Process Intervention For Water Recovery In Food Manufacture, 2018 Rowan University
Process Intervention For Water Recovery In Food Manufacture, Christian Michael Wisniewski
Theses and Dissertations
A case study has been conducted for the recovery of water from complex wastewater at a soluble coffee manufacturing factory. The study has evaluated separation methods for process intervention based on environmental and economic assessments. Water recovery was identified in two possible wastewater streams at the factory: the overall plant effluent and an intermediate stream before it enters on-site pre-treatment. A novel vibratory field membrane separation was tested at the laboratory scale using real factory wastewater and scaled-up using appropriate design protocols. Recovery of water from the intermediate stream proved the most effective, both environmentally and economically. The full-scale vibratory ...
Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Juan Rodriguez, Thomas Krumpolc, Zach Wiese
Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses
Due to the increasing prevalence of prescription medication over the past few decades, pharmaceuticals have accumulated in various water sources. This has become a public health concern because many pharmaceuticals have limited research on the effects of chronic low-level exposure.One pharmaceutical of interest that has been detected in water sources is carbamazepine. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a common pharmaceutical prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders, neuropathic pain, and various psychological disorders. It’s mechanism of action is “sodium channel blocking,” which is the impairment of conduction of sodium ions in sodium channels. This, in effect, reduces nervous-system conductivity in ...
Review Of Challenges And Advances In Modification Of Food Package Headspace Gases, 2018 University of Florida
Review Of Challenges And Advances In Modification Of Food Package Headspace Gases, Ziynet Boz, Bruce A. Welt, Jeffrey K. Brecht, William Pelletier, Eric Mclamore, Gregory A. Kiker, Jason E. Butler
Journal of Applied Packaging Research
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) has been widely used as an effective way to preserve foods. Fresh produce, meat and meat products, seafood, and dairy products can benefit from modified gaseous atmospheres, which are usually achieved by reducing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, within limits, defined by product tolerances. MAP of fresh produce is particularly challenging because products are living and respiring. Respiration rates depend on several factors including temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations. Balancing package permeation with respiration is challenging, often due to limited selection of practical packaging materials. Failing to remain within tolerance limits of products leads ...
Pressure-Driven Stabilization Of Capacitive Deionization, 2018 University of Kentucky
Pressure-Driven Stabilization Of Capacitive Deionization, Landon S. Caudill
Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering
The effects of system pressure on the performance stability of flow-through capacitive deionization (CDI) cells was investigated. Initial data showed that the highly porous carbon electrodes possessed air/oxygen in the micropores, and the increased system pressure boosts the gases solubility in saline solution and carries them out of the cell in the effluent. Upon applying a potential difference to the electrodes, capacitive-based ion adsorption occurs in competition with faradaic reactions that consume oxygen. Through the addition of backpressure, the rate of degradation decreases, allowing the cell to maintain its salt adsorption capacity (SAC) longer. The removal of oxygen from ...
Layer-By-Layer Assembled Membranes With Immobilized Porins, 2017 University of Kentucky
Layer-By-Layer Assembled Membranes With Immobilized Porins, Sebastián Hernández, Cassandra Porter, Xinyi Zhang, Yinan Wei, Dibakar Bhattacharyya
Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications
New and advanced opportunities are arising for the synthesis and functionalization of membranes with selective separation, reactivity, and stimuli-responsive behavior. One such advancement is the integration of bio-based channels in membrane technologies. By a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes, outer membrane protein F trimers (OmpF) or “porins” from Escherichia coli with central pores ∼2 nm in diameter at their opening and ∼0.7 × 1.1 nm at their constricted region are immobilized within the pores of poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes, in contrast to traditional ruptured lipid bilayer or vesicle processes. These OmpF-membranes demonstrate selective rejection of non-charged organics over ...
Transport Of Water And Ions Through Single-Walled Armchair Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics Study, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Transport Of Water And Ions Through Single-Walled Armchair Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics Study, Michelle Patricia Aranha
The narrow hydrophobic interior of a carbon nanotube (CNT) poses a barrier to the transport of water and ions, and yet, unexpectedly, numerous experimental and simulation studies have confirmed fast water transport rates comparable to those seen in biological aquaporin channels. These outstanding features of high water permeability and high solute rejection of even dissolved ions that would typically require a lot of energy for separation in commercial processes makes carbon nanotubes an exciting candidate for desalination membranes. Extending ion exclusion beyond simple mechanical sieving by the inclusion of electrostatics via added functionality to the nanotube bears promise to not ...
Electrochemical Hydrogen Separation Via The Solid Acid Electrolyte Cesium Dihydrogen Phosphate, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Electrochemical Hydrogen Separation Via The Solid Acid Electrolyte Cesium Dihydrogen Phosphate, David Leon Wilson
Abundant, inexpensive, high purity molecular hydrogen as a medium for energy distribution is potentially enabling for adoption of alternative electricity generation schemes. Steam reforming of natural gas remains the dominant method of producing large amounts of hydrogen. However, this process also creates by-products, most notably, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Separation to ultra-high purity hydrogen from these syngas reformate streams by traditional methods, such as pressure swing absorption, has its disadvantages including long cycle times, contamination and a large equipment footprint. Alternative methods of hydrogen separation, such as electrochemical pumping, are a viable alternative to this separation dilemma due to ...
