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Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. Leadership can occur across great distances, as when a leader influences followers who are distributed across differing contexts, but in many cases leadership occurs in an intact group that exists in a specific locale: Teams, boards, advisory councils, and classrooms arc all examples of groups that work toward shared goals with, in many cases, the help and guidance of a leader. Leadership can be considered a set of personality traits or a specific set of behaviors enacted by an individual, but an interpersonal, group-level conceptualization considers Ieadership to ...


From Infanticide To Activism: The Transformation Of Emotions And Identity In Self-Help Movements, Verta Taylor, Lisa A. Leitz 2010 Chapman University

From Infanticide To Activism: The Transformation Of Emotions And Identity In Self-Help Movements, Verta Taylor, Lisa A. Leitz

Peace Studies Faculty Books and Book Chapters

Taylor and Leitz trace processes of collective identity construction and politicization among women suffering from postpartum psychiatric illness who have been convicted of infanticide. Joining a growing body of research suggesting that self‐help and consumer health movements can be a significant force for change in both the cultural and political arenas, Taylor and Lietz examine one such movement, a pen‐pal network of women incarcerated for committing infanticide. Taylor and Leitz show how a sense of collective identity fostered by the pen‐pal network triggered a profound emotional transformation in participants, allowing them to convert shame and loneliness into ...


Para-Romantic Love And Para-Friendships: Development And Assessment Of A Multiple-Parasocial Relationships Scale, Riva Tukachinsky 2010 Chapman University

Para-Romantic Love And Para-Friendships: Development And Assessment Of A Multiple-Parasocial Relationships Scale, Riva Tukachinsky

Communication Faculty Articles and Research

Parasocial-relationships (PSR) are viewers' imaginary relationships with media personae. Despite the growing body of research on PSR, the field is still lacking a clear conceptualization and precise measure of this phenomenon. The present study suggests a novel theorization of PSR as para-friendship and para-love. Study 1 demonstrates construct validity of a new Multiple-PSR scale using the logic of a multi-trait multi-method approach. Study 2 replicates the factorial solution using confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, Study 3 provides evidence for the criterion validity of the scales. Together, these findings suggest that PSR encompass several types of relationships that might mediate different media ...


The Impact Of Blatant Stereotype Activation And Group Sex-Composition On Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie K. Johnson, Susan Elaine Murphy, Kerry Hogue Skinnell 2010 University of Richmond

The Impact Of Blatant Stereotype Activation And Group Sex-Composition On Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie K. Johnson, Susan Elaine Murphy, Kerry Hogue Skinnell

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The individual and combined impact of blatant stereotype activation and solo status or mixed-sex groups on the self-appraisals, performance, and anxiety of female leaders was examined across three laboratory studies. The first study utilized a two-condition, two-stage design in which female leaders were exposed to a blatant stereotype threat or control condition after which they completed a leadership task. In the second stage, the threatened leaders received a solo status manipulation (leading a group of men) while the control condition did not. In the second study a 2 (blatant threat, no blatant threat) by 2 (solo status, all-female group) fully ...


Spirituality As A Mediator In The Relationship Between Self-Care Practices And Perceived Stress Levels Among Lutheran Clergy, David W. Brant 2010 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Spirituality As A Mediator In The Relationship Between Self-Care Practices And Perceived Stress Levels Among Lutheran Clergy, David W. Brant

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

There is currently a shortage of ordained ministers to fill the current vacancies in Lutheran churches due, in part, to the multiplicity of pastoral roles, the stressors clergy encounter in their vocation, and poor self-care. This exploratory research found a statistically significant, small, negative relationship when examining the relationship between clergy self-care practices and perceived levels of stress. The research did not support a relationship between clergy self-care practices and perceived levels of stress when mediated by clergy spiritual maturity. Other predictor variables such as first vocation, gender, spousal financial contributions and stress also did not yield statistically significant results ...


The Theories Of Deindividuation, Brian Li 2010 Claremont McKenna College

The Theories Of Deindividuation, Brian Li

CMC Senior Theses

Has it ever occurred to you to wonder why a soldier would sacrifice his life by jumping on a bomb to save the rest of his brigade? Or why an individual in a gang might display respectable behavior when alone but swear and vandalize when in the group? The phenomenon of people getting pulled into crowds and adopting the group’s mentalities and behaviors has been recognized but not fully researched. However, it has been recorded in early literature and research that it is human nature to want to fit into a group, for example in Abraham Maslow’s (1943 ...


Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller 2010 Wayne State University

Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller

Wayne State University Theses

Stereotype threat has been shown to be an important cause of performance detriments in various social groups. It has also been theorized that stereotype threat could be applicable to any group so long as the individual believes their performance may reinforce the negative stereotype. The current work attempts to induce stereotype threat in participants believing they belong to an experimentally created and negatively stereotyped group using a minimal group paradigm. Across two studies there did not appear to be significant performance changes typically observed in stereotype threat research. Various cognitive measures and post-performance inquiries did generally support claims that participants ...


Gender Differences Of African American Adolescents When Exposed To Race Related Stress, Sharmon Saunders James 2010 PCOM

Gender Differences Of African American Adolescents When Exposed To Race Related Stress, Sharmon Saunders James

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

For African Americans, issues of discrimination, oppression, and belonging to a minority group may significantly impact their identity formation, and their cognitive and subjective beliefs regarding racial issues. Racism-related stress as it affects African American adolescents has become an area of concern for African American researchers. Racism related stress can be characterized as the negative psychological or physiological response to a perceived instance of a racism related attitude or behavior. African American adolescents, because of their race, continue to be subjected to various social stressors that lead to negative stress that depletes them of their abilities to cope in response ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of A Social Learning Curriculum For Improving Social Skills And Self-Regulation Behaviors In Middle School Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder Or Social Skill Deficits, Jessica Beth Bolton 2010 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Examining The Effectiveness Of A Social Learning Curriculum For Improving Social Skills And Self-Regulation Behaviors In Middle School Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder Or Social Skill Deficits, Jessica Beth Bolton

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Social skill deficits are hallmark characteristics noted in children with autism. The behavioral indicators of autism, including language impairments, display of preservative behaviors, and restricted interests contribute to the social difficulties experienced by children with autism. The current paper provides a review of the relevant literature on theoretical contributions to social skill deficits in autism. A review of the use of cognitive behavioral therapy and social skill training programs and curriculums that have been shown to be efficacious at targeting deficits and improving social skills is provided, with a focus on treating children with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger ...


America's Changing Face: Differential Effects Of Colorblindness And Multiculturalism On Racial Categorization And Stereotyping, Melissa A. Mcmanus 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

America's Changing Face: Differential Effects Of Colorblindness And Multiculturalism On Racial Categorization And Stereotyping, Melissa A. Mcmanus

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Two studies were conducted to explore the effects of the sociopolitical ideologies colorblindness and multiculturalism on perceivers’ (1) automatic awareness of race and (2) automatic racial stereotyping. Study 1 showed that a colorblind prime caused White perceivers to notice White targets’ race more compared to a no prime condition, although non-White perceivers were able to ignore race when primed with colorblindness. Multiculturalism, on the other hand, caused individuals to notice race no differently than the control. In terms of stereotyping, Study 2 showed that a colorblind prime did not change automatic stereotyping of Black or White targets. In contrast, multiculturalism ...


A Phenomenological Examination Of The Influence Of Culture On Treating And Caring For Hispanic Children With Autism, Lynette Estrada 2010 Walden University

A Phenomenological Examination Of The Influence Of Culture On Treating And Caring For Hispanic Children With Autism, Lynette Estrada

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and describe the influence culture has on the decisions Hispanic parents make to aid their children with autism. The research problems addressed are the influences culture may have on how professionals and external family members affect the choices parents make. Cultural and family systems theories formed the conceptual framework for the study. Researchers have found that cultural factors may lead to lower rates of diagnosis in Hispanic children with autism and parents' lack of knowledge of therapies and practices used to treat autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Five research questions guided this ...


Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn 2010 University of Kentucky

Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The current study investigated the relationships between state shame, guilt, and disease knowledge in women recently diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent research has indicated that diagnosis of HPV can elicit negative self-directed affect, including persistent experiences of shame. Studies have also shown that knowledge of HPV is low in the general population, even though it is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It is important to understand how shame affects those with HPV because shame is related to a decline in important immune parameters that may be essential in HPV clearance. A ...


When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell 2010 University of Kentucky

When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The present experiment investigated the role of gender stereotypes in cases in which a battered person kills his or her abuser. Regression analysis revealed an overall gender bias such that mock jurors were more likely to convict a man defendant who had killed his abusive wife than they were when a woman defendant who had killed her husband. Mediational analyses indicated that the relationship between abuser gender and verdict was partially mediated by sympathy toward the victim, and fully mediated by sympathy toward the defendant. Regression analysis also revealed an effect of abuser height, such that conviction rates were higher ...


Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette 2010 University of Richmond

Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social behavior is often group behavior. People are in many respects individuals seeking their personal, private objectives, yet they are also members of social collectives that bind members to one another. The tendency to join with others is perhaps the most important single characteristic of humans. The processes that take place within these groups influence, in fundamental ways, their members and society-at-large. Just as the dynamic processes that occur in groups--such as the exchange of information among members, leading and following, pressures put on members to adhere to the group's standards, shifts in friendship alliances, and conflict and collaboration-change ...


