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Investigating The Impact Of Explanation On Repairing Trust In Ai Diagnostic Systems For Re-Diagnosis, Lamia Alam 2020 Michigan Technological University

Investigating The Impact Of Explanation On Repairing Trust In Ai Diagnostic Systems For Re-Diagnosis, Lamia Alam

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

AI systems are increasingly being fielded to support diagnoses and healthcare advice for patients. One promise of AI application is that they might serve as the first point of contact for patients, replacing routine tasks, and allowing health care professionals to focus on more challenging and critical aspects of healthcare. For AI systems to succeed, they must be designed based on a good understanding of how physicians explain diagnoses to patients, and how prospective patients understand and trust the systems providing the diagnosis, as well as the explanations they expect. In this thesis, I examine this problem across three studies ...


The Stained Glass Of Knowledge: On Understanding Novice Mental Models Of Computing, Briana Christina Bettin 2020 Michigan Technological University

The Stained Glass Of Knowledge: On Understanding Novice Mental Models Of Computing, Briana Christina Bettin

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Learning to program can be a novel experience. The rigidity of programming can be at odds with beginning programmer's existing perceptions, and the concepts can feel entirely unfamiliar. These observations motivated this research, which explores two major questions: What factors influence how novices learn programming? and How can analogy by more appropriately leveraged in programming education?

This dissertation investigates the factors influencing novice programming through multiple methods. The CS1 classroom is observed as a "whole system", with consideration to the factors present in it that can influence the learning process. Learning's cognitive processes are elaborated to ground exploration ...


Are Individual Characteristics And Behaviors Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Conditions For Academic Success?: A Demonstration Of Dul's (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis, Michael C. Tynan, Marcus Crede, Peter D. Harms 2020 Iowa State University

Are Individual Characteristics And Behaviors Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Conditions For Academic Success?: A Demonstration Of Dul's (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis, Michael C. Tynan, Marcus Crede, Peter D. Harms

Psychology Publications

Claiming that high levels of an independent variable represent a necessary-but-not-sufficient condition for an outcome suggests that the outcome is only possible – but not guaranteed – with high levels of that variable. Necessary condition analysis (NCA) allows researchers to determine if an observed relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable is consistent with such a necessary-but-not-sufficient relation. Using both archival and primary data, we apply Dul's (2016) necessary condition analysis techniques to common correlates of academic success in college. We find data patterns that are consistent with necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions for academic success for a variety of variables including ...


Shadow Women: Wives Betrayed By Sex Buyers, Ingeborg Kraus 2020 Psychologische Psychotherapeutin, Germany

Shadow Women: Wives Betrayed By Sex Buyers, Ingeborg Kraus

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Shadow women are women whose husbands betray them by using prostituted women. Until now, there has been almost no attention paid to the harm to the wives or partners of men who use prostituted women. In this interview, Dr. Ingeborg Kraus talks to the former wife of a sex buyer. She describes the impact of her husband’s betrayal on her and her family. This type of harm needs to be taken seriously and more research done on it.


Examining The Impact Of Overhearing In-Flight Cell-Phone Calls On Passenger Safety, Tianhua Li, Brooke E. Wheeler, Debbie S. Carstens Ph.D., PMP 2020 Florida Institute of Technology

Examining The Impact Of Overhearing In-Flight Cell-Phone Calls On Passenger Safety, Tianhua Li, Brooke E. Wheeler, Debbie S. Carstens Ph.D., Pmp

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Objective: The study examined the effects of passengers’ conversations on adjacent passengers’ annoyance, attention to in-flight announcements, and performance on following instructions, which could lead to passengers’ injuries. Background: Some airlines have provided services to enable in-flight cell-phone calls. However, passengers’ compliance with safety instructions is essential. Previous research demonstrated that cell-phone calls led to higher levels of distractions than face-to-face dialogues, and people were more annoyed with one-sided conversations, such as most cell-phone conversations. Method: Twenty-four participants took 30-minute simulated flights in a laboratory room. Three announcements, which instructed participants to fasten seatbelts, raise tray tables, and check seatbelts ...


