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Design Of Peptoid-Based Coating To Reduce Biofouling In Gas Exchange Devices, Neda Mahmoudi 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of Peptoid-Based Coating To Reduce Biofouling In Gas Exchange Devices, Neda Mahmoudi

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, membrane technology has been used commonly in biomedical area. However, membrane fouling is a widespread problem in different applications. One method to minimize fouling is through surface modification of membranes. My research explores a novel polymer to minimize nonspecific protein adsorption in biomedical applications.

It firstly focuses on grafting the electrically neutral NMEG peptoid, containing 2-methoxyethyl side chains, to polysulfone (PSU) membrane via polydopamine. Contact angle measurements indicated that the hydrophilicity of the peptoid-grafted membranes was significantly improved while the pore size and strength of the membranes remained unchanged. The modified membranes showed an improved fouling resistance ...


Membrane-Based Separation Processes For Treating High Salinity Produced Waters, Kamyar Sardari 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Membrane-Based Separation Processes For Treating High Salinity Produced Waters, Kamyar Sardari

Theses and Dissertations

Produced waters (PW) generated in the oil and gas industry within the United States often contain extreme levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). These high TDS waste streams need to be treated cost-effectively as the costs associated with the current management techniques can exceed 15 USD per barrel of discharged PW. Thermally and osmotically-driven membrane separation technologies can show promising potential for treating high TDS waste streams, as onsite low-grade waste heat may be used for their operation. In this dissertation, the application of membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO) and a hybrid FO-MD process for treating synthetic and actual ...


An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn 2018 Korea Science Academy

An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn

The International Student Science Fair 2018

In this research, an entirely new molecular glue is reported. This ‘coordination polymer glue’ is synthesized from zinc metal and BDC-NPE(2,5-bis{4-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylamino]butoxy}terephthalic acid). Molecular glue transforms from 1D coordination polymer to a 3D cross-linked framework, resulting in a phase change of solution to solid. The carboxylate group of this glue makes the preformed MOF bind to its framework. Therefore, when the solution of molecular glue is mixed with preformed MOF powder and heated, homogeneous and thin MOF film – MOF/ZnNPE film – is fabricated. The film is irrelevant to the kind of its substrate ...


An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn 2018 Korea Science Academy

An Entirely New Molecular Glue For Mof Using Unusual Structural Transformation Of A Coordination Polymer, Sukwoo Jung, Hangyeol Kim, Junseok Ahn

The International Student Science Fair 2018

In this research, an entirely new molecular glue is reported. This ‘coordination polymer glue’ is synthesized from zinc metal and BDC-NPE(2,5-bis{4-[1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylamino]butoxy}terephthalic acid). Molecular glue transforms from 1D coordination polymer to a 3D cross-linked framework, resulting in a phase change of solution to solid. The carboxylate group of this glue makes the preformed MOF bind to its framework. Therefore, when the solution of molecular glue is mixed with preformed MOF powder and heated, homogeneous and thin MOF film – MOF/ZnNPE film – is fabricated. The film is irrelevant to the kind of its substrate ...


Process Intervention For Water Recovery In Food Manufacture, Christian Michael Wisniewski 2018 Rowan University

Process Intervention For Water Recovery In Food Manufacture, Christian Michael Wisniewski

Theses and Dissertations

A case study has been conducted for the recovery of water from complex wastewater at a soluble coffee manufacturing factory. The study has evaluated separation methods for process intervention based on environmental and economic assessments. Water recovery was identified in two possible wastewater streams at the factory: the overall plant effluent and an intermediate stream before it enters on-site pre-treatment. A novel vibratory field membrane separation was tested at the laboratory scale using real factory wastewater and scaled-up using appropriate design protocols. Recovery of water from the intermediate stream proved the most effective, both environmentally and economically. The full-scale vibratory ...


Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Ecological Effects And Sustainable Solutions, Ryan Hanley 2018 University of Washington – Tacoma

Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Ecological Effects And Sustainable Solutions, Ryan Hanley

Global Honors Theses

Freshwater availability is a growing global concern, and desalination is often presented as the solution, but from this important technology comes issues of toxic waste. Ecosystems are delicate areas that contain species adapted to that specific location, and any chemical or physical changes can disrupt the fitness of species. The concentrate byproduct waste from desalination plants is toxic to species if the concentrate is not compatible with the receiving water body. A critical review of scientific articles, industry-leading books, conversations with industry experts, and information from the American Membrane Technology Association conference was used to analyze the current knowledge. Species ...


Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Juan Rodriguez, Thomas Krumpolc, Zach Wiese 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Juan Rodriguez, Thomas Krumpolc, Zach Wiese

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to the increasing prevalence of prescription medication over the past few decades, pharmaceuticals have accumulated in various water sources. This has become a public health concern because many pharmaceuticals have limited research on the effects of chronic low-level exposure.One pharmaceutical of interest that has been detected in water sources is carbamazepine. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a common pharmaceutical prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders, neuropathic pain, and various psychological disorders. It’s mechanism of action is “sodium channel blocking,” which is the impairment of conduction of sodium ions in sodium channels. This, in effect, reduces nervous-system conductivity in ...


Review Of Challenges And Advances In Modification Of Food Package Headspace Gases, Ziynet Boz, Bruce A. Welt, Jeffrey K. Brecht, William Pelletier, Eric McLamore, Gregory A. Kiker, Jason E. Butler 2018 University of Florida

Review Of Challenges And Advances In Modification Of Food Package Headspace Gases, Ziynet Boz, Bruce A. Welt, Jeffrey K. Brecht, William Pelletier, Eric Mclamore, Gregory A. Kiker, Jason E. Butler

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) has been widely used as an effective way to preserve foods. Fresh produce, meat and meat products, seafood, and dairy products can benefit from modified gaseous atmospheres, which are usually achieved by reducing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, within limits, defined by product tolerances. MAP of fresh produce is particularly challenging because products are living and respiring. Respiration rates depend on several factors including temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations. Balancing package permeation with respiration is challenging, often due to limited selection of practical packaging materials. Failing to remain within tolerance limits of products leads ...


Pressure-Driven Stabilization Of Capacitive Deionization, Landon S. Caudill 2018 University of Kentucky

Pressure-Driven Stabilization Of Capacitive Deionization, Landon S. Caudill

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

The effects of system pressure on the performance stability of flow-through capacitive deionization (CDI) cells was investigated. Initial data showed that the highly porous carbon electrodes possessed air/oxygen in the micropores, and the increased system pressure boosts the gases solubility in saline solution and carries them out of the cell in the effluent. Upon applying a potential difference to the electrodes, capacitive-based ion adsorption occurs in competition with faradaic reactions that consume oxygen. Through the addition of backpressure, the rate of degradation decreases, allowing the cell to maintain its salt adsorption capacity (SAC) longer. The removal of oxygen from ...


Characterization Of Bacteriorhodopsin And Halorhodopsin Reconstituted In Lipid Bilayer Membranes, Joel Domkam Kamwa 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Bacteriorhodopsin And Halorhodopsin Reconstituted In Lipid Bilayer Membranes, Joel Domkam Kamwa

Theses and Dissertations

Motivated to produce electricity with photon activated ion pumps, the main purpose of this work was to characterize the photosynthetic membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (proton pump) and halorhodopsin (chloride pump). The proteins were re-suspended in lipid bilayers. For this work, an experimental set-up was built which included: chambers for lipid bilayer formation and characterization, lasers for ion pump activation, and an AxoPatch electrophysiology system for small photocurrent measurement. Lipid bilayer membranes were formed using mostly folding method: folding two monolayers together. The membranes were characterized by their resistance, capacitance, and generated photocurrent. Photocurrent was generated upon illumination of lipid-protein membranes with ...


