioning proteins found from yeast to humans. Functioning in the cytoplasm as phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes (PAP), lipins produce diacylglycerol that serves as a precursor for neutral fats and membrane phospholipids. Alternatively, nuclear lipins are responsible for the regulation of metabolic genes. Interestingly, both the mammalian lipin 1 paralog and the single Drosophila Lipin ortholog are highly phosphorylated proteins. Target of rapamycin (TOR) has previously been identified as one of the kinases that controls the subcellular localization of both lipin 1 and Drosophila Lipin. However, other serine and threonine kinases are predicted to be ...


Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo

Theses and Dissertations

Noble metal nanoparticles and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals offer unique optical and electronic properties that include strong exciton binding, spin-orbital coupling, and localized surface plasmon resonance. Controlling these properties at high spatiotemporal resolution can support emerging optoelectronic coupling and enhanced optical features. Excitation dynamics of these optical properties on physicochemically bonded mono- and few-layer TMD crystals with metal nanocrystals and two overlapping spherical metal nanocrystals were examined by concurrently (i) DDA simulations and (ii) far-field optical transmission UV-vis spectroscopic measurements. Initially, a novel and scalable method to unsettle van der Waals bonds in bulk TMDs to prepare ...


Influence Of Single And Multiple Histidine Residues And Their Ionization Properties On Transmembrane Helix Dynamics, Orientations And Fraying, Fahmida Afrose 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Single And Multiple Histidine Residues And Their Ionization Properties On Transmembrane Helix Dynamics, Orientations And Fraying, Fahmida Afrose

Theses and Dissertations

Since aromatic and charged residues are often present in various locations of transmembrane helices of integral membrane proteins, their impacts on the molecular properties of transmembrane proteins and their interactions with lipids are of particular interest in many studies. In this work, I used solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy in designed model peptide GWALP23 [GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA] with selective deuterium labels to addresses the pH dependence and influence of single and multiple “guest” histidine residues in the orientation and dynamic behaviors of transmembrane proteins. The mutations include Gly to His (G2/22 to H2/22), Trp to His (W5/19 to ...


Applications Of Ionic Liquids In Membrane Separation, Mohanad Kamaz 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Applications Of Ionic Liquids In Membrane Separation, Mohanad Kamaz

Theses and Dissertations

Ionic liquids represent an emerging attractive material in membrane technology. The central theme of this doctoral dissertation is to develope novel membranes using ionic liquids. Two different approaches were used to prepare ionic liquid membranes including the immobilization of ionic liquid within the membrane pores or the use of pressure assembly method to deposit a selective ionic liquid layer on the top membrane surface.

In chapter 2, imidazolium ionic liquids with three different alkyl halides were successfully synthesized and used to prepare supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). SILMs preraper were tested for aqueous and nonaqueous applications. For nonaqueous applications, the ...


Influence Of Naoh Concentration On Transfer Process Of Graphene, Francisco Saldana, Chengyu Wen, George Patrick Watson 2019 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Influence Of Naoh Concentration On Transfer Process Of Graphene, Francisco Saldana, Chengyu Wen, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

The process of transferring a monolayer of graphene using two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution unto a silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated Si chip using electrochemistry was performed. The transfer process is crucial for the delamination of a continuous graphene monolayer film from copper foil. After examining and inspecting the integrity of the graphene monolayer, it was observed that the lower concentration to NaOH led to slower rate of hydrogen bubble generation; this condition was found to be less destructive and yielded a graphene film with fewer visible tears.


Improving The Stability And Monodispersity Of Layered Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films By Tuning Crystallization Dynamics, Atefe Hadi, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Kalyan Santra, Fang-Yi Lin, Eric W. Cochran, Matthew G. Panthani 2019 Iowa State University

Improving The Stability And Monodispersity Of Layered Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films By Tuning Crystallization Dynamics, Atefe Hadi, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Kalyan Santra, Fang-Yi Lin, Eric W. Cochran, Matthew G. Panthani

Matthew Panthani

Assembling halide perovskites into layered structures holds promise for addressing chemical and phase stability challenges; however, several other challenges need to be addressed to create efficient and stable halide perovskite devices. Layered halide perovskites (LHPs) suffer from broad distribution of layer thicknesses and bandgaps within thin films. Reducing polydispersity could substantially improve charge transport within LHP films and the performance of LHP-based solar cells. Herein, we focused on layering α-CsPbI3 ((C4H9NH3)2Csn-1PbnI3n+1) thin films. We found that (C4H9NH3)2Csn-1PbnI3n+1 with nominal layer thicknesses of n = 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be deposited at temperatures as low as ...


Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Distillery wastewater treatment is a great ecological problem, for example, India produces 2.7 billion liters of alcohol that results in 40 billion liters of wastewater. However, this material can be seen as a resource since 11 million cubic meters of biogas at 60% methane could be produced in addition to cleaning the water. The distillery has two options of what to do with the biogas. The first is to use the biogas to fuel the distillery making the production plant more energy efficient and removing some of the need to buy natural gas. The other is to upgrade the ...


Improving The Stability And Monodispersity Of Layered Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films By Tuning Crystallization Dynamics, Atefe Hadi, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Kalyan Santra, Fang-Yi Lin, Eric W. Cochran, Matthew G. Panthani 2019 Iowa State University

Improving The Stability And Monodispersity Of Layered Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films By Tuning Crystallization Dynamics, Atefe Hadi, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Kalyan Santra, Fang-Yi Lin, Eric W. Cochran, Matthew G. Panthani

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Assembling halide perovskites into layered structures holds promise for addressing chemical and phase stability challenges; however, several other challenges need to be addressed to create efficient and stable halide perovskite devices. Layered halide perovskites (LHPs) suffer from broad distribution of layer thicknesses and bandgaps within thin films. Reducing polydispersity could substantially improve charge transport within LHP films and the performance of LHP-based solar cells. Herein, we focused on layering α-CsPbI3 ((C4H9NH3)2Csn-1PbnI3n+1) thin films. We found that (C4H9NH3)2Csn-1PbnI3n+1 with nominal layer thicknesses of n = 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be deposited at temperatures as low as ...


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