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Water Recovery From Bioreactor Mixed Liquors Using Forward Osmosis With Polyelectrolyte Draw Solutions, Calen Raulerson 2021 Clemson University

Water Recovery From Bioreactor Mixed Liquors Using Forward Osmosis With Polyelectrolyte Draw Solutions, Calen Raulerson

All Theses

The objective of this research was to test the feasibility of using forward osmosis (FO) with polyelectrolyte draw solutions to recover water from bioreactor mixed liquors. When combined with an Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor (AnOMBR), such a system could process fecal and food waste from astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and reclaim important nutrients and water. This project focused on measuring the obtainable water recovery rates from bioreactor effluent, and the identifying challenges associated with the operation.

AnOMBRs feature several advantages over aerobic bioreactors, and non-osmotic anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Anaerobic bioreactors avoid the significant energy costs of ...


Atomically Thin Nanoporous Graphene Membranes For Fluid Separation, Anika O. K. Wong 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Atomically Thin Nanoporous Graphene Membranes For Fluid Separation, Anika O. K. Wong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane separation applications such as water desalination and carbon capture require high permeance and selectivity. For such processes, nanoporous graphene membranes promise 100-fold higher permeance at comparable selectivity to conventional polymer membranes, but remain under development. This thesis reports fluid permeance through both simulated and experimental graphene nanopores. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate liquid advection-diffusion through graphene nanopores and how the transport rates differ from continuum predictions. Furthermore, a technique for measuring the gas permeance of nanoscopic areas of graphene was developed. Here, a single layer of graphene seals a ~10 nm diameter hole in a multi-layer graphene ...


Inherently Porous Atomically Thin Membranes For Gas Separation, Harpreet Atwal 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Inherently Porous Atomically Thin Membranes For Gas Separation, Harpreet Atwal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membranes made from atomically thin materials promise hundreds of times higher production rates than conventional polymer membranes for separation applications. Graphene is impermeable to gases but becomes selectively permeable once pores are introduced into it but creating trillions of nanopores over large areas is difficult. By instead choosing an inherently porous two-dimensional material with naturally identical pores repeated at high density, we may circumvent this challenge. In this work, we explore the potential of two candidate materials, 2D polyphenylene and graphdiyne. We synthesize cyclohexane-m-phenylene, a monomer of 2D polyphenylene. We then develop an atomic force microscopy technique for measuring the ...


Characterization Techniques And Cation Exchange Membrane For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery, Kun Lou 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Techniques And Cation Exchange Membrane For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery, Kun Lou

Doctoral Dissertations

The motivation of this work comes from one of the major problems of emerging non-aqueous flow battery (NAFB) that a separator or membrane which facilitates conductivity and blocks redox species crossover does not exist. Although many aspects of principles can be mirrored from mature fuel cell and aqueous flow battery, it is found that some well-defined membrane properties in aqueous systems such as swelling, transport and interactions are different in non-aqueous solvents to some extent. However, the approach of this work does follow the way perfluorosulfonate ion exchange membrane (PFSA) facilitated development of fuel cell and aqueous flow battery in ...


Lipoprotein-Induced Increases In Cholesterol And 7-Ketocholesterol Result In Opposite Molecular-Scale Biophysical Effects On Membrane Structure, Manuela A.A. Ayee, Irena Levitan 2021 Dordt University

Lipoprotein-Induced Increases In Cholesterol And 7-Ketocholesterol Result In Opposite Molecular-Scale Biophysical Effects On Membrane Structure, Manuela A.A. Ayee, Irena Levitan

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

Under hypercholesterolemic conditions, exposure of cells to lipoproteins results in a subtle membrane increase in the levels of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, as compared to normal conditions. The effect of these physiologically relevant concentration increases on multicomponent bilayer membranes was investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Significant changes in the structural and dynamic properties of the bilayer membranes resulted from these subtle increases in sterol levels, with both sterol species inducing decreases in the lateral area and inhibiting lateral diffusion to varying extents. Cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, however, exhibited opposite effects on lipid packing and orientation. The results from this study indicate ...


