Polymer Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Particulates: Innovation In Co-Extruded Multilayer Barrier Films, 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi
Polymer Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Particulates: Innovation In Co-Extruded Multilayer Barrier Films, Kevin Meyers
Delaminated montmorillonite (MMT) clay/ maleic anhydride grafted LLDPE nanocomposite multilayer films with alternating layers of LDPE were produced through multilayer co-extrusion. The MMT concentration within the nanocomposite layers was increased through annealing the films in the melt due to a mismatch in interdiffusion rates of the polymer layers. Analysis of the nanocomposite layers upon annealing revealed that the platelets impinged upon one another resulting in significant improvement in oxygen barrier in the multilayer system, exceeding the results of bulk nanocomposites.
Model analysis demonstrated that increasing the nanoplatelet aspect ratio or initial concentration in the filled layers would lead to even ...
A Proposed Process And Economic Analysis For A Manufacturing Facility For Nylon 6,6, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
A Proposed Process And Economic Analysis For A Manufacturing Facility For Nylon 6,6, Perry Doles
Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses
The global nylon market is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has been thriving in recent years due to advances in the process technology and its flexibility as a material. Nylon 6,6 is a versatile material with uses in many industries because of its ability manipulated into many forms. It is commonly used in applications that require heat resistance, chemical resistance, and high mechanical strength. It is commonly used in luggage, car parts, carpets, and many other plastic products that require the properties that nylon 6,6 exhibits. The versatility and demand for nylon 6,6 make it an attractive process ...
Review Of Challenges And Advances In Modification Of Food Package Headspace Gases, 2018 University of Florida
Review Of Challenges And Advances In Modification Of Food Package Headspace Gases, Ziynet Boz, Bruce A. Welt, Jeffrey K. Brecht, William Pelletier, Eric Mclamore, Gregory A. Kiker, Jason E. Butler
Journal of Applied Packaging Research
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) has been widely used as an effective way to preserve foods. Fresh produce, meat and meat products, seafood, and dairy products can benefit from modified gaseous atmospheres, which are usually achieved by reducing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, within limits, defined by product tolerances. MAP of fresh produce is particularly challenging because products are living and respiring. Respiration rates depend on several factors including temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations. Balancing package permeation with respiration is challenging, often due to limited selection of practical packaging materials. Failing to remain within tolerance limits of products leads ...
Waste Management By Waste: Removal Of Acid Dyes From Wastewaters Of Textile Coloration Using Fish Scales, 2018 Louisiana State University
Waste Management By Waste: Removal Of Acid Dyes From Wastewaters Of Textile Coloration Using Fish Scales, S M Fijul Kabir
LSU Master's Theses
Removal of hazardous acid dyes by economical process using low-cost bio-sorbents from wool industry wastewaters is of a pressing need, since it causes skin and respiratory diseases and disrupts other environmental components. Fish scales (FS), a by-product of fish industry, a type of solid waste, are usually discarded carelessly resulting in pungent odor and environmental burden. In this research, the FS of black drum (Pogonias cromis) were used for the removal of acid dyes (acid red 1 (AR1), acid blue 45 (AB45) and acid yellow 127 (AY126)) from wool industry wastewaters by absorption process with a view to valorizing fish ...
Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, 2018 Michigan Technological University
Recent Approaches In Designing Bioadhesive Materials Inspired By Mussel Adhesive Protein, Pegah Kord Forooshani, Bruce P. Lee
Marine mussels secret protein-based adhesives, which enable them to anchor to various surfaces in a saline, intertidal zone. Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) contain a large abundance of a unique, catecholic amino acid, Dopa, in their protein sequences. Catechol offers robust and durable adhe-sion to various substrate surfaces and contributes to the curing of the adhesive plaques. In this article, we review the unique features and the key functionalities of Mfps, catechol chemistry, and strategies for preparing catechol-functionalized poly- mers. Specifically, we reviewed recent findings on the contributions of various features of Mfps on interfacial binding, which include coacervate formation, surface ...
