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Competency To Stand Trial Evaluations: Using Vignettes With Patients Who Lack Insight, Katelyn Fuller 2024 James Madison University

Competency To Stand Trial Evaluations: Using Vignettes With Patients Who Lack Insight, Katelyn Fuller

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

In the United States, an attorney may request a competency to stand trial evaluation if they are concerned that their client is not mentally fit to adequately participate in their case and defense. Patients found incompetent must undergo treatment for restoration of competency, regardless of their willingness. Clinicians and psychiatrists may use vignettes, or hypothetical scenarios, to help restore competency if the patient lacks insight into their mental illness. While vignettes have been well documented in studying attitudes and awareness, decision making, and identifying mental illness, there is little to no research into their use in psychiatric hospitals due to …


Exploring The Experience Of Healthcare-Related Epistemic Injustice Among People With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Joanne Hunt, Jessica Runacres, Daniel Herron, David Sheffield 2024 Uppsala University, Sweden

Exploring The Experience Of Healthcare-Related Epistemic Injustice Among People With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Joanne Hunt, Jessica Runacres, Daniel Herron, David Sheffield

The Qualitative Report

Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic, disabling yet clinically “contested” condition, previously theorised through a lens of epistemic injustice. Phenomena conceptually close to epistemic injustice, including stigma, are known to have deleterious consequences on a person’s health and life-world. Yet, no known primary studies have explored how people with ME/CFS experience healthcare through a lens of epistemic injustice, whilst a dearth of research explicitly exploring healthcare-related injustice from a patient perspective has been noted. This qualitative study seeks to address this gap. Semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) were used to explore the experiences of …


Inter-Institutional Analysis Of Skin Of Color Representation In Dermatological Lecture Content At Md And Do Medical Schools, Oluwafunke Oluwatosin Ogunremi, Blake Fredericksen, John Komas, Sana Ismail, Siri Knutsen-Larson MD, Valeriy Kozmenko MD, Afia Albin DO 2024 University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine

Inter-Institutional Analysis Of Skin Of Color Representation In Dermatological Lecture Content At Md And Do Medical Schools, Oluwafunke Oluwatosin Ogunremi, Blake Fredericksen, John Komas, Sana Ismail, Siri Knutsen-Larson Md, Valeriy Kozmenko Md, Afia Albin Do

Aesculapius Journal (Health Sciences & Medicine)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the lecture materials provided in medical schools through a diversity lens. Skin pathologies manifest distinctively on various shades of skin and physicians must be equipped with the proper knowledge to identify and diagnose these conditions accurately and promptly. For most medical students, images in prominent textbooks and lecture slides are their first encounter with disease presentations. Therefore, it is important to analyze the diversity of skin tones in the content that is being delivered. Specifically, the use of images featuring darker skin tones compared to those depicting lighter skin tones. This study …


Experiences Of Working Sandwich Generation Caregivers, Kimberly Ben, Susan MacDermott 2024 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Experiences Of Working Sandwich Generation Caregivers, Kimberly Ben, Susan Macdermott

Spring 2024 Virtual OTD Capstone Symposium

This poster presents an insightful exploration into the lives of Working Sandwich Generation Caregivers (WSCs), a group defined as individuals aged 30-65 who simultaneously provide care for both aging adults (over 65 years old) and younger dependents (29 years old or younger), while also managing their careers. The study delves deep into the unique challenges and experiences faced by WSCs, aiming to highlight the occupational, emotional, and physical demands inherent in their roles. Through qualitative research methods, including interviews and occupational therapy assessments, the manuscript offers a comprehensive look at the balancing act WSCs perform daily. It seeks to inform …


Broken Promises: Prolonged Diminished Quality-Of-Life Among Liberian Ebola Survivors Half A Decade After The 2014-16 West African Outbreak, Jessi Hanson-DeFusco, Decontee Davis, Meghana Bommareddy, Zainab Olaniyan 2024 University of Texas at Dallas

Broken Promises: Prolonged Diminished Quality-Of-Life Among Liberian Ebola Survivors Half A Decade After The 2014-16 West African Outbreak, Jessi Hanson-Defusco, Decontee Davis, Meghana Bommareddy, Zainab Olaniyan

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

The 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak left thousands of Liberian survivors with severely diminished quality of life. Applying a social determinants framework, this mixed method study investigates to what extent Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors suffer long-haul psychosocial stress, diminished quality-of-life factors, and the impact of EVD-related service provisions on their ongoing healing. We present the results of a quantitative analysis survey of data collected from 19 Liberian EVD survivors in 2022 using snowball sampling. Additionally, a qualitative analysis of survivor statements helps triangulate key statistical findings and inform causal mechanisms. Survivors report experiencing 5.25 of a total of 7 ongoing stressors …


