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Full-Text Articles in Human Factors Psychology

Colombian Women’S Experiences Of Cosmetic Surgery And Its Relationship To Body Image, Austin Gonzalez-Randolph Jun 2021

Colombian Women’S Experiences Of Cosmetic Surgery And Its Relationship To Body Image, Austin Gonzalez-Randolph

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand women’s experiences of cosmetic surgery and its effects on body image on women from the Colombian cities of Bogotá and Pereira. The participants of this study were women of Colombian descent, who reside in Colombia. This was done with the hopes of better understanding how culture impacts views on cosmetic surgery. Colombia appears to have a culture that is very enmeshed with cosmetic surgery. This study provides an initial exploratory and qualitative investigation into the perception of body image as it relates to cosmetic surgery among six young women living in ...


Fostering Attachment In Romantic Relationships Through Creative Art Therapies, Mary Hachey May 2021

Fostering Attachment In Romantic Relationships Through Creative Art Therapies, Mary Hachey

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Attachment theory examines the infant/caregiver’s relationship by the attachment style they develop in the first years of life. Over time, these same attachment styles affect adult romantic relationships. Bowlby defines four infant/children attachment styles as securely attached, anxious-ambivalent-insecurely attached, avoidant-insecurely attached, and disorganized-disoriented-insecurely attached. These four styles transferred into three main types for adults: secure, anxious-ambivalent, and avoidant. A couple’s relationship can become affected by personal values, behaviors, environmental situations, attachment styles, and beyond. This literature review discusses how couples behave, relate, and interact with one another based on their attachment styles and it also gives ...


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson May 2021

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is ...


Fly By Night, Patrick J. Sherman May 2021

Fly By Night, Patrick J. Sherman

Night Flight Journal

A new member of the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide Campus Department of Flight participates in a night-time UAS operation, both to study the use of drones in responding to active shooter incidents by law enforcement, but also as a demonstration of proficiency to conduct future operations under the institution's daylight waiver, granted by the Federal Aviation Administration. While attempting an intricate maneuver, the newcomer finds that he has placed is aircraft in immediate peril and must make a difficult choice: confess his error in front of his new colleagues and seek help, or attempt to escape on his own ...


Identifying Factors For Voluntary Return Migration: A Case Study Of Uzbek American Returnees, Khojiakbar Gayratbekov May 2021

Identifying Factors For Voluntary Return Migration: A Case Study Of Uzbek American Returnees, Khojiakbar Gayratbekov

Master's Theses

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, many Uzbek immigrants found their ways to the United States. Given the unique historic context to their cultural and national identity, Uzbeks experience distinctive integration and adaptation process when they arrive in the United States. Despite political instability and a weak economy in Uzbekistan, data from the United States Department of Homeland Security reveal that many Uzbek immigrants are leaving the U.S. for their home country. Thus, this study investigates factors for return migration among Uzbek immigrants for the period of 2010 to 2020. This study utilizes a mixture of qualitative and ...


It’S Not All Aces: The Role Of Negative Parental Influences And Criminal Thinking In Juvenile Offending Behaviors, Branna Humphrey May 2021

It’S Not All Aces: The Role Of Negative Parental Influences And Criminal Thinking In Juvenile Offending Behaviors, Branna Humphrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and criminal thinking in causing criminal behavior has been explored extensively in criminal justice research. Based on the concepts of ACEs and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Scale, the negative parental influences and criminal thinking styles of 1,354 juvenile offenders were examined to establish that negative parental influences and criminal thinking are separately associated with juvenile problem and offending behavior, and that criminal thinking mediates the relationship between negative parental influences and juvenile problem and offending behavior. Analyses showed support for criminal thinking as a pathway from negative parental influences to ...


Cultural Influences On Exercise Type And Body Confidence In Women, Skye Sakashita, Desiree Crevecoeur-Macphail May 2021

Cultural Influences On Exercise Type And Body Confidence In Women, Skye Sakashita, Desiree Crevecoeur-Macphail

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This study examined cultural influences on exercise habits and body confidence in women, specifically between ethnic minority and white women. Past research has indicated that Asian women often feel more cultural pressure than their White counterparts. This study wanted to examine further and see if an individual’s parent being an immigrant differs in amount of cultural pressure. Another aspect that this survey examined is motivation for exercise. Past research found that women who felt greater dissatisfaction with their physical appearance were more likely to list factors such as appearance or weight as their reasoning for exercise rather than for ...


