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Children As Mischievous Spirits: Legitimizing Child Cruelty And Filicide In Contemporary Africa, Chima Agazue 2021 University of Huddersfield

Children As Mischievous Spirits: Legitimizing Child Cruelty And Filicide In Contemporary Africa, Chima Agazue

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

The belief that certain humans are spiritual entities and the belief that some people are spiritually possessed can be found across histories and cultures. While these individuals are not always viewed in the negative or treated inhumanely, cases abound whereby degrading and inhumane treatments are meted out to some of them. In the African continent, certain groups of people, particularly children are linked to certain mischievous spirits due to their unusual appearance, aberrant behavior, disability, chronic illness, psychopathology or exceptional ability. Some are also suspected and consequently mistreated due to events surrounding their birth. Such children are known by different ...


The Impact Of Religious Beliefs, Practices, And Social Networks On Rwandan Rescue Efforts During Genocide, Nicole Fox, Hollie Nyseth Brehm, John Gasana Gasasira 2021 California State University, Sacramento

The Impact Of Religious Beliefs, Practices, And Social Networks On Rwandan Rescue Efforts During Genocide, Nicole Fox, Hollie Nyseth Brehm, John Gasana Gasasira

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In April 1994, in one of the most Christian nations in Africa, genocidal violence erupted culminating in the deaths of upwards of one million people. While thousands participated in mass killings, others choose not to, and rescued persecuted individuals instead. Relying on 45 in-depth interviews with individuals who rescued others in Rwanda, we demonstrate that religion is tied to rescue efforts in at least three ways: 1) through the creation of cognitive safety nets that enabled high-risk actions; 2) through religious practices that isolated individuals from the social networks of those committing the violence; and 3) through religious social networks ...


Systemic Racism In The United States, Jonathan Short 2021 James Madison University

Systemic Racism In The United States, Jonathan Short

Libraries

This bibliography contains an annotated selection of articles and studies related to systemic racism in the United States of America, covering 21st-century racial inequities in criminal justice, housing, employment, voting, education, and healthcare. Given the contentious nature of this topic - whether and to what extent systemic racism exists in the United States - sources were selected for relative neutrality, authority, and quality of methodologies used. This piece is intended to assist leaders, educators, activists, and any who wish to become better informed about this topic, develop empathy toward impacted groups, and prepare to address institutional concerns related to diversity, equity, and ...


Why Does An Ex-Offender Reoffend?, Jacob Rybak 2021 Kennesaw State University

Why Does An Ex-Offender Reoffend?, Jacob Rybak

Symposium of Student Scholars

What leads an offender to go back to prison? This researcher has lived in the Georgia State prison system for 3.5 years. Using personal insights as well as analytics, this researcher analyzes Iowa state’s six-year data set tracking recidivism of released offenders and recommends changes to the prison system to address the analytical findings.

The Iowa recidivism data set includes the following information for all offenders: age group, type of release (parole vs different discharges), release year, original offense, and whether they recidivated. For the recidivating offenders, the data set includes the days to return to prison, the ...


A Criminological Analysis Of Notorious Serial Killers In The United States, Hannah E. Booth 2021 University of South Dakota

A Criminological Analysis Of Notorious Serial Killers In The United States, Hannah E. Booth

Honors Thesis

Serial killing is a phenomenon that both fascinates and scares people. The United States has experienced several notorious serial killers that remain well-known, even years after their crimes. Serial killers are known for having many similar, but also many different traits. Ted Bundy, Dennis Rader, and Aileen Wuornos are some of America's deadliest serial killers, but each has backgrounds and traits that make them unique. This paper will provide an analysis of their psychopathic traits, and a model showing the significance of biological and environmental factors in their lives. Analyzing individual case studies for each killer will explain how ...


When Crime Moves Where Does It Go? Analyzing The Spatial Correlates Of Robbery Incidents When Crime Moves Where Does It Go? Analyzing The Spatial Correlates Of Robbery Incidents Displaced By A Place-Based Policing Interventiondisplaced By A Place-Based Policing Intervention, David N. Hatten, Eric L. Piza 2021 CUNY John Jay College

When Crime Moves Where Does It Go? Analyzing The Spatial Correlates Of Robbery Incidents When Crime Moves Where Does It Go? Analyzing The Spatial Correlates Of Robbery Incidents Displaced By A Place-Based Policing Interventiondisplaced By A Place-Based Policing Intervention, David N. Hatten, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

Objective:

Examine the place-based correlates of robbery incidents displaced by a foot-patrol intervention in Newark, NJ. We use constructs from Crime Pattern and Social Disorganization theories to test hypotheses concerned with associations between the structure of the environment and the displacement of crime.

