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An Analysis Of The Parental Structure And Involvement On Subsequent Delinquency, Bosco Villavicencio Jr 2020 CUNY John Jay College

An Analysis Of The Parental Structure And Involvement On Subsequent Delinquency, Bosco Villavicencio Jr

Student Theses

This thesis examines how parental involvement and family structure relate to the prevalence of juvenile delinquency. To answer the research question, the current study used a large sample of 12th grade youth (n=1,272) from the Monitoring the Future project which includes measures on parental involvement, household structure, academic abilities, and risky behavior and delinquent behavior. The results of this secondary analysis showed a significant association between parental-child involvement measures and the delinquent outcomes examined; drinking, suspension, and skipping school. This study emphasizes the need to consider that the impact of household structure as well as that of ...


Felony Disenfranchisement: Factors Relating To Support For Restoration, Alexis K. Karpf 2020 City University of New York (CUNY)

Felony Disenfranchisement: Factors Relating To Support For Restoration, Alexis K. Karpf

Student Theses

Felony Disenfranchisement, a collateral consequence, strips justice-involved individuals of their voting rights. While this policy is enacted in 48 states and the District of Columbia, a majority of community members are unaware of its existence. The current study used three hypotheses to guide its research about how education about disenfranchisement policy impacts a community member's opinion:1) Participants exposed to information about the effects of disenfranchisement will be more supportive of enfranchisement than those in the control condition; 2) Participants who receive the vignette featuring the White justice-involved individual will indicate a higher level of support for enfranchisement compared ...


Differences In Characteristics Of Criminal Behavior Between Solo And Team Serial Killers, Matthew Woster 2020 National Louis University

Differences In Characteristics Of Criminal Behavior Between Solo And Team Serial Killers, Matthew Woster

Dissertations

Criminal Profiling and classification of serial killers has been an expanding area of research for decades. Recent research has called into question the accuracy and utility of these systems, and calls for further research and development. This study aims to use the Serial Killer Database (SKDB) to examine and classify differences in criminal behavior between serial killers who act alone versus those who act in pairs, groups, or teams. The specific aim of this study is to examine whether there are significant differences between Solo Serial Killers and Team Serial Killers in the Number of Victims, Length of Career, Method ...


Anything Besides "Yes!" Means "No!", Alessia Giuseppina Rimicci 2020 California State University, Monterey Bay

Anything Besides "Yes!" Means "No!", Alessia Giuseppina Rimicci

Culture, Society, and Praxis

No abstract provided.


Criminal Injustice: Considering White Privilege And Colonization In The Examination Of Racial Bias In The United States Criminal Justice System, Jane E. Sanders 2020 University of New Orleans

Criminal Injustice: Considering White Privilege And Colonization In The Examination Of Racial Bias In The United States Criminal Justice System, Jane E. Sanders

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Laws and institutions in the United States have consistently marginalized people of color throughout the country's history. This research examines the United States' criminal justice system while considering how the country’s past of oppression has resulted in a racially biased system. Through analysis of policies, literature, and quantitative data, the primary goal of this research is not only to exhibit that racial discrepancies exist within the criminal justice system, but also to question how they persist in order to determine a solution. By utilizing both qualitative data collected through existing social theory as well as quantitative data showing ...


Carty And Barraza: The Hidden Victims Of Covid-19, Victoria Carty, Greg Barraza 2020 Chapman University

Carty And Barraza: The Hidden Victims Of Covid-19, Victoria Carty, Greg Barraza

Sociology Faculty Articles and Research

"At the Chino Institute for Men (CIM) state prison, notorious for overcrowding conditions, the local authorities are moving toward an illogical pivot from 'containment' to 'encounter' in dealing with the health of both prisoners and staff in terms of the looming threat that Covid-19 poses. Soon, CIM officials intend to transfer inmates who have been living among other inmates who have tested positive for the virus into one of the dormitories where everyone thus far has tested negative and had been quarantined for two weeks. On May 10th the facility halted the movement of all prisoners to isolate those ...