Laughter As A Priming Agent For Change, Linnea M. Heintz May 2021

Laughter As A Priming Agent For Change, Linnea M. Heintz

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of laughter as a factor in influencing employee job satisfaction ratings. The Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985, 1997) and pulses of laughter were used in this study. To explore the relationship between laughter and job satisfaction, results of the Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1994) were collected quarterly (four times a year) for three consecutive years, beginning six months prior to the start of the two-year study and six months post. The study sample was composed of 545 employees (34% male, 66% female) operating out of 10 employee-owned retail chain locations ...


Social Media Usage And Self-Esteem Of College Students In Los Angeles Vs. Other American Cities, Emily Tortora Apr 2021

Social Media Usage And Self-Esteem Of College Students In Los Angeles Vs. Other American Cities, Emily Tortora

Global Tides

This study examines self-esteem levels of college students in accordance with their social media behaviors and residential cities. An online survey was used to compare Instagram behaviors and their Heatherton Self-Esteem scores between 51 college students from the Los Angeles area and 148 students from alternate American cities. It was hypothesized that college students from the Los Angeles area would report higher levels of social media activity and lower levels of self-esteem. Results did not show any significant trend in one’s residential location dictating social media behaviors, nor did one’s social media usage predict their levels of self-esteem ...


The Role Of Coaches, Institutions, And Clinicians In Addressing Athlete Mental Health, Melissa Otterbein, Cindy Miller Aron, Paul Gorczynski Apr 2021

The Role Of Coaches, Institutions, And Clinicians In Addressing Athlete Mental Health, Melissa Otterbein, Cindy Miller Aron, Paul Gorczynski

Emerging Discourses

Mental health, defined by the World Health Organization as “a state of wellbeing in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community,” is an important concern for athletes. In 2018, research findings showed that the prevalence of mental health symptoms and disorders among current elite athletes ranged from 19% for alcohol misuse to 34% for anxiety/depression, and from 16% for distress to 26% for anxiety/depression for former elite athletes.2 Research suggests that ...


Out With The Humans, In With The Machines?: Investigating The Behavioral And Psychological Effects Of Replacing Human Advisors With A Machine, Andrew Prahl, Lyn Van Swol Apr 2021

Out With The Humans, In With The Machines?: Investigating The Behavioral And Psychological Effects Of Replacing Human Advisors With A Machine, Andrew Prahl, Lyn Van Swol

Human-Machine Communication

This study investigates the effects of task demonstrability and replacing a human advisor with a machine advisor. Outcome measures include advice-utilization (trust), the perception of advisors, and decision-maker emotions. Participants were randomly assigned to make a series of forecasts dealing with either humanitarian planning (low demonstrability) or management (high demonstrability). Participants received advice from either a machine advisor only, a human advisor only, or their advisor was replaced with the other type of advisor (human/machine) midway through the experiment. Decision-makers rated human advisors as more expert, more useful, and more similar. Perception effects were strongest when a human advisor ...


Advancing Team Cohesion: Using An Escape Room As A Novel Approach, Tara N. Cohen, Joseph R. Keebler, Andrew C. Griggs Ii, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Falisha F. Kanji, Kate A. Cohen, Bruce L. Gewertz Apr 2021

Advancing Team Cohesion: Using An Escape Room As A Novel Approach, Tara N. Cohen, Joseph R. Keebler, Andrew C. Griggs Ii, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Falisha F. Kanji, Kate A. Cohen, Bruce L. Gewertz

Publications

Objective: An escape room was used to study teamwork and its determinants, which have been found to relate to the quality and safety of patient care delivery. This pilot study aimed to explore the value of an escape room as a mechanism for improving cohesion among interdisciplinary healthcare teams.
Methods: This research was conducted at a nonprofit medical center in Southern California. All participants who work on a team were invited to participate. Authors employed an interrupted within-subjects design, with two pre- and post- escape room questionnaires related to two facets of group cohesion: (belonging – (PGC-B) and morale (PGC-M)). Participants ...


A Composite Framework Of Co-Located Asymmetric Virtual Reality, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Stephen B. Gilbert Apr 2021

A Composite Framework Of Co-Located Asymmetric Virtual Reality, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Stephen B. Gilbert

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

As the variety of possible interactions with virtual reality (VR) continues to expand, researchers need a way to relate these interactions to users' needs and goals in ways that advance understanding. Existing efforts have focused mainly on the symmetric use of technology, which excludes a rising form of interaction known as asymmetric VR, in which co-located participants use different interfaces to interact with a shared environment. There must be a clear path to creating asymmetric VR systems that are rooted in previous work from several fields, as these systems have use cases in education, hybrid reality teams (using VR and ...