Support Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Support Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

When people experience traumas, crises, or catastrophes, when they encounter medical or interpersonal difficulties that they cannot cope with by themselves, or if they simply need to find a sympathetic audience who will listen to their problems, they often turn to support groups: groups of people who meet to exchange social support about a problem or situation that they all have experienced. Support groups, which are also known as self-help groups, exist for nearly every major medical, psychological, or stress-related problem. Each one is likely to be unique in some respects, but most such groups are practical in focus and ...


Delphi Therapy, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Delphi Therapy, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The Delphi technique is a structured forecasting and decision-making method that assesses and summarizes the individually held opinions and judgments of group members with little or no discussion or deliberation among the members. Named for the legendary Delphic oracle, this method involves surveying members repeatedly, with the results of each round of surveys informing the framing of the questions for subsequent rounds. The Delphi technique avoids some of the limitations of traditional group decision-making procedures and is particularly useful when the group members are so widely divided on issues that a face-to-face discussion will not be productive.


Biography And The Social Cognition Of Leadership, George R. Goethals 2010 University of Richmond

Biography And The Social Cognition Of Leadership, George R. Goethals

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we'll discuss why we have a penchant for the depiction of leadership through the stories of individual leaders and why that tendency poses serious challenges to understanding leadership. One of the key distinctions in this collection of essays is the one between leaders and leadership. Following James MacGregor Burns, Richard Couto has tried to focus scholars and practitioners on the dynamics of leadership rather than on the lives of leaders. It may well be a losing battle. We'll try to explain why.

Our discussion proceeds as follows. First, we will discuss the ways human wiring ...


Peers As A Social-Contextual Factor On Adolescents' Academic And Career Motivation, Danyel Arlyssa Vargas 2010 California State University, San Bernardino

Peers As A Social-Contextual Factor On Adolescents' Academic And Career Motivation, Danyel Arlyssa Vargas

Theses Digitization Project

The purpose of this study was to add literature by examining the influences of peers on adolescents' academic and caeer motivation using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a theoretical foundation. Ninety juniors and seniors with a mean age of 16.48 from a southern California public high-school participated in the study. Participants completed a self-report questionaire which assessed background information, academic motivation, career motivation, and peer support.


Development And Validation Of The Workplace Intergenerational Atmosphere Scale, Scott P. King 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Development And Validation Of The Workplace Intergenerational Atmosphere Scale, Scott P. King

Dissertations

This dissertation details the development and validation of the Workplace Intergenerational Atmosphere (WIA) scale over two studies. Given the growing number of older adults in the American workforce and the possibility of four generations working side by side, the WIA scale was designed to measure attitudes and perceptions about workers of different ages in the workplace. In Study 1, using a sample of workers from a non-profit organization, 23 initial items were reduced to 18, including five subscales: Intergenerational Contact, Workplace Intergenerational Retention, Positive Affect, Workplace Generational Inclusiveness, and Lack of Stereotypes. The relationships between WIA scores and mentoring, perceptions ...


I Love You (But I Can't Look You In The Eyes): Explicit And Implicit Self-Esteem Predict Verbal And Nonverbal Response To Relationship Threat, Julie Longua Peterson 2010 Loyola University Chicago

I Love You (But I Can't Look You In The Eyes): Explicit And Implicit Self-Esteem Predict Verbal And Nonverbal Response To Relationship Threat, Julie Longua Peterson

Dissertations

Research has revealed the value of studying communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, in couple conflict discussions (Gottman & Levenson, 2000; Noller, Feeney, Bonnell, & Callan, 1994). In fact, the study of behavioral reactions to relationship conflict has been central to predicting important relationship outcomes, such as relationship satisfaction and breakup (e.g. see Gottman, 1998 for a review). The goal of the current dissertation was to explore how explicit (i.e., conscious, deliberate) and implicit (i.e., unconscious, automatic) self-esteem correspond to people's self-reported approach and avoidance verbal and nonverbal behaviors following a relationship threat manipulation (Study 1) and people's observer-rated approach and avoidance verbal and nonverbal behaviors in an actual conflict discussion (Study 2). Results revealed the importance of both explicit and implicit self-esteem for predicting responses to relationship threat, revealing a pattern of results consistent with the risk regulation model (Murray et al., 2006; 2008). These studies also revealed the value of understanding how perceptions of a partner's commitment moderate the relation between implicit self-esteem and risk regulation dynamics. The results of the current research provide some of the first evidence that implicit self-esteem influences romantic relationship regulation dynamics during relationship conflict.


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