Phase-Field Modeling Of The Polymer Membrane Formation Process For Micro- And Ultra-Filtration, Michael Rosario Cervellere 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phase-Field Modeling Of The Polymer Membrane Formation Process For Micro- And Ultra-Filtration, Michael Rosario Cervellere

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porous polymer membrane filters are widely used in separation and filtration process. Micro- and ultra-filtration membranes are commonly used in biopharmaceutical applications such as filtering viruses and separating proteins from a carrier solution. The formation of these membrane filters via phase inversion is a complex and interconnected process where varying casting conditions can have a wide variety of effects on the final membrane morphol- ogy. Tailoring membrane filters for specific performance characteristics is a tedious and time consuming process. The time and length scales of membrane formation make it extremely difficult to experimentally observe membrane formation. Modeling the membrane formation ...


Garver Industrial Design Project: Designing A Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility For The City Of Lawton, Oklahoma, Kayliana Warden, Marlando Collins, Sandrina DePaz, Reid Eakin, Reed Leasure, Vera Rodriguez 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Garver Industrial Design Project: Designing A Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility For The City Of Lawton, Oklahoma, Kayliana Warden, Marlando Collins, Sandrina Depaz, Reid Eakin, Reed Leasure, Vera Rodriguez

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A groundwater treatment facility was designed for Lawton, Oklahoma to address potential water scarcity due to drought conditions in southwest Oklahoma. The facility will produce five million gallons per day (MGD) of treated water. The plant will have the capacity of treating 4,085 gallons per minute of influent water at an 86% recovery. The water to be treated will come from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Aquifer. Studies have been conducted around the aquifer to identify the best well site locations.

A centralized treatment facility using reverse osmosis filtration as the main treatment technology has been designed. To prevent reverse osmosis ...


High Temperature Polymer Electrolytes For Hydrogen Fuel Cells And Electrochemical Pumps, Gokul Venugopalan 2021 Louisiana State University

High Temperature Polymer Electrolytes For Hydrogen Fuel Cells And Electrochemical Pumps, Gokul Venugopalan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Hydrogen fuel cell and separation technologies such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and electrochemical hydrogen pump (ECHP) offer a profound advantage in the transition to a low-carbon economy. An imperative hitch in hydrogen fuel cells and ECHP technology has been the electrocatalyst poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) and other contaminants in the reactant mixture. By operating, hydrogen fuel cells and ECHPs at high temperatures (>200 °C), the effect of CO adsorption on the electrocatalyst surface could be curtailed. The high-temperature operation of devices necessitates a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to operate under anhydrous conditions.

In this work, a ...


Synthesis Of Inorganic Porous Materials With Tunable Morphology For Molecular Adsorption And Separation, Sanket Sabnis 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Synthesis Of Inorganic Porous Materials With Tunable Morphology For Molecular Adsorption And Separation, Sanket Sabnis

Doctoral Dissertations

Global industrial and economic development over the past century has largely relied on combustion of non-renewable fossil fuels, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas, which are also harmful to environment because of the release of CO2, responsible for global warming and climate change. Establishing eco-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective processes to reduce environmental impact is currently one of the most urgent issues for the sustainable development of our society. Inorganic porous materials have found applications in the fields of renewable energy and environmental protection such as biomass conversion, fuel cells, thermal energy storage, CO2 capture and conversion, air ...


Wetting Transition On 3d-Printed Featured Surface, Hannah Pineault 2021 The University of Akron

Wetting Transition On 3d-Printed Featured Surface, Hannah Pineault

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The primary objective of this research project was to gain a better understanding of surface characteristics to produce a long-lasting superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surface. In other words, when will a droplet of water remain on top of a featured surface and when does the transition occur to water filling the grooves of the surface? This research focused on how to best fabricate porous structures that would stay completely dry at all times by preventing the liquid from penetrating. In particular, we followed the behaviors of water droplets placed on top of 3-D printed featured surfaces with various geometries and surface ...