Foster Inclusivity And Equity:Strategiesfor Retaining Racialized Workers In Ontario’S Healthcare Sector, Kiannah Kerr-McCarthy, Natasha Bonnick 2024 Sheridan College

Foster Inclusivity And Equity:Strategiesfor Retaining Racialized Workers In Ontario’S Healthcare Sector, Kiannah Kerr-Mccarthy, Natasha Bonnick

Capstone Research Posters

This research endeavors to explore the factors influencing the retention of racialized workers within Ontario's long-term care sector, recognizing the imperative of fostering an inclusive and supportive workplace environment. Employing a mixed-methods approach, survey data was collected to unravel the unique challenges faced by racialized workers and discern the determinants influencing their decision to remain in the sector or seek employment elsewhere. The study delves into various facets such as workplace culture, organizational policies, and interpersonal dynamics, elucidating their pivotal role in retention. Furthermore, the research evaluates the potential impact of mentorship programs, diversity training initiatives, and career development opportunities …


Health Care Use Experiences Of Ethnoculturally Diverse Immigrant Older Adults: A Meta-Ethnography, Lorna de Witt, Kathryn A. Pfaff, Roger Reka, Noeman Ahmad Mirza 2024 Faculty of Nursing, University of Windsor

Health Care Use Experiences Of Ethnoculturally Diverse Immigrant Older Adults: A Meta-Ethnography, Lorna De Witt, Kathryn A. Pfaff, Roger Reka, Noeman Ahmad Mirza

Nursing Publications

Purpose

Current and predicted continued dramatic increases in international migration and ethnocultural diversity of older adult cohorts pose challenges for health care services. Review studies on ethnoculturally diverse older adults and health care show a lack of focus on their service use experiences. This study aims to report a meta-ethnography that addresses this knowledge gap through answering the review question: How do ethnoculturally diverse older adults who are immigrants experience health care services?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied a seven-phase method of meta-ethnography to guide the review. The authors conducted two literature searches (April 2018 and June 2020) in MEDLINE, CINAHL, …


Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health On Healthcare Disparities In Florida, Kayla L. Haydon, Catarina Jim, Joel J. Mantilla, Noel C. Barengo 2024 Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University

Impact Of Social Determinants Of Health On Healthcare Disparities In Florida, Kayla L. Haydon, Catarina Jim, Joel J. Mantilla, Noel C. Barengo

American Journal of Non-Communicable Diseases

Objective

Healthcare disparities disproportionately affect underserved and marginalized communities due to social determinants of health (SDoH), contributing to significant differences in health outcomes and life expectancy within different communities in Florida. This observational study aimed to understand the impact of SDoH, such as race/ethnicity, income level, and education attainment on healthcare access in Florida.

Methods

Self-reported data from the 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were pooled to evaluate disparities in healthcare access by race/ethnicity, income, and education level in Florida.

Results

Health status and healthcare access vary based on characteristics related to SDoH, including race/ethnicity, income level, and educational …


Close Contacts Of Xenograft Recipients: Ethical Considerations Due To Risk Of Xenozoonosis, Daniel J Hurst, Luz Padilla, Daniel Rodger, Tamar Schiff, David K C Cooper 2024 Rowan University

Close Contacts Of Xenograft Recipients: Ethical Considerations Due To Risk Of Xenozoonosis, Daniel J Hurst, Luz Padilla, Daniel Rodger, Tamar Schiff, David K C Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

With decades of pre-clinical studies culminating in the recent clinical application of xenotransplantation, it would appear timely to provide recommendations for operationalizing oversight of xenotransplantation clinical trials. Ethical issues with clinical xenotransplantation have been described for decades, largely centering on animal welfare, the risks posed to the recipient, and public health risks posed by potential spread of xenozoonosis. Much less attention has been given to considerations relating to potentially elevated risks faced by those who may care for or otherwise have close contact with xenograft recipients. This paper examines the ethical and logistical issues raised by the potential exposure to …


Intersectional Model Of Service Use: Understanding Transgender And Nonbinary Healthcare Access, Jarrod Call, Brendon Holloway 2024 University of Washington, Tacoma

Intersectional Model Of Service Use: Understanding Transgender And Nonbinary Healthcare Access, Jarrod Call, Brendon Holloway