A Mathematical Model To Study The Crime Dynamics Spread Within Minority Communities, Maila Brucal-Hallare, Beatriz Cuartas, Anne Fernando, Ana Vivas-Barber 2020 Norfolk State University

A Mathematical Model To Study The Crime Dynamics Spread Within Minority Communities, Maila Brucal-Hallare, Beatriz Cuartas, Anne Fernando, Ana Vivas-Barber

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Stories Behind The Struggle: A Closer Look At First Experiences With Opioid Misuse, Khary K. Rigg, Shannon M. Monnat, Katherine McLean, Ashton Verdery, Glenn Sterner 2020 University of South Florida

The Stories Behind The Struggle: A Closer Look At First Experiences With Opioid Misuse, Khary K. Rigg, Shannon M. Monnat, Katherine Mclean, Ashton Verdery, Glenn Sterner

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

The opioid crisis is a national public health emergency. Over 47,000 people in the U.S. died of opioid overdoses in 2017. Improving our knowledge about how people first come to misuse opioids can help to inform prevention and treatment interventions. This research brief shows that opioid misuse most often begins before age 25, most people obtain the opioids they misuse from friends and family rather than a health care provider, and experimenting and coping with life stressors are the most common motivations for starting opioid misuse.


Who Pays For Gun Violence? You Do., Edda S. Fransdottir, Jeffrey A. Butts 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Who Pays For Gun Violence? You Do., Edda S. Fransdottir, Jeffrey A. Butts

Publications and Research

The total economic impact of gun violence is unknown. Studies focus on the direct and short-term expenses immediately following a shooting but often exclude the long-term and far-reaching effects of gun violence on the victim, their family, and their community. Available data vastly underestimate the full economic impact of firearm injuries in the United States, including the fact that taxpayers often get the bill.


Analyzing The Onset And Resolution Of Nonstate Conflict In The Middle East & North Africa, Emily Barbaro 2020 James Madison University

Analyzing The Onset And Resolution Of Nonstate Conflict In The Middle East & North Africa, Emily Barbaro

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

By applying structural-functionalist theories of deviance and opposition, this thesis deconstructs nonstate mobilization in the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Using data from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset, the quantitative analysis interpreted both group and leader behavior in conflict situations to determine factors that influenced conflict onset and resolution. The quasipoisson regression analysis of group behavior suggested that polity and state capacity were both significant predictors of violent and nonviolent mobilization. The negative binomial regression of regime behavior suggested that civilian casualties were the most significant predictor of a government response to nonstate mobilization. Ultimately, the ...


Keep Kids Out Of Prison: Community-Based Alternatives For Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders, Anessa L. Pennington 2020 Brigham Young University

Keep Kids Out Of Prison: Community-Based Alternatives For Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders, Anessa L. Pennington

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Abstract

While juvenile crime has dropped over the past 20 years, tens of thousands of juvenile offenders are still incarcerated around the country, many of whom are nonviolent offenders. Researchers have found that detention centers, sometimes indistinguishable from adult prisons, do little to reduce recidivism and rehabilitate the offender. Rather, detention brings about more adverse effects than it does benefits. If incarceration isn’t working, how are the United States and other countries to deal with and deter juvenile crime? Community-based programs are a promising alternative to incarceration; instead of jumpsuits and cramped cells, community-based programs rely on community resources ...


Extreme Ideologies, Situational Factors, And Terrorists’ Target Selection, Evan Mudgett 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Extreme Ideologies, Situational Factors, And Terrorists’ Target Selection, Evan Mudgett

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the current study is to examine how ideology and situational factors shape terrorist target selection in the United States. While a growing number of studies have examined target selection by terrorists, the current study is the first to consider how combinations of factors present situated opportunities for terrorists to select particular types of targets as opposed to others. Guided by the situational crime prevention approach, this study relies on data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS) to measure attributes of incidents perpetrated by far-right and Islamic extremists and target selection. The outcomes of interest include government versus ...


Show Me St. Louis: Risk Assessment Through An 80-20 Framework, Hannah K. Steinman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Show Me St. Louis: Risk Assessment Through An 80-20 Framework, Hannah K. Steinman

Theses and Dissertations

Researchers of crime and place have long explored the uneven distribution of crime within the built environment and repeatedly identified where crime is concentrated. The longstanding question pertaining to crime at the micro-level, is why crime concentrates. This study operates within environmental criminology, through an 80-20 framework, to explore the spatial distribution of crime across streets with crime generators and attractors in St. Louis, Missouri to fill this gap in the literature. A conjunctive analysis of case configurations is used to identify unique high and low-crime street profiles. Crime data from 2018 – 2019 are used from the St. Louis Metropolitan ...


Al-Shabaab And Boko Haram: Recruitment Strategies, J. Tochukwu Omenma, Cheryl Hendricks, Nnamdi C. Ajaebili 2020 Department of Politics & International Relations, University of Johannesburg; Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Al-Shabaab And Boko Haram: Recruitment Strategies, J. Tochukwu Omenma, Cheryl Hendricks, Nnamdi C. Ajaebili

Peace and Conflict Studies

This paper is an examination of the membership recruitment strategies of two violent extremist organizations (VEOs), namely al-Shabaab and Boko Haram. The majority of the literature on VEOs concentrates on the conceptualization of terrorism, motivations for terrorism and counter-terrorism strategies, as well as a focus on the frequency of VEO attacks, number of fatalities and funding sources. The literature tends to portray poverty as the main driver of recruitment. The focus on recruitment strategies has been relatively recent. There is therefore still a lack of in-depth analyses on the processes of recruitment of specific extremist groups, and this impacts on ...