Artificial Olfactory System For Multi-Component Analysis Of Gas Mixtures., 2017 University of Louisville
Artificial Olfactory System For Multi-Component Analysis Of Gas Mixtures., Alexander Aleksandrovich Larin
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Gas analysis is an important part of our world and gas sensing technology is becoming more essential for various aspects of our life. A novel approach for gas mixture analysis by using portable gas chromatography in combination with an array of highly integrated and selective metal oxide (MOX) sensors has been studied. We developed a system with small size (7 x 13 x 16 inches), low power consumption (~10 W) and absence of special carrier gases designed for portable field analysis (assuming apriori calibration). Low ppb and even sub-ppb level of detection for some VOCs was achieved during the analysis ...
Peptoid-Modified Bicelles As Surrogate Cell Membranes For Membrane Protein Sensors And Analytics, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Peptoid-Modified Bicelles As Surrogate Cell Membranes For Membrane Protein Sensors And Analytics, Helya Najafi
Theses and Dissertations
Membrane-affiliated interactions are significant in understanding cell function, detecting biomarkers to diagnose disease, and in testing the efficiency of new therapeutic targets. Model membrane systems have been developed to study membrane proteins, allowing for stable protein structure and maintaining native activity. Bicelles, disc-shaped lipid bilayers created by combining long- and short-chain phospholipids, are the model membrane system of focus in this study. Bicelles are accessible from both sides and have a wide size range, which make them attractive for studying membrane proteins without affecting function. In this work, bicelles were functionalized with two peptoids to alter the edge and face ...
Microbial Desalination Cells With Efficient Platinum Group Metal-Free Cathode Catalysts, 2017 University of New Mexico
Microbial Desalination Cells With Efficient Platinum Group Metal-Free Cathode Catalysts, Morteza Rezaei Talarposhti
Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs
Iron-nitrogen-carbon based catalyst was used at the cathode of a microbial desalination cell (MDC) and compared with platinum (Pt) and activated carbon (AC) cathode. Fe-N-C catalyst was prepared using nicarbazin (NCB) as organic precursor by sacrificial support method (SSM). Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) experiments shows that Fe-NCB had higher electrocatalytic activity compared to AC and Pt. The utilization of Fe-NCB into the cathode improved substantially the performance output with initial maximum power density of 49±2 μWcm-2 in contrast to Pt and AC catalysts which have shown lower values of 34±1 μWcm-2 and 23.5±1 ...
Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte For Lithium-Oxygen Battery Application, 2017 Amir Chamaani
Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte For Lithium-Oxygen Battery Application, Amir Chamaani
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The transition from fossil fuels to renewable resources has created more demand for energy storage devices. Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical energy densities. They, however, are still in their infancy and several fundamental challenges remain to be addressed. Advanced analytical techniques have revealed that all components of a Li-O2 battery undergo undesirable degradation during discharge/charge cycling, contributing to reduced cyclability. Despite many attempts to minimize the anode and cathode degradation, the electrolyte remains as the leading cause for rapid capacity fading and poor cyclability in Li-O2 batteries. In this ...
Simulating Microbial Electrolysis For Renewable Hydrogen Production Integrated With Separation In Biorefinery, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Simulating Microbial Electrolysis For Renewable Hydrogen Production Integrated With Separation In Biorefinery, Christian James Wilson
Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels requires significant amounts of hydrogen. Fossil resources typically supply hydrogen via steam reforming. A new technology called microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) has emerged which can generate hydrogen from organic sources and biomass. The thermochemical route to fuels via pyrolysis generates bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP) which can be used to make hydrogen. A process engineering and economic analysis of this technology was conducted for application in biorefineries of the future. Steam methane reforming, bio-oil separation and microbial electrolysis unit operations were simulated in Aspen Plus to derive the mass and energy balance for conversion of biomass ...
Membranes For Food And Bioproduct Processing, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Membranes For Food And Bioproduct Processing, Alexandru Marius Avram
Theses and Dissertations
Modified membranes for process intensification in biomass hydrolysis
Production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is one of the leading candidates for replacement of petroleum based fuels and chemicals. However, conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is not cost effective compared to the production of fuels and chemicals from crude oil reserves. Some novel and economically feasible approaches involve the use of ionic liquids as solvents or co-solvents, since these show improved solvation capability of cellulose over simple aqueous systems. Membranes offer unique opportunities for process intensification which involves fractionation of the resulting biomass hydrolysate leading to ...
Removal Of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Using Membrane Bioreactor, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Removal Of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Using Membrane Bioreactor, Mohanad Ali Abdulsahib Kamaz
Theses and Dissertations
The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) such as pesticides, personal care products, antibiotics and pharmaceutical compounds, in sewage, industrial, and domestic waters has extensively become the major concern for health and environmental organizations. These compounds have the ability to interact with mammalian endocrine system and disrupting their functions. The traditional activated sludge processes are designed to degrade solids, organic carbon and nitrogen loading. Although several treatment steps in a wastewater treatment plant can contribute to partial removal of EDCs, effective removal has been a challenge due to their resistant chemical and biological degradation and ...
