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Interfacial And Bulk Assembly Of Anisotropic Gold Nanostructures: Implications For Photonics And Plasmonics, Hyeong Jin Kim, Md Mir Hossen, Andrew C. Hillier, David Vaknin, Surya K. Mallapragada, Wenjie Wang 2020 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Interfacial And Bulk Assembly Of Anisotropic Gold Nanostructures: Implications For Photonics And Plasmonics, Hyeong Jin Kim, Md Mir Hossen, Andrew C. Hillier, David Vaknin, Surya K. Mallapragada, Wenjie Wang

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

We report on the assembly of polymer-grafted nanostructures at the vapor/aqueous interface and in bulk solutions by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods. Triangular- and octahedral-shaped gold nanostructures are synthesized and grafted with polyethylene glycol (referred to as PEG-AuNTs and PEG-AuNOh, respectively) and their suspensions are manipulated with salts, (poly)electrolytes that induce interpolymer complexation and HCl to achieve organized assemblies. The assemblies at the vapor/liquid interface are explored by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering. Results show that the PEG-AuNTs and PEG-AuNOh populate the interface, with some degree of orientation with respect to the liquid ...


Polystyrene-Block-Polydimethylsiloxane As A Potential Silica Substitute For Polysiloxane Reinforcement, Liyang Shen, Tung-Ping Wang, Fang-Yi Lin, Sabrina Torres, Thomas Robison, Sri Harsha Kalluru, Nacú B. Hernández, Eric W. Cochran 2020 Iowa State University

Polystyrene-Block-Polydimethylsiloxane As A Potential Silica Substitute For Polysiloxane Reinforcement, Liyang Shen, Tung-Ping Wang, Fang-Yi Lin, Sabrina Torres, Thomas Robison, Sri Harsha Kalluru, Nacú B. Hernández, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Here we report microphase-separated poly(styrene-block-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) as a reinforcing filler in PDMS thermosets that overcomes the long-standing problem of aging in the processing of silica-reinforced silicone. Surprisingly, PS-b-PDMS reinforced composites display comparable mechanical performance to silica-modified analogs, even though the modulus of PS is much smaller than that of silica and there is no evidence of percolation with respect to the rigid PS domains. We have found that a few unique characteristics contribute to the reinforcing performance of PS-b-PDMS. The strong self-assembly behavior promotes batch-to-batch repeatability by having well-dispersed fillers. The ...


Metabolic Engineering Of An Acid-Tolerant Yeast Strain Pichia Kudriavzevii For Itaconic Acid Production, Wan Sun, Ana Vila-Santa, Na Liu, Tanya Prozorov, Dongming Xie, Nuno Torres Faria, Frederico Castelo Ferreira, Nuno Pereira Mira, Zengyi Shao 2020 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Metabolic Engineering Of An Acid-Tolerant Yeast Strain Pichia Kudriavzevii For Itaconic Acid Production, Wan Sun, Ana Vila-Santa, Na Liu, Tanya Prozorov, Dongming Xie, Nuno Torres Faria, Frederico Castelo Ferreira, Nuno Pereira Mira, Zengyi Shao

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Itaconic acid (IA), or 2-methylenesuccinic acid, has a broad spectrum of applications in the biopolymer industry owing to the presence of one vinyl bond and two acid groups in the structure. Its polymerization can follow a similar mechanism as acrylic acid but additional functionality can be incorporated into the extra beta acid group. Currently, the bio-based production of IA in industry relies on the fermentation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. However, the difficulties associated with the fermentation undertaken by filamentous fungi together with the pathogenic potential of A. terreus pose a serious challenge for industrial-scale production. In recent years ...