Authentication Schemes' Impact On Working Memory, Janine D. Mator Apr 2021

Authentication Schemes' Impact On Working Memory, Janine D. Mator

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Authentication is the process by which a computing system validates a user’s identity. Although this process is necessary for system security, users view authentication as a frequent disruption to their primary tasks. During this disruption, primary task information must be actively maintained in working memory. As a result, primary task information stored in working memory is at risk of being lost or corrupted while users authenticate. For over two decades, researchers have focused on developing more memorable passwords by replacing alphanumeric text with visual graphics (Biddle et al., 2012). However, very little attention has been given to the impact ...


No Place For Hate, Gabrielle S. Brundidge Mar 2021

No Place For Hate, Gabrielle S. Brundidge

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

No Place for Hate® is an initiative of the Anti-Defamation League offered free to schools. With public displays of hate on the rise, it is more important than ever for schools to commit to programs that clearly define expectations in behavior for all members of the community. Whether you are a student, educator, or family member, you have a role to play in combating bias and bullying as a means to stop the escalation of hate. The initiative is designed to rally the entire school around the goal of creating a welcoming community committed to stopping all forms of bias ...


When Do Drivers Interact With In-Vehicle Well-Being Interventions? An Exploratory Analysis Of A Longitudinal Study On Public Roads, Kevin Koch, Varun Mishra, Shu Liu, Thomas Berger, Elgar Fleisch, David Kotz, Felix Wortmann Mar 2021

When Do Drivers Interact With In-Vehicle Well-Being Interventions? An Exploratory Analysis Of A Longitudinal Study On Public Roads, Kevin Koch, Varun Mishra, Shu Liu, Thomas Berger, Elgar Fleisch, David Kotz, Felix Wortmann

Dartmouth Scholarship

Recent developments of novel in-vehicle interventions show the potential to transform the otherwise routine and mundane task of commuting into opportunities to improve the drivers' health and well-being. Prior research has explored the effectiveness of various in-vehicle interventions and has identified moments in which drivers could be interruptible to interventions. All the previous studies, however, were conducted in either simulated or constrained real-world driving scenarios on a pre-determined route. In this paper, we take a step forward and evaluate when drivers interact with in-vehicle interventions in unconstrained free-living conditions.

To this end, we conducted a two-month longitudinal study with 10 ...


Fatigue And Its Management In The Aviation Industry, With Special Reference To Pilots, Rajee Olaganathan, Timothy B. Holt, Jackie Luedtke, Brent D. Bowen Mar 2021

Fatigue And Its Management In The Aviation Industry, With Special Reference To Pilots, Rajee Olaganathan, Timothy B. Holt, Jackie Luedtke, Brent D. Bowen

Publications

Abstract Fatigue is a significant contributing factor that reduces human ability and leads to accidents and threatens the safety of aircraft and human lives. Approximately 70% of fatal accidents that occur in commercial aviation operations are due to human factors. More specifically, crew fatigue contributes to nearly 15 to 20% of the accidents (Akerstedt, 2000). These accidents and incidents are associated with pilot fatigue because of the long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and inadequate sleep that are common among both commercial and military pilots. Though fatigue is seen in all the disciplines associated with the aviation industry, this ...


An Investigation Of Factors That Influence Passengers’ Intentions To Use Biometric Technologies At Airports, Kabir Olaseni Kasim Feb 2021

An Investigation Of Factors That Influence Passengers’ Intentions To Use Biometric Technologies At Airports, Kabir Olaseni Kasim

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

Biometric technologies use the characteristics and measurements from humans to establish or verify their identity. Within an airport setting, biometric technologies can be used to hasten passenger processes such as airport check-in, baggage drop-off or pick-up, and aircraft boarding, thus enhancing the overall passenger experience.

This research investigated the factors that influence passengers’ intentions to choose the use of biometrics over other methods of identification. The current study utilized a quantitative research method via an online survey of 689 persons from Amazon ® Mechanical Turk ® (MTurk) and employed structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques for data analysis. The study utilized the theory ...