Membrane Surface Engineering For Biochemical Applications, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Membrane Surface Engineering For Biochemical Applications, Anh T. Vu
Theses and Dissertations
Synthetic membranes have been frequently used for many fields, such as, the food and beverage, biopharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. In the beer industry, microfiltration frequently suffers from fouling due to the interaction between different species. It is shown that polyphenols can form cross-links with protein molecules, forming insoluble aggregates. However, by adding an optimal amount of polysaccharides these aggregates can be disrupted thus reducing fouling by the aggregates. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a powerful technique to locate the foulants inside the wet membrane in order to understand more about the behavior of fouling in microfiltration.
Membrane surface modification ...
Mesoporous Zsm-5 Zeolites In Acid Catalysis: Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up Approach, 2017 Université de Strasbourg
Mesoporous Zsm-5 Zeolites In Acid Catalysis: Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up Approach, Pit Losch, Thomas C. Hoff, Joy F. Kolb, Claire Bernardon, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Benoît Louis
Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications
A top-down desilication of Al-rich ZSM-5 zeolites and a bottom-up mesopores creating method were evaluated in this study. Three liquid–solid and one gas–solid heterogeneously-catalysed reactions were chosen to establish relationships between zeolites textural properties and their catalytic behavior in acid-catalysed model reactions that are influenced by shape selectivity: Diels-Alder cyclization between isoprene and methylacrylate, Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) reaction, chlorination of iodobenzene with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA), and Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole by carboxylic acids with differing sizes. It is found amongst others that no optimal mesoporosity for all the different reactions can be easily obtained, but depending on the chosen ...
Liquid Gating Ptfe Membranes To Reduce Fouling, 2017 University of Maine
Liquid Gating Ptfe Membranes To Reduce Fouling, Jonathan C. Overton
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
In the processing industry, fouling due to the accumulation of bioparticles or bacteria on the surface of membranes results in decreased capacity, and subsequently requires filtration membranes to require periodic cleaning, causing increased operating costs. In this work, we evaluate the recently discovered concept of liquid-gated membranes (LGMs) in both filtration characteristics, as well as their ability to facilitate passive cleaning of membranes fouled with whey proteins. Additionally, we show that biofilms formed on the surface of these membranes can be removed through exposure to an air-water interface through a simple dipping step. We further analyze the mechanisms of fouling ...
Biomass Utilization Of Carbon, 2017 University of Wyoming
Biomass Utilization Of Carbon, Kathryn M. Hopfensperger, Catherine Brame, Mary Uselmann, Traci Reusser
Honors Theses AY 16/17
The goal of this project was to address the environmental implications of an algae biomass system that sequesters carbon dioxide to produce economically valuable products. The Algalrithm, a theoretical company driven by reducing CO2 emissions, chose a final product based upon the results of economic analyses that considered potential carbon capture and utilization incomes, as well as the value of diverse products under various commodity pricing constraints. Many algae-based bio-products were considered before narrowing in on a specific product that would encompass the volume of typical utility-scale electricity producing plants, a wide range of future carbon costs, and the ...
Morphological And Photoelectrochemical Characterization Of Membrane Reconstituted Photosystem I (Psi), 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Morphological And Photoelectrochemical Characterization Of Membrane Reconstituted Photosystem I (Psi), Seyedeh Hanieh Niroomand
The robust structural and photoactive electrochemical properties of Photosystem I (PSI), a transmembrane photosynthetic protein complex, make it an ideal candidate for incorporation into solid state bioelectronic or hybrid photovoltaic devices. However, the first step towards the successful fabrication of such devices requires systematic assembly of oriented and functional PSI onto desired bio-abio interfaces via suitable protein scaffoldings. Hence, this dissertation focuses on utilizing the cyanobacterial PSI for integration into organic/inorganic interfaces that mediate photo-electrochemical energy conversions for electricity and/or solar fuel production. To this end, in this study the effect of systematic incorporation of PSI complexes into ...
Functionalization Of Silver Nanoparticles On Membranes And Its Influence On Biofouling, 2017 University of Kentucky
Functionalization Of Silver Nanoparticles On Membranes And Its Influence On Biofouling, Conor G. Sprick
Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering
Ultrafiltration (UF) processes are often used as pretreatment before more retentive/costly processes, such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. This study shows the results of low-biofouling nanocomposite membranes, loaded with casein-coated silver nanoparticles (casein-Ag-NPs). Membranes were cast and imbedded with Ag-NPs using two approaches, physical blending of Ag-NPs in the dope solution (PAg-NP/CA membranes) and chemical attachment of Ag-NPs to cast membranes (CAg-NP/CA membranes), to determine their biofouling control properties. The functionalization of Ag-NPs onto the CA membranes was achieved via attachment with functionalized thiol groups with the use of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and cysteamine chemistries ...