Chitosan-Adjuvanted Salmonella Subunit Nanoparticle Vaccine For Poultry Delivered Through Drinking Water And Feed, Sankar Renu, Yi Han, Santosh Dhakal, Yashavanth S. Lakshmanappa, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Sujata Senapati, Balaji Narasimhan, Ramesh Selvaraj, Gourapura J. Renukaradhya 2020 Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center and The Ohio State University

Chitosan-Adjuvanted Salmonella Subunit Nanoparticle Vaccine For Poultry Delivered Through Drinking Water And Feed, Sankar Renu, Yi Han, Santosh Dhakal, Yashavanth S. Lakshmanappa, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Sujata Senapati, Balaji Narasimhan, Ramesh Selvaraj, Gourapura J. Renukaradhya

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Poor induction of mucosal immunity in the intestines by current Salmonella vaccines is a challenge to the poultry industry. We prepared and tested an oral deliverable Salmonella subunit vaccine containing immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellin (F) protein loaded and F-protein surface coated chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) (OMPs-F-CS NPs). The OMPs-F-CS NPs had mean particle size distribution of 514 nm, high positive charge and spherical in shape. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed the F-protein surface coated CS NPs were specifically targeted to chicken immune cells. The OMPs-F-CS NPs treatment of chicken immune cells upregulated TLRs, and Th1 ...


Engineering Ionomer Materials For Addressing Ohmic Resistances In Electrochemical Desalination And Waste Heat Recovery, Varada Menon Palakkal 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Engineering Ionomer Materials For Addressing Ohmic Resistances In Electrochemical Desalination And Waste Heat Recovery, Varada Menon Palakkal

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Water scarcity and energy availability present important challenges that need to be addressed in the coming centuries. In the front of water technologies, desalting brackish water is of extreme importance for thermal electric power plants, chemical manufacturing plants, and other industrial operations that treat and reuse their water utilities. Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an energy efficient desalination technique that has drawn attention from commercial entities. Most material research studies on MCDI focus on enhancing electrode performance while little emphasis is given to rationale design of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). In this work, the ionic conductivity, permselectivity, and thickness for three ...


Investigating The Effect Of Hydrophilic Block Length On The Co-Assembly Behavior Of Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers, Alexandra M. Garrett 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Effect Of Hydrophilic Block Length On The Co-Assembly Behavior Of Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers, Alexandra M. Garrett

Honors Theses

Polymer vesicles and micelles have been of interest in the scientific community for the past few decades due to potential biomedical applications in areas such as drug delivery, nanoreactors, and biosensing. Polymer vesicles and micelles are formed through the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers. The objective of this project is to gain a better understanding of the influence of hydrophilic block copolymer length and composition in controlling the resulting morphologies from the co-assembly of triblock copolymers. First, a hydrophobic block composed of poly(methyl acrylate) was synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization mediated by a difunctional chain-transfer agent. The ...


Nanomechanical Characterization Of Fuel Cell Ionomers, Jackson Goddard 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nanomechanical Characterization Of Fuel Cell Ionomers, Jackson Goddard

UCARE Research Products

Energy sustainability can be achieved by improving and adopting clean energy technologies, and a better nanoscale understanding of ionomer-catalyst layers could lead to increased efficiency of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Samples of Nafion ( Perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer) and PFIA (Perfluoroimide acid ionomer) of varying film thickness were prepared and then studied using contact resonance force microscopy. It was determined that storage and loss modulus increase as relative humidity increases and ionomer film thickness goes below 100 nm. Furthermore, in this specific study, the similar storage and loss modulus of Nafion and PFIA could be attributed to similar backbone structure and ...


Surface Driven Flows : Liquid Bridges, Drops And Marangoni Propulsion, Samrat Sur 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Surface Driven Flows : Liquid Bridges, Drops And Marangoni Propulsion, Samrat Sur

Doctoral Dissertations

Molecules sitting at a free liquid surface against vacuum or gas have weaker binding than molecules in the bulk. The missing (negative) binding energy can therefore be viewed as a positive energy added to the surface itself. Since a larger area of the surface contains larger surface energy, external forces must perform positive work against internal surface forces to increase the total area of the surface. Mathematically, the internal surface forces are represented by surface tension, defined as the normal force per unit of length. One common manifestation of surface tension is the difference in pressure it causes across a ...