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Transgender and nonbinary (TNB) people often have difficulty accessing healthcare services because of the systemic forces of transphobia and cisgenderism. Despite this, there is little theory specifically designed to examine healthcare access among TNB people. We conducted a literature review to identify studies examining TNB healthcare access. We screened a total of 2,050 unique articles for inclusion, resulting in a final sample of 46 articles that met the review criteria. Theories used and key findings were coded to inform the development of the Intersectional Model of Service Use (IMSU) for TNB people. The IMSU builds upon current theoretical frameworks including …


Cultura Y (Ataque De) Corazón: A Training For Health Professionals Needing Medical Interpretation Services, Elizabeth Dudek, Shelby Edwards 2024 D'Youville College

Cultura Y (Ataque De) Corazón: A Training For Health Professionals Needing Medical Interpretation Services, Elizabeth Dudek, Shelby Edwards

11th National Symposium on Spanish as a Heritage Language

Limited English proficiency is a known barrier to quality health care outcomes (Green 2017, Helmi 2021). Inclusion of a certified language interpreter during health care encounters improves outcomes among ESL (English as a Second Language) patients (Karliner, Jacobs, Chen, and Mutha 2007). Interpretation with a certified interpreter promotes understanding between patients and their medical providers, and advances both health and race equity (Foiles Sifuentes, Robledo Cornejo, Castaneda-Avila, Tija, and Lapane 2020). Most health care workers receive no formal training in how to use an interpreter with limited English-proficiency patients. Located in the Hispanic Heritage District of an increasingly Latine mid-sized …


What Factors Increase Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease And Related Dementia?, Elizabeth Vásquez, Kai Zhang 2024 SUNY Albany

What Factors Increase Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease And Related Dementia?, Elizabeth Vásquez, Kai Zhang

Population Health Research Brief Series

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia and ranks 7th in the leading causes of death in the United States (U.S.). This data slice uses nationwide data from 3,155 counties in the U.S. to identify the factors that best predict county-level rates of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (ADRDs) in 2018. The results indicate that insufficient sleep, consuming less than one serving of fruits and vegetables per day, having no high school diploma, Black population percentage, and social vulnerability were among the leading factors predicting county-level ADRD prevalence.


Calming The Body, Calming The Mind: A Pilot Study On The Use Of Zero Balancing To Reduce Anxiety, Misty L. Rhoads, Mary Murphy 2024 Eastern Illinois University

Calming The Body, Calming The Mind: A Pilot Study On The Use Of Zero Balancing To Reduce Anxiety, Misty L. Rhoads, Mary Murphy

Journal of Transformative Touch

Background: The predominance of anxiety is currently at record levels, and the need for non-pharmaceutical approaches to help alleviate and decrease the harmful effects of anxiety on an individual and collective level is necessary. This study explored how Zero Balancing supports individuals with anxiety to manage their physical, mental, and emotional health more effectively. Researchers hypothesized that Zero Balancing would lower the perceived severity of general anxiety and lower perceived anxiety symptoms.

Methods: To honor the holistic nature of bodywork and the participants' lived experiences, the researchers utilized a concurrent mixed-methods phenomenological research design. Each participant received one Zero Balancing …


Beyond ‘Heightism’ And ‘Height Premium’: An Anthropology And Sociology Of Human Stature, Gideon Lasco 2024 Ateneo de Manila University

Beyond ‘Heightism’ And ‘Height Premium’: An Anthropology And Sociology Of Human Stature, Gideon Lasco

Development Studies Faculty Publications

This review article examines the meanings and materialities of human stature, from serving as a marker of human difference to shaping the socio-spatial experiences of individuals. I introduce existing perspectives on height from various disciplines, including biomedical discourses on the factors (e.g. nutrition, genetics) that determine height, economic discourses on how the average heights of populations have changed over time, sociobiological and psychological discourses that assume a pre-cultural, evolutionary “height premium”, and popular discourses on heightism and height discrimination. Drawing from a diverse range of scholarship since Saul Feldman called for a “sociology of stature” in the 1970s, I then …


Human Zoo Healthcare At The 1904 World’S Fair, Angel Blake 2024 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Human Zoo Healthcare At The 1904 World’S Fair, Angel Blake

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Human Zoo Healthcare at the 1904 World’s Fair

Were precautions taken or put into place for the Human Zoo performers at the 1904 World’s Fair? This topic has been overlooked and understudied by historians, there are few articles written and we do not know the true death toll which shows the racism towards these indigenous peoples. The research for this project was conducted at the State Historical Society of Missouri, the St. Louis Mercantile Library, Newspapers.com, Archives.com, St. Louis Public Library, and the Missouri Historical Society, including research on primary sources such as official World’s Fair committee meeting minutes, hospital …