Simulation Of Water Loading In Filter Medium, Anthony Mole 2021 The University of Akron

Simulation Of Water Loading In Filter Medium, Anthony Mole

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This research will model fluid flow through a filter plugged with water droplets using FlexPDE software. After simulations are run at various initial conditions, curves will be developed to correlate the permeability of the filter to variables like water droplet distribution and size.


Interactions Of Lignin Dimers With Engineered Surfaces And Model Cell Membranes For Design Of Lignin-Based Materials, Mahsa Moradipour 2021 University of Kentucky

Interactions Of Lignin Dimers With Engineered Surfaces And Model Cell Membranes For Design Of Lignin-Based Materials, Mahsa Moradipour

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Capitalizing on byproducts of industrial and agricultural economies is among the utmost goals of sustainability. Of particular interest for commercial upgrading is lignin, a phenolic biopolymer found in the cell walls of plants which is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth after cellulose. Due to its heterogeneous structure, deconstructing lignin to selected small molecules for use as chemicals or advanced materials has been elusive. This work capitalizes on a “bottom up” approach to the synthesis of lignin oligomers of known bond chemistry to better understand their interfacial interactions.

The potential pharmacological mechanism of lignin deconstruction components and their toxicological ...


Assessing The Impact Of Block-Selective Homopolymers On The Diffusion Of Payload Through Polymeric Organogels, Ian Coates 2021 Bucknell University

Assessing The Impact Of Block-Selective Homopolymers On The Diffusion Of Payload Through Polymeric Organogels, Ian Coates

Honors Theses

Styrenic polymer gels have received recent attention for their application in transdermal patches due to their unique properties. Previous research in the pharmaceutical industry has identified that polymeric gels, specifically styrenic gels, have the potential to encompass multiple functions of the transdermal delivery patch including controlling mechanical and delivery properties. To tailor styrenic gels either the gel nanostructure or the drug complex can be controlled. Specifically, this thesis investigated the effect of gel nanostructure in an attempt to control the gel diffusivity and mechanical properties. To control gel nanostructure a phase selective styrene homopolymer was used at varying concentrations. It ...


The Effects Of Solution Condition On Virus Filtration Performance, Fnu Namila 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Solution Condition On Virus Filtration Performance, Fnu Namila

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Virus filtration is an integral part of the downstream purification of mammalian cell culture-derived biotherapeutics to assure the viral safety of the products. Virus filtration membranes remove viruses based on a size-exclusion mechanism. Commercial parvovirus filers possess unique membrane structure and are designed to remove smaller non-enveloped parvoviruses with size 18-26 nm. However, some filters face issues, such as pre-mature fouling, the decline of filtrate flux, and reduction in virus retention. This doctoral dissertation focused on identifying the factors that influence the filtrate flux and the virus retention capability of commercial virus filters. The effects of solution pH and ionic ...


Optimizing Membrane Distillation With Solar Thermal Collectors, Andrew Mason, Ben Shulders, Siamak Nejati 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Optimizing Membrane Distillation With Solar Thermal Collectors, Andrew Mason, Ben Shulders, Siamak Nejati

UCARE Research Products

With rising human populations, the demand for freshwater is an ever-growing problem. One emerging technology to combat this problem is membrane distillation (MD). MD has several advantages for water desalination including 100% rejection of solute (salt, heavy metals, etc.) and mergeability with other affordable energy sources (solar heat, electric resistance, etc.) However, at the moment the specific energy consumption (SEC) of MD is very high due to low water production rates and large energy inputs to heat water. In a solar‐assisted design for MD, the high cost of solar collectors (~$200/m2) inhibits the low cost of water production ...