Enhancing The Conductivity Of Cell-Laden Alginate Microfibers With Aqueous Graphene For Neural Applications, Marilyn C. McNamara, Amir Ehsan Niaraki-Asli, Jingshuai Guo, Jasmin Okuzono, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi 2020 Iowa State University

Enhancing The Conductivity Of Cell-Laden Alginate Microfibers With Aqueous Graphene For Neural Applications, Marilyn C. Mcnamara, Amir Ehsan Niaraki-Asli, Jingshuai Guo, Jasmin Okuzono, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Microfluidically manufacturing graphene-alginate microfibers create possibilities for encapsulating rat neural cells within conductive 3D tissue scaffolding to enable the creation of real-time 3D sensing arrays with high physiological relavancy. Cells are encapsulated using the biopolymer alginate, which is combined with graphene to create a cell-containing hydrogel with increased electrical conductivity. Resulting novel alginate-graphene microfibers showed a 2.5-fold increase over pure alginate microfibers, but did not show significant differences in size and porosity. Cells encapsulated within the microfibers survive for up to 8 days, and maintain ~20% live cells over that duration. The biocompatible aqueous graphene suspension used in this ...


Mechanical Behavior And Characterization Of Sls Processed Pa-11 For Pa-11/Silica Nanocomposites, Gabrielle Esposito 2020 Lehigh University

Mechanical Behavior And Characterization Of Sls Processed Pa-11 For Pa-11/Silica Nanocomposites, Gabrielle Esposito

Theses and Dissertations

Selective laser sintering (SLS) continues to be a promising additive manufacturing process, in which three dimensional shapes are produced through laser sintering and resurfacing of a powder bed. The structural changes of a polyamide 11/carbon black (PA11/CB) powder during a UV-laser sintered printing process were analyzed to ultimately serve as a benchmark for a PA11/CB/SNP nanocomposite printed material. Samples printed with increasing laser area energy density were compared in terms of crystalinity, melt temperature, tensile behavior, essential work of fracture, density, molecular weight and amorphous chain rigidity. A molecular weight increase is found to occur in ...


Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher DeJean 2020 The University of Akron

Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher Dejean

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Electrospinning uses high voltages to form polymer nanofiber membranes. These membranes have potential for use in filtration, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and catalysis. The nonwoven fiber mat is malleable but has a low tensile strength compared to a solid film of the same polymer. Joining the fibers with a thin film is desired to balance the strength and flexibility. Three methods of producing a film on fiber membrane were tested. The techniques are spraying then melting, spin coating, and dip coating. Electrospinning setup conditions, solvent ratios, damage to fibers, and spin coating speeds were determined. Research was abruptly stopped and ...


Controlled Crystallization Of Pet Filaments In Additive Manufacturing, Ryan Kordahi 2020 The University of Akron

Controlled Crystallization Of Pet Filaments In Additive Manufacturing, Ryan Kordahi

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) appears in daily life in many forms, the most common being disposable soft drink bottling. To deal with the ever-growing quantitity of disposed PET (both in landfills and environment), a waste plan revolving around depolymerization should be implemented. Specifically, the potential of PET depolymerization through aminolysis into useful, low molecular weight monomers will be explored with the end goal of producing a 3D printing filament and analyzing economic feasibility.


A Foundational Approach To Extrusion And Compounding, David Frankart 2020 The University of Akron

A Foundational Approach To Extrusion And Compounding, David Frankart

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

With a history of nearly 200 years, polymer processing and compounding is constantly changing to fit the material science needs of the era. Exposure of undergraduate students to the technology and practices used in industry today in a lab setting would create new opportunities for experiential learning and growth. The objective was to set up a 0.75”, 25 L/D Thermo Haake single screw extruder for lab use and run trials of material in a single screw extruder to set up a basis for experiments. Trials were run of co-polyester resin through a single screw extruder with carbon fiber ...


Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger 2020 University of Akron

Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It can be difficult to separate water and oil emulsions through traditional filtration. Therefore, investigations of filtering using thermo-responsive (TR) polymers, in this case poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), was conducted. It’s hypothesized that below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), PVME has an affinity for water while oil substances do not. Above the LCST the opposite will be true. To verify this hypothesis, iterations of filtration designs were created to provide optimum control over the parameters to measure flow. The final optimized experimental apparatus was a Chromaflex glass column which was air tight and controlled all parameters besides ...