Free-To-Play? An Examination Of Intrinsic Motivation And Gaming Behaviors In U.S. Female Mobile Gamers, Margot Goldblum 2020 CUNY City College

Free-To-Play? An Examination Of Intrinsic Motivation And Gaming Behaviors In U.S. Female Mobile Gamers, Margot Goldblum

Dissertations and Theses

The prevalence of U.S. female gamers has skyrocketed in recent years, largely due to the popularity of mobile games; however, this population is underrepresented in academic research. The present study aimed to close this gap in the literature by focusing on the motivations and behaviors of adult female mobile gamers in the U.S. It also aimed to capture changes in gaming motivation and behavior resulting from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online sample of 354 American women 18 to 77 years of age (M = 36.79, SD = 12.38) were surveyed about their motivations for mobile ...


Inclusive Decision Making: Applying Human Factors Methods To Capture The Needs And Voices Of Marginalized Populations, Jacklin Stonewall, Michael C. Dorneich, Linda Shenk, Caroline C. Krejci, Ulrike Passe 2020 Iowa State University

Inclusive Decision Making: Applying Human Factors Methods To Capture The Needs And Voices Of Marginalized Populations, Jacklin Stonewall, Michael C. Dorneich, Linda Shenk, Caroline C. Krejci, Ulrike Passe

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

In the face of large-scale climate change and growing populations, urban leaders must make strategic decisions about how to adapt their city and its neighborhoods to changing climate conditions. These decisions are particularly critical in low-resource neighborhoods where many residents face marginalization, and are often the most vulnerable to climate events (e.g., extreme heat) (Bolin & Kurtz, 2018). Despite higher vulnerability, individuals in these neighborhoods have historically been the least involved in community-level decision-making (Lasker & Guidry, 2009). Additionally, the unique needs of these residents are often overlooked when preparing information and resources for public dissemination.


Impact Of Electronic Flight Bag (Efb) On Single Pilot Performance And Workload, Saravanan Suppiah, Dahai Liu, Sang-A Lee, Andrew Dattel, Dennis Vincenzi Ph.D. 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Impact Of Electronic Flight Bag (Efb) On Single Pilot Performance And Workload, Saravanan Suppiah, Dahai Liu, Sang-A Lee, Andrew Dattel, Dennis Vincenzi Ph.D.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The increase of automation in the aviation industry poses challenges to human performance. To attest this point, studies about aircraft accidents reveal that pilots’ response to automated systems is not always coherent. Research findings suggest that pilots’ interaction with automated systems in highly demanding task situations results in an increase in workload, and if they are unable to resolve it in time, it will compromise flight safety. Therefore, in the interest to further explore the impact of automation on human factor constructs, the study aimed to investigate the impact of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) on pilot workload. The study measured ...


Impact Of Organizational Culture And Perceived Process Safety In The Uae Oil And Gas Industry, Mohamed Ali Al Mazrouei Mr., Khalizani Khalid Dr., Ross Davidson Dr., Salam Abdallah Dr. 2019 Abu Dhabi University

Impact Of Organizational Culture And Perceived Process Safety In The Uae Oil And Gas Industry, Mohamed Ali Al Mazrouei Mr., Khalizani Khalid Dr., Ross Davidson Dr., Salam Abdallah Dr.

The Qualitative Report

In the last few decades, there had been a lot of accidents in the oil and gas industry throughout the world. This article reports a qualitative study of 30 employees employed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) oil and gas industry. Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) culture is a concept which was studied in many researches. However, this research is set to examine how certain behaviors affect the safety performance in UAE’s oil and gas industry. Four core themes that were drawn from the interviewee discussions of how safety culture, leadership safety behaviors, supervisory safety behaviors, and employee training ...