The Effects Of Display Type, Weather Type, And Pilot Experience On Pilot Interpretation Of Weather Products, Jayde M. King, Beth Blickensderfer, Thomas A. Guinn, John L. Kleber, Thomas A. Guinn Jan 2021

The Effects Of Display Type, Weather Type, And Pilot Experience On Pilot Interpretation Of Weather Products, Jayde M. King, Beth Blickensderfer, Thomas A. Guinn, John L. Kleber, Thomas A. Guinn

Publications

The majority of general aviation (GA) accidents involving adverse weather result in fatalities. Considering the high weather-related fatality rate among GA flight operations, it is imperative to ensure that GA pilots of all experience levels can incorporate available weather information into their flight planning. In the past decade, weather product development has incorporated increasing levels of automation, which has led to the generation of high-resolution, model-based aviation displays such as graphical turbulence guidance and current icing potential, which rival the resolution of radar and satellite imagery. This is in stark contrast to the traditional polygonal-based displays of aviation weather hazards ...


Integrating The First Person View And The Third Person View Using A Connected Vr-Mr System For Pilot Training, Chang-Geun Oh, Kwanghee Lee, Myunghoon Oh Jan 2021

Integrating The First Person View And The Third Person View Using A Connected Vr-Mr System For Pilot Training, Chang-Geun Oh, Kwanghee Lee, Myunghoon Oh

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

Virtual reality (VR)-based flight simulator provides pilots the enhanced reality from the first-person view. Mixed reality (MR) technology generates effective 3D graphics. The users who wear the MR headset can walk around the 3D graphics to see all its 360 degrees of vertical and horizontal aspects maintaining the consciousness of real space. A VR flight simulator and an MR application were connected to create the capability of both first-person view and third-person view for a comprehensive pilot training system. This system provided users the capability to monitor the aircraft progress along the planned path from the third-person view as ...


Investigating The Role Of Trust And Self-Confidence In Automation, Daniela R. Miele Jan 2021

Investigating The Role Of Trust And Self-Confidence In Automation, Daniela R. Miele

Honors Undergraduate Theses

A proper calibration of trust in automation is imperative to achieve optimal overall performance in human-machine systems. Previous research has suggested that human operator trust could be influenced by various situational and dispositional factors, as well as operator self-confidence. It is critical to examine what traits and factors will influence how likely a person is to trust autonomous vehicles as they become more prevalent on today’s roadways. The goal of this study was to further examine the relationship between individuals’ level of self-confidence in their own driving abilities and their reported trust in automation when driving semi-autonomous cars. It ...


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb Jan 2021

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


The Creation Of Personal Happiness, Jayme Zesiger Jan 2021

The Creation Of Personal Happiness, Jayme Zesiger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Happiness is something human beings strive to acquire but how to obtain this elusive feeling remains a longstanding and intriguing inquiry. One reason for this is that there is no one specific definition of happiness and no standard measurement for it. This project focuses on defining what is believed to affect happiness from an individual’s personal perspective and aims to shed light on the current research and understanding of how to define happiness and what common variables lead to happiness. To this aim, a structured literature review was conducted which led to the development of a mixed methods survey ...


To Examine The Effects Of Exercise & Instructional Based Interventions On Executive Functioning, Motor Learning & Emotional Intelligence Abilities Among Older Adults, Lavanya Rajesh Kumar Jan 2021

To Examine The Effects Of Exercise & Instructional Based Interventions On Executive Functioning, Motor Learning & Emotional Intelligence Abilities Among Older Adults, Lavanya Rajesh Kumar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Motor skills are a vital part of our life, and there might be situations where we will be required to either learn a new skill or relearn a known one. We examined the effectiveness of two different interventions - eccentric exercise and motivation-based instructions on enhancing the ability of older adults to learn a novel motor skill. Exercise intervention studies have shown that as little as 12 weeks of exercise can lead to improvements in both physical fitness and cognitive function in older adults, particularly executive control. But it is still unclear whether those improvements translate to improvements in other domains ...


Divergent Attitudes Regarding The Benefits Of Face Masks In Aviation Colleges And Universities, Andrew R. Dattel, Peiheng Gao, Hanzi Xie, Maxine E. Lubner Jan 2021

Divergent Attitudes Regarding The Benefits Of Face Masks In Aviation Colleges And Universities, Andrew R. Dattel, Peiheng Gao, Hanzi Xie, Maxine E. Lubner

Publications

Opinions and practices regarding face masks (FM) to attenuate COVID-19’s spread remains polarized across the United States. We examined whether these attitudes extend to the aviation collegiate community. A 14-question survey was sent to 90 aviation colleges and universities throughout the country. Responses were solicited from students, faculty, and staff. Of the 598 respondents, 77% were students, 13% were faculty, and 10% were staff. Pilots comprised 66% of the respondents. A Principal Component Analysis reduced the questions to two scales: Benefits and Inconvenience. Females, non-pilots, and older respondents reported greater benefits to wearing a FMand fewer inconveniences. A multiple ...