Pain Limits Family Caregivers’ Daily Activities, Shelbie G. Turner, Karl A. Pillemer, Jamie Robinson, M. Cary Reid 2024 Weill Cornell Medicine

Pain Limits Family Caregivers’ Daily Activities, Shelbie G. Turner, Karl A. Pillemer, Jamie Robinson, M. Cary Reid

Population Health Research Brief Series

Family caregivers are the main providers of home care to older adults, especially as the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia rises. Caregiving can take a toll on caregivers’ physical and mental health, which impacts both their own well-being and their care recipients’ health outcomes. This brief summarizes findings from a study that used data from the 2017 National Study on Caregiving (NSOC) to estimate the prevalence of arthritis and activity-limiting pain among 1,930 family caregivers to older adults. Over half of all caregivers reported bothersome pain in the previous month, 24% of whom had pain that limited their …


Perceived Neighborhood Disorder And Type 2 Diabetes Disparities In Hispanic, Black, And White Americans, Min Ying Yu, Alfredo J. Velasquez, Belinda Campos, Jennifer W. Robinette 2024 Chapman University

Perceived Neighborhood Disorder And Type 2 Diabetes Disparities In Hispanic, Black, And White Americans, Min Ying Yu, Alfredo J. Velasquez, Belinda Campos, Jennifer W. Robinette

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Approximately 32 million Americans have type 2 diabetes, and that number continues to grow. Higher prevalence rates are observed among certain subgroups, including members of marginalized racial/ethnic groups as well as residents of disordered neighborhoods (i.e., those with more trash and vandalism). Institutionalized discriminatory practices have resulted in disproportionate representation of marginalized racial/ethnic groups in disordered neighborhoods compared to non-Hispanic Whites. These neighborhood disparities may partially contribute to health disparities, given that signs of neighborhood disorder often relate to a general withdrawal from the neighborhood, minimizing opportunities for both physical and social engagement. Yet, research suggests variability across …


“Your Brain Isn’T All Backwards”: Asexual Young Women’S Narratives Of Sexual Healthism, Anna Sheppard, Emily S. Mann, Carla A. Pfeffer 2024 Smith College

“Your Brain Isn’T All Backwards”: Asexual Young Women’S Narratives Of Sexual Healthism, Anna Sheppard, Emily S. Mann, Carla A. Pfeffer

The Qualitative Report

Scholarship on asexuality is a growing but underexplored area in the social sciences. In the U.S., asexual people (i.e., individuals who do not experience sexual attraction) navigate a society in which being a sexual person is regarded as a normal and even compulsory aspect of human health and subjectivity. Utilizing an asexual subsample from a broader study of queer young women, this article integrates Foucault’s theorizing around sexuality and repression with scholarship on healthism to examine how discourses of sexual healthism operate among asexual young women in the U.S. South. We argue that in rejecting theories of sexual repression and …


Collateral Effects Of Covid-19 Stay-At-Home Orders On Violence Against Women In The United States, January 2019 To December 2020, Patricia C. Lewis, Yuk F. Cheong, Nadine J. Kaslow, Kathryn M. Yount 2024 Sacred Heart University

Collateral Effects Of Covid-19 Stay-At-Home Orders On Violence Against Women In The United States, January 2019 To December 2020, Patricia C. Lewis, Yuk F. Cheong, Nadine J. Kaslow, Kathryn M. Yount

Health Science Faculty Publications

Background: The necessary execution of non-pharmaceutical risk-mitigation (NPRM) strategies to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 has created an unprecedented natural experiment to ascertain whether pandemic-induced social-policy interventions may elevate collateral health risks. Here, we assess the efects on violence against women (VAW) of the duration of NPRM measures that were executed through jurisdictional-level orders in the United States. We expect that stay-at-home orders, by reducing mobility and disrupting non-coresident social ties, are associated with higher incident reporting of VAW.

Methods: We used aggregate data from the Murder Accountability Project from January 2019 through December 2020, to estimate count models examining …


Demographic Profile Of Accidental Drug Overdoses In 2020, Jacquelyn Reiss PhD, Amy Donley PhD, Alexandria McClarty BA 2023 University of Central Florida

Demographic Profile Of Accidental Drug Overdoses In 2020, Jacquelyn Reiss Phd, Amy Donley Phd, Alexandria Mcclarty Ba

Institute for Social and Behavioral Science (ISBS)

This white paper presents a demographic profile of accidental drug overdoses in Orange County, Florida for the year 2020.


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