Chronic Pain Acceptance: Optimism Mediates The Relation Between Dispositional Mindfulness And Pain Acceptance, Kelli Miles 2019 Stephen F. Austin State University

Chronic Pain Acceptance: Optimism Mediates The Relation Between Dispositional Mindfulness And Pain Acceptance, Kelli Miles

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Chronic pain is associated with many indicators of maladjustment. We expected that five individual components of dispositional mindfulness would be positively associated with pain willingness (Hypothesis 1) and activity engagement (Hypothesis 2). A mediational hypothesis was tested, whereby dispositional mindfulness would be positively associated with optimism and optimism would in turn be positively associated with both pain willingness and activity engagement (Hypothesis 3). Both Hypothesis 1 and 2 were partially supported. Acting with awareness and nonjudging were the only mindfulness components that were positively associated with pain willingness. Other components of mindfulness were either negatively associated with pain willingness ...


Coaching Nurse Leaders In Conflict Management And Team Building To Improve Retention, Jeanette Black 2019 The University of San Francisco

Coaching Nurse Leaders In Conflict Management And Team Building To Improve Retention, Jeanette Black

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Abstract

Problem: Retention of assistant nurse managers (ANMs) was identified as a concern from interviews with executive leadership and ANMs employed at a large hospital within a Northern California integrated health system. The nurse leader orientation training was reviewed, with gaps identified in conflict management and team building.

Context: The attrition rate of U.S. nurse managers in 2010 was 8.3%, higher than executive nurse leaders, with replacement costs equal to 75% - 125% of a nurse manager’s salary (Loveridge, 2017). Employee turnover and dissatisfaction due to conflict can have detrimental effects on retention, productivity, morale, and quality of ...


A Desire Fulfillment Theory Of Digital Game Enjoyment, Owen M. Schaffer 2019 DePaul University

A Desire Fulfillment Theory Of Digital Game Enjoyment, Owen M. Schaffer

College of Computing and Digital Media Dissertations

Empirical research on what makes digital games enjoyable is critical for practitioners who want to design for enjoyment, including for Game Design, Gamification, and Serious Games. But existing theories of what leads to digital game enjoyment have been incomplete or lacking in empirical support showing their impact on enjoyment.

Desire Fulfillment Theory is proposed as a new theory of what leads to digital game enjoyment and tested through research with people who have recently played a digital game. This theory builds on three established theories: Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory, Theory of Basic Human Desires, and Flow Theory. These three theories are ...


Human Adaptability For Deep Space Missions: An Exploratory Study, Paul T. Bartone, Robert R. Roland, Jocelyn V. Bartone, Gerald P. Krueger, Albert A. Sciarretta, Bjorn Helge Johnsen 2019 National Defense University

Human Adaptability For Deep Space Missions: An Exploratory Study, Paul T. Bartone, Robert R. Roland, Jocelyn V. Bartone, Gerald P. Krueger, Albert A. Sciarretta, Bjorn Helge Johnsen

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

The present qualitative study conducts in-depth interviews with astronauts and other subject matter experts in order to shed light on human adaptability in extreme environments. Deep space travel will entail a range of highly stressful conditions to which astronauts must adapt. Feelings of isolation will be increased, as the space traveler is farther from Earth for longer periods of time. Daily life will take place in small and confined areas, for durations extending into years. The dangers of the extreme environment of space are ever-present, and failure of critical equipment or components can lead to death. Astronauts will need to ...


The Design Of Tiny Homes And Their Significance To Simplistic Living, Monica Garcia-Guzman 2019 East Tennessee State University

The Design Of Tiny Homes And Their Significance To Simplistic Living, Monica Garcia-Guzman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research examines the design of tiny homes and the importance they play in the lives of those that would usually have not been able to afford a house. The research will also focus on designing a tiny home with the use of design software to fully understand the extent of the characteristics of a tiny home. The design of these small dwellings, usually about 400-500 square feet, allows for a minimalist lifestyle that can be very low cost. The same materials that are used in traditional constructed homes are used for tiny homes because it makes them more durable ...