See, Judge, Act: Restorative Justice And Catholic Social Teaching’S Impact On American Incarceration, Maxim Caron 2020 College of the Holy Cross

See, Judge, Act: Restorative Justice And Catholic Social Teaching’S Impact On American Incarceration, Maxim Caron

Montserrat Annual Writing Prize

No abstract provided.


A Comparative Analysis Of Identity Theft Within America And Australia, Vincent Alagna 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

A Comparative Analysis Of Identity Theft Within America And Australia, Vincent Alagna

Criminal Justice

Identity theft is a very prevalent crime within the United States that has substantial repercussions on society. This study analyzes factors that potentially contribute to America’s elevated rate of identity theft in relation to Australia in order to reveal its cause. It was ultimately found that the United States experiences a greater amount of computer usage within its country, has the ability to implement a stricter prison sentence on those convicted of committing identity theft in accordance with its legal code, and has a greater conviction rate while Australia has a higher prosecution rate. These findings, when applied in ...


Combating Sexual Misconduct And Abuse Of Authority In The United States Army: Same Long Fight, Wesley Martin 2020 United States Army Military Police (Retired)

Combating Sexual Misconduct And Abuse Of Authority In The United States Army: Same Long Fight, Wesley Martin

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Before my combat deployments into Iraq, I, Colonel Wes Martin, had successfully fought another war. As a military police officer, I spent many years fighting against sexual misconduct, abuse of authority, and cover-ups within the senior officer and sergeant ranks in the United States Army. During this fight I faced continual criticism from my senior officers who claimed I was discrediting the Army by exposing the corrupt and immoral behavior of senior officers and sergeants.

During the early days of standing up to the corruption, when I had the rank of Major, I received retaliatory evaluations and was forced to ...


The Role Of The Prison-Industrial Complex In Demilitarization, Corporate Outsourcing, & Immigration Policy, Shellie Shimmel 2020 CSUSB

The Role Of The Prison-Industrial Complex In Demilitarization, Corporate Outsourcing, & Immigration Policy, Shellie Shimmel

History in the Making

The traditional system of justice in the United States, based on the goals of retribution, incapacitation, rehabilitation, deterrence, and restitution, has been replaced with a corporate model of mass punishment based on profits, expediency, and the exploitation of free labor. This corporation is known as the “Prison-Industrial Complex” (“PIC”), and is made up of an enormous, interweaving system of correctional institutions, profit-driven corporations, and politicians. Some question whether the builders of the Prison-Industrial Complex could have predicted the outcome of their actions, but in fact their actions were orchestrated to produce certain results. Corporate executives and politicians are well educated ...


The Cycle Of Failing Reform: How Mentally Ill Detainees Continue To Suffer Unconstitutional Wait Times In Colorado, Grace Gonzalez, Michael Campbell 2020 University of Denver

The Cycle Of Failing Reform: How Mentally Ill Detainees Continue To Suffer Unconstitutional Wait Times In Colorado, Grace Gonzalez, Michael Campbell

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

This research examines the state of Colorado’s failing criminal justice system, particularly as it pertains to mentally ill detainees. For several years, mentally ill detainees in Colorado have been forced to wait for extensive amounts of time to receive court-ordered evaluations to determine mental competency before trial. The state’s continued failure to administer these evaluations in a timely manner has led to a series of complaints and lawsuits against the state. Unfortunately, these lawsuits have ultimately done little to create lasting reform. The state has managed to temporarily mitigate the problem as complaints of unconstitutional wait times arise ...


Public-School Systems Are Criminalizing Our Young People: Giving Voice To The Marganilized, Carrie Stoltzfus 2020 Arcadia University

Public-School Systems Are Criminalizing Our Young People: Giving Voice To The Marganilized, Carrie Stoltzfus

Graduate Theses & Dissertations

A phenomenological qualitative study using Critical Race Theory and counter-storytelling was completed to investigate what K-12 public schools should be doing to keep young people out of the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP). This study took place in a large city in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Interviews were completed with former students of the researcher who were previously incarcerated, educational professionals, and justice system professionals. Additionally, observations of the court systems and document reviews were completed in order to triangulate findings. Themes emerged around factors that lead to incarceration and the preferred practices to support young people to avoid ...


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