Definite Indefiniteness Of "Molecular Weight" As A Claim Term For Polymer-Related Patents, 2018 Pepperdine University
Definite Indefiniteness Of "Molecular Weight" As A Claim Term For Polymer-Related Patents, Ping-Hsun Chen
The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law
The molecular weight of a polymer is not just a number for a single molecule. In fact, molecular weight measurement is based on a large volume of molecules of the same polymer. Due to the non-uniformity of molecular weights, there are several methods to measure an “average molecular weight” of a polymer. Unfortunately, the Federal Circuit in Teva Pharms. USA, Inc. v. Sandoz, Inc., 789 F.3d 1335 (Fed. Cir. 2015), held that the term “molecular weight” in several polymer claims was indefinite, because the term could mean either peak average molecular weight, number average molecular weight, or weight average ...
Parallel Synthesis And High Throughput Dissolution Testing Of Biodegradable Polyanhydride Copolymers, 2018 National Institute of Standards and Technology
Parallel Synthesis And High Throughput Dissolution Testing Of Biodegradable Polyanhydride Copolymers, Brandon M. Vogel, Joao T. Cabral, Naomi Eidelman, Balaji Narasimhan, Surya K. Mallapragada
Brandon M Vogel
We have demonstrated that polycondensation reactions can be carried out in a combinatorial fashion and that the polymer library can be screened at high throughput using a rapid prototyping technique to fabricate multiwell substrates. A linearly varying compositional library of 100 different biodegradable polyanhydride random copolymers that are promising carriers for controlled drug delivery was designed, fabricated, and characterized by IR microscopy within a few hours. The polyanhydride copolymer library was based on 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH) and sebacic anhydride (SA) and was characterized with infrared microspectroscopy to determine the composition within each well. Since degradation and release rates ...
Surface Engineering And Monomer Design For Light-Mediated Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization, 2018 University of Kentucky
Surface Engineering And Monomer Design For Light-Mediated Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization, Ishan A. Fursule
Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering
Stimuli-responsive materials are changing the landscape of actuated materials, optoelectronics, molecular machines, solar cells, temporary memory storage, and biomedical materials. Specifically, photo-responsive polymers have gained acceleration in research and application since the last two decades in the form of a surface coating and micro-patterns. Light as a stimulus can be coherent, mono or polychromatic, tunable for power (intensity) and energy (wavelength), and has precise spatiotemporal control. Conventional surface coating techniques such as spin coating are unable to impart properties to the coatings in terms of sturdiness, homogeneity, uniformity over the complex surface, post deposition modification, and process efficiency. Also, in ...
Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Gelation Of Gelatin And Pluronic Hydrogels, 2018 The University of Akron
Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Gelation Of Gelatin And Pluronic Hydrogels, Eric Britton
Honors Research Projects
The purpose of the project was to observe the effects of the Hofmeister series of ions on the gelation of gelatin and Pluronic-127 hydrogels. Hydrogels are semi-solid materials that contain a network of joined molecules through intermolecular interactions which are capable of holding water. Gelatin and Pluronic-127 (PF-127) are thermoreversible, physical crosslinked gels. Gelation occurs when temperature, or other driving forces, reduce the polymer chain solubility until a distinct 2-phase system forms. When aqueous ions are present in solution, they exhibit specific ion effects that have either a stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the solubility of proteins and other polymers ...
Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Ms/Ms) For Determination Of Architecture Of Synthetic Polymers, 2018 The University of Akron
Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Ms/Ms) For Determination Of Architecture Of Synthetic Polymers, Shoumik Saha
Honors Research Projects
Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to determine the architecture of synthetic polymers and they are difluorene-N3, 3-difluorene-N3 and VPOSS-3-difluorene. VPOSS materials usually exhibit electrochemical properties and the research was performed to determine their accurate structure and to provide evidence of their proper synthesis. The compounds were mixed with a matrix solution, DCTB, and a silver salt to enable proper protonation. The solvent mixture was on a MALDI plate and then put into the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrum generated was analyzed and each fragment was identified to structures with the synthetic polymers via ChemDraw. Thus, trial ...