Nanohybrid Membrane Synthesis With Phosphorene Nanoparticles: A Study Of The Addition, Stability And Toxicity, Joyner Eke, Philip Alexander Mills, Jacob Ryan Page, Garrison P. Wright, Olga V. Tsyusko, Isabel C. Escobar 2020 University of Kentucky

Nanohybrid Membrane Synthesis With Phosphorene Nanoparticles: A Study Of The Addition, Stability And Toxicity, Joyner Eke, Philip Alexander Mills, Jacob Ryan Page, Garrison P. Wright, Olga V. Tsyusko, Isabel C. Escobar

Center of Membrane Sciences Faculty Publications

Phosphorene is a promising candidate as a membrane material additive because of its inherent photocatalytic properties and electrical conductance which can help reduce fouling and improve membrane properties. The main objective of this study was to characterize structural and morphologic changes arising from the addition of phosphorene to polymeric membranes. Here, phosphorene was physically incorporated into a blend of polysulfone (PSf) and sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) doping solution. Protein and dye rejection studies were carried out to determine the permeability and selectivity of the membranes. Since loss of material additives during filtration processes is a challenge, the stability ...


Probing Counterion Condensation Phenomena In Nanostructured Thin Film Block Copolymer And Random Copolymer Electrolytes, Qi Lei 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Probing Counterion Condensation Phenomena In Nanostructured Thin Film Block Copolymer And Random Copolymer Electrolytes, Qi Lei

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes advanced metrology and molecular dynamics simulations for quantifying counterion condensation in block copolymer electrolyte thin films. The fraction of condensed counterions (fc) were quantified in nanostructured block copolymer electrolyte (BCE) and random copolymer electrolyte (RCE) thin films with new and established experimental techniques. The transition between the osmotic-controlled regime and condensation-controlled regime in BCEs and RCEs was identified using solution uptake measurements via a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and environmental grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GI-SAXS). The activity coefficients of ions in thin film were quantified experimentally and these values matched predictions from Manning’s Theory ...


Engineering Ionomer Materials For Addressing Ohmic Resistances In Electrochemical Desalination And Waste Heat Recovery, Varada Menon Palakkal 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Engineering Ionomer Materials For Addressing Ohmic Resistances In Electrochemical Desalination And Waste Heat Recovery, Varada Menon Palakkal

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Water scarcity and energy availability present important challenges that need to be addressed in the coming centuries. In the front of water technologies, desalting brackish water is of extreme importance for thermal electric power plants, chemical manufacturing plants, and other industrial operations that treat and reuse their water utilities. Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an energy efficient desalination technique that has drawn attention from commercial entities. Most material research studies on MCDI focus on enhancing electrode performance while little emphasis is given to rationale design of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). In this work, the ionic conductivity, permselectivity, and thickness for three ...


Pollution Prevention Via Recovery Of Cerium (Iv) Oxide In Optics Company, Eugene Park, William Gallagher, Sydor Optics, Flint Creek Resources 2020 Rochester Institute of Technology

Pollution Prevention Via Recovery Of Cerium (Iv) Oxide In Optics Company, Eugene Park, William Gallagher, Sydor Optics, Flint Creek Resources

Articles

Pollution prevention methods were applied at an optics manufacturer in an effort to improve recovery of a valuable polishing component, cerium oxide (ceria), 77% of which was lost to dragout and sewer discharge. Centrifugation and microfiltratiion were evaluated to develop a process that would increase recovery of used ceria, which would then be sent back to the ceria supplier for reclamation and reuse. Full-scale implementation included a high-speed centrifuge that operates continuously with a microfiltration system through recirculation in a single process tank. Sydor Optics has improved ceria recovery from 23% to 48%, saving thousands of dollars annually.


Surface Modified Polypropylene Membranes For Treating Hydraulic Fracturing Produced Waters By Membrane Distillation, Tharaka Hawpe Gamage 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Surface Modified Polypropylene Membranes For Treating Hydraulic Fracturing Produced Waters By Membrane Distillation, Tharaka Hawpe Gamage

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Membrane distillation is an emerging technology for treating hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters. Suppression of membrane fouling by inorganic and polar and non-polar organic compounds is a challenge. Here polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate, polyacrylic acid, polvinylallyl imidazolium bromide and polyvinylhexyl imidazolium bromide chains have been grafted from the membrane surface. Fouling is initially due to adsorption of organic compounds followed by scale formation. When challenged with produced water, membranes modified with polvinylallyl imidazolium bromide chains provided the greatest resistance to fouling. For EC pretreated produced water and synthetic produced water that contained mainly inorganic species, the flux decline was much less.


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