Layer-By-Layer Assembled Membranes With Immobilized Porins, Sebastián Hernández, Cassandra Porter, Xinyi Zhang, Yinan Wei, Dibakar Bhattacharyya 2017 University of Kentucky

Layer-By-Layer Assembled Membranes With Immobilized Porins, Sebastián Hernández, Cassandra Porter, Xinyi Zhang, Yinan Wei, Dibakar Bhattacharyya

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

New and advanced opportunities are arising for the synthesis and functionalization of membranes with selective separation, reactivity, and stimuli-responsive behavior. One such advancement is the integration of bio-based channels in membrane technologies. By a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes, outer membrane protein F trimers (OmpF) or “porins” from Escherichia coli with central pores ∼2 nm in diameter at their opening and ∼0.7 × 1.1 nm at their constricted region are immobilized within the pores of poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes, in contrast to traditional ruptured lipid bilayer or vesicle processes. These OmpF-membranes demonstrate selective rejection of non-charged organics over ...


Transport Of Water And Ions Through Single-Walled Armchair Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics Study, Michelle Patricia Aranha 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Transport Of Water And Ions Through Single-Walled Armchair Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics Study, Michelle Patricia Aranha

Doctoral Dissertations

The narrow hydrophobic interior of a carbon nanotube (CNT) poses a barrier to the transport of water and ions, and yet, unexpectedly, numerous experimental and simulation studies have confirmed fast water transport rates comparable to those seen in biological aquaporin channels. These outstanding features of high water permeability and high solute rejection of even dissolved ions that would typically require a lot of energy for separation in commercial processes makes carbon nanotubes an exciting candidate for desalination membranes. Extending ion exclusion beyond simple mechanical sieving by the inclusion of electrostatics via added functionality to the nanotube bears promise to not ...


Electrochemical Hydrogen Separation Via The Solid Acid Electrolyte Cesium Dihydrogen Phosphate, David Leon Wilson 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Electrochemical Hydrogen Separation Via The Solid Acid Electrolyte Cesium Dihydrogen Phosphate, David Leon Wilson

Doctoral Dissertations

Abundant, inexpensive, high purity molecular hydrogen as a medium for energy distribution is potentially enabling for adoption of alternative electricity generation schemes. Steam reforming of natural gas remains the dominant method of producing large amounts of hydrogen. However, this process also creates by-products, most notably, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Separation to ultra-high purity hydrogen from these syngas reformate streams by traditional methods, such as pressure swing absorption, has its disadvantages including long cycle times, contamination and a large equipment footprint. Alternative methods of hydrogen separation, such as electrochemical pumping, are a viable alternative to this separation dilemma due to ...


Peptoid-Modified Bicelles As Surrogate Cell Membranes For Membrane Protein Sensors And Analytics, Helya Najafi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Peptoid-Modified Bicelles As Surrogate Cell Membranes For Membrane Protein Sensors And Analytics, Helya Najafi

Theses and Dissertations

Membrane-affiliated interactions are significant in understanding cell function, detecting biomarkers to diagnose disease, and in testing the efficiency of new therapeutic targets. Model membrane systems have been developed to study membrane proteins, allowing for stable protein structure and maintaining native activity. Bicelles, disc-shaped lipid bilayers created by combining long- and short-chain phospholipids, are the model membrane system of focus in this study. Bicelles are accessible from both sides and have a wide size range, which make them attractive for studying membrane proteins without affecting function. In this work, bicelles were functionalized with two peptoids to alter the edge and face ...


Artificial Olfactory System For Multi-Component Analysis Of Gas Mixtures., Alexander Aleksandrovich Larin 2017 University of Louisville

Artificial Olfactory System For Multi-Component Analysis Of Gas Mixtures., Alexander Aleksandrovich Larin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gas analysis is an important part of our world and gas sensing technology is becoming more essential for various aspects of our life. A novel approach for gas mixture analysis by using portable gas chromatography in combination with an array of highly integrated and selective metal oxide (MOX) sensors has been studied. We developed a system with small size (7 x 13 x 16 inches), low power consumption (~10 W) and absence of special carrier gases designed for portable field analysis (assuming apriori calibration). Low ppb and even sub-ppb level of detection for some VOCs was achieved during the analysis ...