Method:

Robbery incidents were spatially joined to street segments to study micro-level displacement processes. Predictor variables were operationalized using data from the Newark Police Department and Infogroup USA. Generalized Linear models tested associations between the characteristics of street segments and displaced robbery in the target area as compared to a control.

Results:

Environmental structure is important to ...


A Look Into Wrongful Conviction Within The U.S. Justice System, Isabella T. Likos 2021 Cleveland State University

A Look Into Wrongful Conviction Within The U.S. Justice System, Isabella T. Likos

The Downtown Review

The United States justice system has principles in place in order to prevent wrongful convictions such as the presumption of innocence and having to prove beyond a reasonable doubt. However, even with these principles in places there are times that people are wrongfully convicted. There are multiple reasons why wrongful conviction occur, including false confessions and erroneous eyewitness testimony. Wrongful conviction impacts not only the wrongfully convicted, but their family, friends, and the victims. While wrongful convictions do happen, there are steps that can be taken going forward that can help prevent them and exonerate the wrongfully convicted.


It’S Not All Aces: The Role Of Negative Parental Influences And Criminal Thinking In Juvenile Offending Behaviors, Branna Humphrey 2021 East Tennessee State University

It’S Not All Aces: The Role Of Negative Parental Influences And Criminal Thinking In Juvenile Offending Behaviors, Branna Humphrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and criminal thinking in causing criminal behavior has been explored extensively in criminal justice research. Based on the concepts of ACEs and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Scale, the negative parental influences and criminal thinking styles of 1,354 juvenile offenders were examined to establish that negative parental influences and criminal thinking are separately associated with juvenile problem and offending behavior, and that criminal thinking mediates the relationship between negative parental influences and juvenile problem and offending behavior. Analyses showed support for criminal thinking as a pathway from negative parental influences to ...


The Effect Of The September 11, 2001 Terror Attacks On Policing In Maine: The Officers Point Of View, Andrew King 2021 University of Maine - Main

The Effect Of The September 11, 2001 Terror Attacks On Policing In Maine: The Officers Point Of View, Andrew King

Honors College

There was a marked change in policing after the terror attacks on September 11, 2001. While much research has examined this change in other areas of the country, less is known about how 9/11 impacted policing in Maine. To fill this research gap, the present study examined police officers’ perceptions of job change since the 9/11 terrorist attack. Data from semi-structured interviews with ten police officers were analyzed using focused content coding. The data analysis revealed three general themes that represent how police officers thought that their jobs had changed: (1) national security, (2) local policing, and (3 ...


Understanding Aspiration And Education Towards Desistance From Offending: The Role Of Higher Education In Wales, Mark Jones, Debbie Jones 2021 Higher Plain Research & Education

Understanding Aspiration And Education Towards Desistance From Offending: The Role Of Higher Education In Wales, Mark Jones, Debbie Jones

Journal of Prison Education and Reentry

There has been a growing recognition of the value of education in facilitating desistance from offending. Yet, despite a determined push to “widen access” universities continue to be an unwelcoming place for those with a criminal record. To better understand the role of higher education in raising aspiration towards desistance, this paper draws on findings from a study in Swansea, Wales. Adopting a Pictorial Narrative approach the findings suggest that, whilst the participants identified potential benefits of attaining a higher education, those aspirations were outweighed by a distrust of the “institution” and a fear that the stigmatisation experienced through the ...


Police Shootings In The Mountain West, 2015 - 2021, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Madison Frazee-Bench, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Police Shootings In The Mountain West, 2015 - 2021, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Madison Frazee-Bench, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Criminal Justice

The Washington Post publishes and regularly updates a dataset regarding the use of deadly force by police since 2015. This fact sheet extracts data for each state in the Mountain West (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah), and presents a regional perspective on the total number of individuals shot and killed by police, including demographic variables such as race, gender, and age. Two additional variables are included in this examination: the presence or absence of mental illness in the individual killed by police, and the presence or absence of a body-worn camera in incidents of deadly force by police.


Variants Of Social Disorganization: A Comparison Of Community Characteristic Measures On Crime Between Urban And Rural Counties In The United States, Shun Q. Feng 2021 City University of New York (CUNY)

Variants Of Social Disorganization: A Comparison Of Community Characteristic Measures On Crime Between Urban And Rural Counties In The United States, Shun Q. Feng

Student Theses

Abstract

Statement of Problem: This research examines the difference in the predictive nature of conventional social disorganization measures on seven (7) different crime types between urban and rural counties in the United States during 2014. There is a well-developed body of criminological research examining the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on crime through the social disorganization framework. However, social disorganization has been tested almost exclusively in urban or metropolitan areas, suggesting the current framework explaining criminal incidents through conventional measures of neighborhood disadvantage may be limited by “urban bias”. The present study seeks to test the conventional measures of social disorganization ...