Electrospinning Aqueous Solutions Of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Using A Corona-Type Apparatus, 2018 The University of Akron
Electrospinning Aqueous Solutions Of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Using A Corona-Type Apparatus, Nicholas Neill
Honors Research Projects
The purpose of this project was to evaluate working parameters for the corona spinneret to create electrospun fibers/ fiber mat. This project was set-up using a Box-Behnken design of experiment. The working parameters were investigated by performing the electrospinning process, altering the working conditions, collecting the electrospun fibers. The scope of this project includes three primary operational conditions: distance between the spinneret and the collection plate, the viscosity (weight percent) of PEO in the spinning solution and the weight percent of NaCl in the spinning solution. The distance between the spinneret and the collection plate were varied to 18 cm ...
Correlation Of Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone Fiber Mat Thickness With Basis Weight, Fiber Diameter, Pore Size Distribution, And Air Permeability, 2018 University of Akron Main Campus
Correlation Of Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone Fiber Mat Thickness With Basis Weight, Fiber Diameter, Pore Size Distribution, And Air Permeability, Leah Mcpherson
Honors Research Projects
This project developed correlations between electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone fiber mat thickness, basis weight, fiber diameter, pore size, and air permeability. The hypotheses were thinner fibers produce thicker mats, pore size decreases with fiber diameter, pore size and permeability decrease as basis weight increases. Project results could be used for modeling or quality control purposes.
Fiber diameter distributions were analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscope and FibraQuant 1.3 software. Four conditions were chosen for further study: 0.284 ± 0.104 µm, 0.379 ± 0.128 µm, 0.520 ± 0.138 µm, and 0.733 ± 0.177 µm. Lower PVP concentrations produced ...
Modeling The Effect Thickener Structure Has On The Oil Release Of Grease, 2018 The University of Akron
Modeling The Effect Thickener Structure Has On The Oil Release Of Grease, Dana Cressman
Honors Research Projects
Our hypothesis was that the thickener type and micelle concentration of grease affected its viscoelastic properties. Measurements were made using a TA AR G2 rheometer and calculations were made using TA rheometer analysis software to characterize the viscoelastic response of grease under oscillatory shear and frequency tests. The oscillatory frequency tests determined the critical micelle concentration. The oscillatory stress tests were taken at temperatures from 5 to 65 degrees Celsius to create a master curve based on time temperature superposition of the measurements. The crossover points of G’ and G” on the oscillatory stress tests demonstrated where the grease transitions ...
The Role Of Microenvironment Reagent Solubility On Reaction Kinetics Of 4-Nitrophenol Reduction, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
The Role Of Microenvironment Reagent Solubility On Reaction Kinetics Of 4-Nitrophenol Reduction, Michael P. Zeevi, Andrew Harrison, Christina Tang
Undergraduate Research Posters
The Role of Microenvironment Reagent Solubility on Reaction Kinetics of 4-Nitrophenol Reduction
Michael Zeevi1 with Andrew Harrison1 and Christina Tang, PhD1
1Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering, VCU School of Engineering
Introduction: Nanoparticles are of increasing interest due to their high surface area to volume ratio, as well as that they enable fine-tuning of the reaction microenvironment. Through flash nanoprecipitation, core-shell polymer nanoreactors were formed by directed self-assembly. Using the reduction of 4-nitrophenol as a model reduction reaction, we investigated the effect of reagent solubility in the nanoreactor microenvironment’s on nanoreactor kinetics.
Methods: The ...
Connecting The Dots: A New Method To Determine Radiation Yield During Electron Beam (Eb) Polymerization Reactions Via Raman Spectroscopy, Renae Kurpius
University of Iowa Honors Theses
Electron-beam (EB) polymerization is a fast, solvent-free, low-energy means of polymerizing inks, thin films, and coatings such as those used in food packaging. During EB polymerization, accelerated electrons interact with liquid monomer molecules to form radicals, which continue to react with other monomer molecules and form long chain, solid polymers. The final polymer properties are dependent on the monomer chemistry, as well as processing conditions such as dose (i.e., the amount of energy absorbed by the sample), belt speed (i.e., the rate at which the sample travels through the electron-beam unit), and dose rate (i.e., the rate ...