Microbial Desalination Cells With Efficient Platinum Group Metal-Free Cathode Catalysts, Morteza Rezaei Talarposhti 2017 University of New Mexico

Microbial Desalination Cells With Efficient Platinum Group Metal-Free Cathode Catalysts, Morteza Rezaei Talarposhti

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

Iron-nitrogen-carbon based catalyst was used at the cathode of a microbial desalination cell (MDC) and compared with platinum (Pt) and activated carbon (AC) cathode. Fe-N-C catalyst was prepared using nicarbazin (NCB) as organic precursor by sacrificial support method (SSM). Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) experiments shows that Fe-NCB had higher electrocatalytic activity compared to AC and Pt. The utilization of Fe-NCB into the cathode improved substantially the performance output with initial maximum power density of 49±2 μWcm-2 in contrast to Pt and AC catalysts which have shown lower values of 34±1 μWcm-2 and 23.5±1 ...


Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte For Lithium-Oxygen Battery Application, Amir Chamaani 2017 Amir Chamaani

Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte For Lithium-Oxygen Battery Application, Amir Chamaani

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The transition from fossil fuels to renewable resources has created more demand for energy storage devices. Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical energy densities. They, however, are still in their infancy and several fundamental challenges remain to be addressed. Advanced analytical techniques have revealed that all components of a Li-O2 battery undergo undesirable degradation during discharge/charge cycling, contributing to reduced cyclability. Despite many attempts to minimize the anode and cathode degradation, the electrolyte remains as the leading cause for rapid capacity fading and poor cyclability in Li-O2 batteries. In this ...


Effect Of Surface Modification And Macrophage Phenotype On Particle Internalization, Daniel Wang, Ngoc Phan, Christopher Isely, Lucas Bruene, Kaitlin M. Bratlie 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Surface Modification And Macrophage Phenotype On Particle Internalization, Daniel Wang, Ngoc Phan, Christopher Isely, Lucas Bruene, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Material properties play a key role in the cellular internalization of polymeric particles. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of material characteristics such as water contact angle, zeta potential, melting temperature, and alternative activation of complement on particle internalization for pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and naïve macrophages by using biopolymers (∼600 nm), functionalized with 13 different molecules. Understanding how material parameters influence particle internalization for different macrophage phenotypes is important for targeted delivery to specific cell populations. Here, we demonstrate that material parameters affect the alternative pathway of complement activation as well as particle internalization for different macrophage phenotypes ...


Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Combined Modified Alginates On Macrophage Phenotype, Hannah C. Bygd, Kaitlin M. Bratlie 2017 Iowa State University

Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Combined Modified Alginates On Macrophage Phenotype, Hannah C. Bygd, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Understanding macrophage responses to biomaterials is crucial to the success of implanted medical devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery vehicles. Cellular responses to materials may depend synergistically on multiple surface chemistries, due to the polyvalent nature of cell–ligand interactions. Previous work in our lab found that different surface functionalities of chemically modified alginate could sway macrophage phenotype toward either the pro-inflammatory or pro-angiogenic phenotype. Using these findings, this research aims to understand the relationship between combined material surface chemistries and macrophage phenotype. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion, nitrite production, and arginase activity were measured and used to determine ...


Simulating Microbial Electrolysis For Renewable Hydrogen Production Integrated With Separation In Biorefinery, Christian James Wilson 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Simulating Microbial Electrolysis For Renewable Hydrogen Production Integrated With Separation In Biorefinery, Christian James Wilson

Masters Theses

Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels requires significant amounts of hydrogen. Fossil resources typically supply hydrogen via steam reforming. A new technology called microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) has emerged which can generate hydrogen from organic sources and biomass. The thermochemical route to fuels via pyrolysis generates bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP) which can be used to make hydrogen. A process engineering and economic analysis of this technology was conducted for application in biorefineries of the future. Steam methane reforming, bio-oil separation and microbial electrolysis unit operations were simulated in Aspen Plus to derive the mass and energy balance for conversion of biomass ...


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