Career Preperation Capstone, Jennifer M. Combs 2021 Morehead State University

Career Preperation Capstone, Jennifer M. Combs

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A capstone submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in the Ernst and Sara Lane Volgenau College of Education at Morehead State University on April 14, 2021.


Neighborhood Disorganization, Atmosphere For Citizen Involvement And Satisfaction With Police Services, Krystal Karas, Chastity L. Blankenship 2021 Florida Southern College

Neighborhood Disorganization, Atmosphere For Citizen Involvement And Satisfaction With Police Services, Krystal Karas, Chastity L. Blankenship

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Previous research on satisfaction with police services has shown a variety of factors can be significant such as race, neighborhood disorganization, and fear of crime. Furthermore, policing that is visible can help community residents feel higher levels of security and order. Some cities have more fractured community-police relations in comparison to others nationwide. Recently, The City of Dallas Police Department has had several race-based incidents in the national media, and they have been working to increase citizen satisfaction with public safety and obtain community cooperation. Residents of Dallas were given surveys regarding satisfaction with police services, contact with police, fear ...


Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. LaFon, Margaret Gratian 2021 Bridgewater State University

Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. Lafon, Margaret Gratian

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Online communications are ever increasing, and we are constantly faced with the challenge of whether online information is credible or not. Being able to assess the credibility of others was once the work solely of intelligence agencies. In the current times of disinformation and misinformation, understanding what we are reading and to who we are paying attention to is essential for us to make considered, informed, and accurate decisions, and it has become everyone’s business. This paper employs a literature review to examine the empirical evidence across online credibility, trust, deception, and fraud detection in an effort to consolidate ...


Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee 2021 Bridgewater State University

Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Criminal justice around the world has prioritized the prevention and protection of bullying and its victims due to the rapid increases in peer violence. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have examined what treatments or assistance are effective for peer victims to reduce and recover from their social and psychological suffering, especially in cyberbullying cases. Using data derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey-School Crime Supplement data in 2011 and 2013 (N=823), the current study examined the impact of two emotional support groups (i.e., adult and peer groups) on cyberbullying victims' social and psychological harm. The findings indicated that both ...


Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis 2021 Bridgewater State University

Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybertechnology has brought benefits to the Caribbean in the form of new regional economic and social growth. In the last years, Caribbean countries have also become attractive targets for cybercrime due to increased economic success and online presence with a low level of cyber resilience. This study examines the online-related activities that affect cybercrime victimization by using the Routine Activity Theory (RAT). The present study seeks to identify activities that contribute to different forms of cybercrime victimization and develop risk models for these crimes, particularly the understudied cyber-dependent crimes of Hacking and Malware. It also aims to explore if there ...


Prisoners’ Perspectives On Limited Rehabilitative Program Opportunities, Kerry Edwards PhD 2021 Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania

Prisoners’ Perspectives On Limited Rehabilitative Program Opportunities, Kerry Edwards Phd

The Qualitative Report

Approximately 1.5 million persons are incarcerated in American prisons (Carson, 2020), and the rate at which persons who have been incarcerated reoffend (recidivism) is high (Alper et al., 2018, p. 1). This has propelled the effort to help offenders change their trajectory. Rehabilitative programs are used to help prisoners gain skills and strengths necessary to succeed in the community after their release. Yet, these high recidivism rates persist. Why do some prisoners not benefit from these programs? Although many researchers have studied the efficacy of programs over the past six decades, less attention has been directed towards access to ...


The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum 2021 Appalachian State University, U.S.A.

The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This short paper will provide an overview of the impressive pieces included in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime. This issue includes articles on the following pertinent topic, utilizing a range of approaches and methodologies: 1) online credibility; 2) cyberbullying; and 3) unauthorized access of information. An emphasis on the importance of policy development and better protection of potential victims is a common thread throughout the issue.


Migrant Or Menace: Media Representations Of The Migrant Caravan, Elizabeth Twitty, Erica Bower 2021 Old Dominion University

Migrant Or Menace: Media Representations Of The Migrant Caravan, Elizabeth Twitty, Erica Bower

College of Arts and Letters Posters

In March 2018, the Pueblo Sin Fronteras migrant caravan began making their way to the U.S. border, drawing political and media attention from the United States. News coverage of immigrants and migration events have historically been linked to negative topics and framed as threats to the American way of life. These negative themes emerged against the backdrop of the Trump administration’s response to the caravan, describing migrants as threats to U.S. border security. To examine how the news media portrayed this event, we conducted a summative content analysis of online news articles from CNN and Fox News ...


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