Examining The Effect Of Interruptions At Different Breakpoints And Frequencies Within A Task, Sarah Anastazia Powers 2019 Old Dominion University

Examining The Effect Of Interruptions At Different Breakpoints And Frequencies Within A Task, Sarah Anastazia Powers

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Research on the effects of interruptions shows that they can be either costly or beneficial depending on which aspects of an interruption are manipulated. One important aspect that contributes to these conflicting results concerns when an interruption occurs. The present study explored how event segmentation theory (EST) can be used to determine optimal moments for an interruption relying on hierarchical task analysis (HTA) to identify coarse and fine event boundaries. Utilizing a 2 X 3 mixed design, undergraduate students completed a trip planning task divided into three task trials. The within-subjects factor was interruption timing, which had three levels: none ...


知的生産性を飛躍させる録音システム, Yoshihiko Ariizumi 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

知的生産性を飛躍させる録音システム, Yoshihiko Ariizumi

Learning, Teaching, & Researching Optimization

This article explains the benefits of using a recording system, what it is, and why it works. Our intelligence has many unexplored potentials, and by using this recording system, such latent abilities can be utilized for intellectual productivity.


Recording System That Dramatically Increases Intellectual Productivity, Yoshihiko Ariizumi 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

Recording System That Dramatically Increases Intellectual Productivity, Yoshihiko Ariizumi

Learning, Teaching, & Researching Optimization

この記事は、録音システムを使う利点、それが具体的にはどのような活動であり、なぜそのような効果が出るのかについて説明されている。私たちの知性にはまだ多くの研究されていない潜在的な能力があり、この録音システムを使うことによって、そのように眠っている能力を知的生産性のために利用することができる。


Keep The Faith Not The Guilt: Demonization Of Sex Workers, Jessica Hodges 2019 Murray State University

Keep The Faith Not The Guilt: Demonization Of Sex Workers, Jessica Hodges

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

Previous research shows that religiosity and attitudes about sexual topics are strongly correlated and typically negative. That is, as religiosity increases, views toward sexual topics tend to become more conservative or generally more negative in valence. However, current research also suggests that one’s sexual guilt may be the mediating influence in the relationship between religiosity and negative sexual attitudes. The present study seeks to replicate and extend research that examined the extent to which an individual's religiosity and sexual guilt influence their perspective of pornography and sex workers (Study 1). To replicate this (Study 2), a survey containing ...


Impacts On Retrogression Of Domestic Violence Survivors, Ashlynn Echols 2019 University of North Georgia

Impacts On Retrogression Of Domestic Violence Survivors, Ashlynn Echols

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

This paper intends to provide insight into the effect that outreach services have on repeated victimization among domestic violence survivors through an in-depth case study. Research conducted in 2019 revealed that as many as 36% of women in the United States have experienced domestic violence (Sigurdsson, 2019). The prevalence of this issue is undoubted and is slowly gaining awareness in the United States. Among those domestic violence survivors residing in emergency shelters nationwide, 84% require assistance in obtaining affordable housing after exiting the shelter (Safe Housing, 2017). Once domestic violence survivors enter a shelter, the likelihood of their return, unfortunately ...


Medical Students' Experiences And Outcomes Using A Virtual Human Simulation To Improve Communication Skills: Mixed Methods Study, Timothy Guetterman, Rae Sakakibara, Srikar Baireddy, Frederick W. Kron, Mark W. Scerbo, James F. Cleary, Michael D. Fetters 2019 Old Dominion University

Medical Students' Experiences And Outcomes Using A Virtual Human Simulation To Improve Communication Skills: Mixed Methods Study, Timothy Guetterman, Rae Sakakibara, Srikar Baireddy, Frederick W. Kron, Mark W. Scerbo, James F. Cleary, Michael D. Fetters

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: Attending to the wide range of communication behaviors that convey empathy is an important but often underemphasized concept to reduce errors in care, improve patient satisfaction, and improve cancer patient outcomes. A virtual human (VH)–based simulation, MPathic-VR, was developed to train health care providers in empathic communication with patients and in interprofessional settings and evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.

Objective: This mixed methods study aimed to investigate the differential effects of a VH-based simulation developed to train health care providers in empathic patient-provider and interprofessional communication.

Methods: We employed a mixed methods intervention design, involving a comparison ...


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