Evaluating Rubber Aging On Tire Durability: Quantitative Evaluation Of Rubber Aging, Brian Auffenberg 2020 The University of Akron

Evaluating Rubber Aging On Tire Durability: Quantitative Evaluation Of Rubber Aging, Brian Auffenberg

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Rubber is considered one of the most important polymers in the world due to its variety of uses. There are many different conditions that can affect the useful life of rubber. The purpose of this research was to determine how the mechanical loading on the rubber may affect the aging of the rubber. The scope of the project was to focus on the rubber used for tire production. The research was limited to focusing only on rubber supplied by industry mentors which was styrene-butadiene rubber. By varying the length of time for testing as well as the temperature of the ...


Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Solubility And Swelling On Gelatin Hydrogels, Hannah Eldridge 2020 The University of Akron

Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Solubility And Swelling On Gelatin Hydrogels, Hannah Eldridge

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Hydrogels are known to be weak and brittle, due to the amounts of water that they hold. Gelatin-based hydrogels specifically are inexpensive and easily accessible, but often have poor physical properties. The goal of my project was to strengthen gelatin-based hydrogels and improve their mechanical properties by forming these hydrogels in different aqueous solutions containing kosmotropic Hofmeister's ions. Prior research has shown that these ions are able to take water away from gelatin-based gels, which forms a tougher hydrogel. The success of this project will be measured by studying the solubility and swelling effects that different Hofmeister ions have ...


Exploring Shape-Memory Polymers From Silicone I And 1,10-Decanediol Blends, Kristina Nguyen 2020 The University of Akron

Exploring Shape-Memory Polymers From Silicone I And 1,10-Decanediol Blends, Kristina Nguyen

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are polymeric materials that have dual-shape capabilities. These materials can deform to a temporary shape and will recover to their permanent original shape when induced by an external stimulus such as heat. The purpose of this project was to investigate the thermo-mechanical properties and shape-memory behavior of various blends of Silicone I and 1,10-decanediol to determine if a unique blend of these components can be utilized to develop shape memory surface relief patterns.

Careful iterative experiments were used to develop a robust procedure for the fabrication of crosslinked sheets of blends of Silicone I and 1 ...


Design Of Pigments For Use In “Cool” Coatings, Tyler Laughorn 2020 The University of Akron

Design Of Pigments For Use In “Cool” Coatings, Tyler Laughorn

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project was focused on the development and testing of several novel pigments that exhibit high NIR-reflectance and therefore show potential for use in “cool” coatings. A “cool” coating will reflect more solar radiation than other standard coatings, and so a coated structure would require less energy to keep cool. Four sets of pigments were synthesized: Co1-xMgxCr2O4 (teal), Co0.25Mg0.75Cr2-yAlyO4 (blue), Ti1-x-yNixSbyO2 (yellow), and Cr2-xFexO3 (black). NIR and TSR values were ...


Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher DeJean 2020 The University of Akron

Methods For Film Coating Electrospun Fibers, Kristopher Dejean

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Electrospinning uses high voltages to form polymer nanofiber membranes. These membranes have potential for use in filtration, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and catalysis. The nonwoven fiber mat is malleable but has a low tensile strength compared to a solid film of the same polymer. Joining the fibers with a thin film is desired to balance the strength and flexibility. Three methods of producing a film on fiber membrane were tested. The techniques are spraying then melting, spin coating, and dip coating. Electrospinning setup conditions, solvent ratios, damage to fibers, and spin coating speeds were determined. Research was abruptly stopped and ...


Effects Of Crosslinking Conditions On Biofouling Of Polymer Substrates With A Hydrogel Layer, Laura Davila 2020 The University of Akron

Effects Of Crosslinking Conditions On Biofouling Of Polymer Substrates With A Hydrogel Layer, Laura Davila

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The introduction of a hydrogel coating to a surface has been looked at for different benefits. Certain hydrogels offer antifouling properties that are beneficial to different applications like medical components. Previous attempts (2) (3)have been done to introduce a hydrogel surface to plastic substrates. One of them is to use grafting brushes which works properly but it is not sufficient since the layer is too thin and therefore can be damaged. The second method have a bulkier coating without crosslinking. Opposite to grafting brushes this method has too thick of a layer. Additionally, there is no crosslink therefore the ...


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