Responsive Pentablock Copolymers For Sirna Delivery, 2017 Iowa State University
Responsive Pentablock Copolymers For Sirna Delivery, Surya K. Mallapragada, Metin Uz, Sacide Alsoy Altinkaya
Surya K. Mallapragada
In this study, temperature and pH responsive cationic and amphiphilic pentablock copolymers, which consist of the temperature responsive triblock Pluronic F127 sandwiched between pH responsive PDEAEM (poly(2-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)) end blocks, were used for the first time in the development of polyplex and gold nanoparticle (AuNP) based multicomponent siRNA delivery systems (MCSs). Copolymers in both systems protected siRNA from external effects, provided cell entry and endosomal escape. The thermoreversible micellization of the hydrophobic PPO block facilitated the cellular entry while the PDEAEM blocks enhanced the endosomal escape through protonated tertiary amine groups by pH buffering. The synergistic advantages of the ...
Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites For Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, 2017 The University of Maine
Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites For Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Lu Wang
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Compared to conventional manufacturing process, additive manufacturing (AM) offers free-form design, lighter and more ergonomic products, short lead time and less waste. Extrusion-based AM can be used to print thermoplastics. However, extrusion-based AM has processing challenges in printing semi-crystalline thermoplastics, for instance, polypropylene (PP). Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are one type of cellulose nanofibers that are produced from pulp fibers. CNF has extraordinary properties which make it an ideal candidate to reinforce polymers. Spray-dried CNF (SDCNF) is able to be incorporated into thermoplastic matrices without modifying conventional processing procedures.
The mechanical properties of 3D printed plastic parts have been considered significantly ...
Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte For Lithium-Oxygen Battery Application, 2017 Amir Chamaani
Hybrid Polymer Electrolyte For Lithium-Oxygen Battery Application, Amir Chamaani
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The transition from fossil fuels to renewable resources has created more demand for energy storage devices. Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical energy densities. They, however, are still in their infancy and several fundamental challenges remain to be addressed. Advanced analytical techniques have revealed that all components of a Li-O2 battery undergo undesirable degradation during discharge/charge cycling, contributing to reduced cyclability. Despite many attempts to minimize the anode and cathode degradation, the electrolyte remains as the leading cause for rapid capacity fading and poor cyclability in Li-O2 batteries. In this ...
Comparison Study Between Post-Fermentation Stillage And Pre-Fermentation Mash Utilizing Acidification And Steam Explosion Techniques For Cellulose Saccharification, 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi
Comparison Study Between Post-Fermentation Stillage And Pre-Fermentation Mash Utilizing Acidification And Steam Explosion Techniques For Cellulose Saccharification, Daniel Mckee
Pre-fermentation mash fiber and post-distillation stillage fiber were examined and compared using a variety of preparatory techniques to determine the better source for cellulose fiber saccharification. Once screened, dried, and diluted to a 10% solution, mash fiber and stillage fiber were exposed to increasing temperatures for steam explosion techniques as well as increasing acidification techniques. Both underwent enzymatic saccharification to convert the exposed cellulose to glucose and other sugars. Once the optimum steam explosion technique parameters and acidification parameters were determined to be 2.5% sulfuric acid at 127.8°C for 1 hour, a comparison of the saccharification of ...
Development Of Starch-Polyvinyl Alcohol (Pva) Biodegradable Film: Effect Of Cross-Linking Agent And Antimicrobials On Film Characteristics, 2017 Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Development Of Starch-Polyvinyl Alcohol (Pva) Biodegradable Film: Effect Of Cross-Linking Agent And Antimicrobials On Film Characteristics, Aniket Satish More, Chandani Sen, Madhusweta Das
Journal of Applied Packaging Research
To satisfy the need of developing eco-friendly flexible antimicrobial packaging film with minimum use of synthetic chemical ingredients, the present study examined the efficacy of citric acid (CA) as cross-linking agent and essential oils (EOs), viz., cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and oregano essential oil (OEO) as natural antimicrobials in corn starch-polyvinyl alcohol (CS-PVA) film. Compared to film prepared from filmogenic solution (FS) containing 75 kg CS+8.75 kg PVA+24.6 kg glycerol per m3 FS, film additionally containing CA at 0.07 kg/kg CS indicated 95% higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 27% lower water vapor ...