Emotional Intelligence And Safety Citizenship Among Army Aviators, Zachary T. Dugger, Bernadette Mccrory Jan 2021

Emotional Intelligence And Safety Citizenship Among Army Aviators, Zachary T. Dugger, Bernadette Mccrory

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and safety citizenship among United States Army aviators. The study includes analysis of survey responses from 29 individual aviators. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between safety citizenship, emotional intelligence, and 15 emotional intelligence facets. Results indicate a significant association (F(1,28) = 15.45; p = 0.001) between safety citizenship and emotional intelligence, and between safety citizenship and 3 emotional intelligence facets: Adaptability (F(1,25) = 23.91; p < 0.001), Self Esteem (F(1,25) = 10.75; p = 0.003), and ...


Are Individual Differences In Media Multitasking Habits Associated With Changes In Brain Activation: An Erp Investigation Of Multitasking And Cognitive Control, Morgan Middlebrooks Dec 2020

Are Individual Differences In Media Multitasking Habits Associated With Changes In Brain Activation: An Erp Investigation Of Multitasking And Cognitive Control, Morgan Middlebrooks

Theses and Dissertations

As the number of mobile phone users grows, understanding the impact of multiple streams of media on media multitasking and related neural correlates is especially pertinent. This research aims to understand the association between media multitasking tendencies on the neural correlates underlying cognitive control using event-related potentials (ERPs). Specifically, we were interested in the N2 and P3, ERPs that measure neural activation underlying aspects of cognitive control. Based on the literature, we predicted that participants who have high media multitasking scores would show more negative N2 activation and more positive P3 activation than their low media multitasking counterparts during an ...


Cuban Immigrants’ Experience With Acculturation And How They Cope In The United States, Lourdes Araujo Dec 2020

Cuban Immigrants’ Experience With Acculturation And How They Cope In The United States, Lourdes Araujo

Dissertations

Objective: This research examines how Cuban immigrants experience cope and adapt to the United States. Cuban immigration is associated with specific stressors related to the immigration experience and the necessary process of acculturation and assimilation. These major stressors can result in mental health concerns among Cuban immigrants; however, no studies have examined how acculturation may influence Cuban immigrants’ coping skills and resultant mental health concerns. This unique study is the first to examine the coping skills Cuban immigrants use during acculturation and the effects of these skills on Cuban immigrants’ mental health. Methods: Seventeen participants completed a semistructured interview and ...


The Effects Of Security Framing, Time Pressure, And Brand Familiarity On Risky Mobile Application Downloads, Cody Parker Dec 2020

The Effects Of Security Framing, Time Pressure, And Brand Familiarity On Risky Mobile Application Downloads, Cody Parker

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The current study examined the effects of security system framing, time pressure, and brand familiarity on mobile application download behaviors, with an emphasis on risk taking. According to the Prospect Theory, people tend to engage in irrational decision making, and make qualitatively different decisions when information is framed in terms of gains and losses (i.e., the framing effect). Past research has used this framing effect to guide the design of a risk display for mobile applications (apps), with the purpose of communicating the potential risks and minimizing insecure app selections. Time pressure has been shown to influence the framing ...


Do You Need To Travel? Mapping Face-To-Face Communication Objectives To Technology Affordances, Rachel E. Dianiska, Charles J. Peasley, Nicholas Wilson, Neil Barnett, Leilani Hammel, Ben Purdy, Peggy Wu, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, James H. Oliver, Stephen B. Gilbert Dec 2020

Do You Need To Travel? Mapping Face-To-Face Communication Objectives To Technology Affordances, Rachel E. Dianiska, Charles J. Peasley, Nicholas Wilson, Neil Barnett, Leilani Hammel, Ben Purdy, Peggy Wu, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, James H. Oliver, Stephen B. Gilbert

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Computer-mediated communications (CMC) can be used as a substitute for face-to-face (FtF) meetings but their effectiveness is highly context dependent. This paper describes a theoretical framework and initial experimental design for characterizing a travel replacement threshold. This effort begins with a use case of remote engineering maintenance training, conducted in three conditions: side-by-side (physically proximate), teleconference (using off-the-shelf software), and a custom VR/AR system designed to provide the apprentice with a virtual view of both the instructor’s larger scale lab and smaller scale workbench. The research hypotheses, experimental protocol, and dependent measures are described. The task involves an ...