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Drama Therapy As An Intervention For Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Potential Benefits For Youth And Adulthood, Ella S. de Castro 2023 Scripps College

Drama Therapy As An Intervention For Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Potential Benefits For Youth And Adulthood, Ella S. De Castro

Scripps Senior Theses

There are many interventions commonly used for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, one that has not been researched as often is drama therapy. Though there are not many studies on drama therapy and ASD, the ones that do exist seem to indicate positive results. The goal of this proposed study is to assess whether drama therapy could be a good intervention for ASD and if it could potentially be a better option compared to applied behavioral analysis (ABA). The proposed study is broken into two smaller studies. The first study explores the potential benefits of drama therapy for …


Individual Behavioral And Neurobiological Markers Associated With A Vulnerable To Ethanol Use Phenotype, Kelsey M. Alimandi 2023 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Individual Behavioral And Neurobiological Markers Associated With A Vulnerable To Ethanol Use Phenotype, Kelsey M. Alimandi

Honors Theses and Capstones

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing brain condition that is characterized by excessive alcohol consumption, continued use when faced with negative consequences, and a negative emotional state associated with withdrawals (anxiety, irritability, depression). The main challenge to treating AUD is preventing relapse. The purpose of this study was to use a prolonged-exposure model to allow rats to self-administer ethanol to determine the brain regions active during relapse events. The rats performed multiple behavioral tests such as economic demand, negative consequences, and an elevated plus maze. These tests determined how hard rats were willing to work for an ethanol …


Commentaries On “Scale Use And Abuse: Toward Best Practices In The Deployment Of Scales”, Constantine S. KATSIKEAS, Shilpa MADAN, C. Miguel BRENDL, Bobby J. CALDER, Donald R. LEHMANN, Hans BAUMGARTNER, Bert WEIJTERS, Mo WANG, Chengquan HUANG, Joel HUBER 2023 Singapore Management University

Commentaries On “Scale Use And Abuse: Toward Best Practices In The Deployment Of Scales”, Constantine S. Katsikeas, Shilpa Madan, C. Miguel Brendl, Bobby J. Calder, Donald R. Lehmann, Hans Baumgartner, Bert Weijters, Mo Wang, Chengquan Huang, Joel Huber

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Five comments below provide strong and interesting perspectives on multi-item scale use. They define contexts and research areas where developed scales are valuable and where they are vulnerable. Katsikeas and Madan begin by taking a global perspective on scale use, demonstrating how the use and transferability of scales become even more problematic as researchers move across languages and cultures. They provide guidance for scale use that is particularly relevant to international marketing and marketing strategy research. Brendl and Calder acknowledge the use of well-formed scales as measured variables in psychological experiments, both as independent and dependent variables, but critique the …


Biting The Hand That Feeds: A Status-Based Model Of When And Why Receiving Help Motivates Social Undermining, Kenneth TAI, Katrina Jia LIN, Catherice K. LAM, Wu LIU 2023 Singapore Management University

Biting The Hand That Feeds: A Status-Based Model Of When And Why Receiving Help Motivates Social Undermining, Kenneth Tai, Katrina Jia Lin, Catherice K. Lam, Wu Liu

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Social exchange theory suggests that after receiving help, people reciprocate by helping the original helpgiver. However, we propose that help recipients may respond negatively and harm the help giver when they perceive helping as a status threat and experience envy. Integrating the helping as status relations framework and the social functional perspective of envy, we examine when and why receiving help may prompt help recipients to undermine help givers. Across four studies, we find progressive support for our results, which show that when individuals receive task-related help from help givers who are perceived to be more, rather than less, competent …


On The Role Of Task Preference And Work Removal For Identifying Escape Functions, Brian Patrick Long 2023 West Virginia University

On The Role Of Task Preference And Work Removal For Identifying Escape Functions, Brian Patrick Long

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Abstract

On the Role of Task Preference and Work Removal for Identifying Escape Functions

Brian P. Long

Students within the public school system may exhibit severe challenging behavior to escape from academic demands. Procedures to identify the reinforcers that maintain challenging behavior, such as functional analysis, may improve the probability of treatment success. Functional analysis involves manipulating contingencies to determine if positive (e.g., attention following challenging behavior) or negative (e.g., escape from aversive events such as task demands) reinforcers may maintain challenging behavior (Iwata et al., 1982). The absence of evocative tasks could produce inaccurate results when testing for effects …


Not Such A Complainer Anymore: Confrontation That Signals A Growth Mindset Can Attenuate Backlash, Aneeta Rattan, Kathryn M. Kroeper, Rachel Arnett, Xanni Brown, Mary Murphy 2023 London Business School

Not Such A Complainer Anymore: Confrontation That Signals A Growth Mindset Can Attenuate Backlash, Aneeta Rattan, Kathryn M. Kroeper, Rachel Arnett, Xanni Brown, Mary Murphy

Psychology Faculty Publications

We report the first investigation of whether observers draw information about mindsets from behavior, specifically prejudice confrontation. We tested two questions across 10 studies (N = 3,168). First, would people who observe someone confront a biased comment (vs. remain silent) see them as endorsing more growth (vs. fixed) mindsets about prejudice and bias? If so, would the growth mindset perceptions that arise from confrontation (vs. remaining silent) attenuate the backlash that observers exhibit against confronters? We investigated these questions using scenarios (Studies 1, 2a–b, 4, 5a–d), naturalistic confrontations of national, race, and gender stereotypes reported retrospectively (Study 3), and …


Comparing Indirect Assessment Results To A Direct Function Focused Preference Assessment To Identify Potential Reinforcers To Increase Task Completion In A School Setting, Kailee Joy Matthews 2023 University of Kentucky

Comparing Indirect Assessment Results To A Direct Function Focused Preference Assessment To Identify Potential Reinforcers To Increase Task Completion In A School Setting, Kailee Joy Matthews

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

In the present study, a concurrent operant analysis (COA) was conducted for one elementary aged student in a publicly funded school to determine if the results yielded an interpretable outcome to identify a potential reinforcer to increase work completion. A simultaneous treatments design was used during the COA to assess choice making behavior. The results of the COA indicated the student’s choice making behavior was maintained by access to attention. An indirect measure of motivation was used as a secondary assessment to identify a potential reinforcer to increase work completion and to determine if the results would align with the …


Comparing The Efficacy Of Interventions Derived From Concurrent Operant Analysis And Indirect Assessment, Lane Marquardt 2023 University of Kentucky

Comparing The Efficacy Of Interventions Derived From Concurrent Operant Analysis And Indirect Assessment, Lane Marquardt

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

In this study, a simultaneous treatments design was used to conduct a concurrent operant analysis (COA) to evaluate the choice making behavior of one elementary aged student. The COA results were used as a possible reinforcer for one of the conditions for the intervention to increase work completion. An indirect assessment, Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF), was used identify a hypothesized function to the student’s lack of task completion behavior. The results from thee QABD were used as a possible reinforcer for one of the conditions for the intervention to increase work completion. An alternating treatments design (ATD) was used …


Evaluation Of Commission And Omission Errors During Differential Reinforcement Of Other Behavior, Lindsey M. Hronek 2023 West Virginia University

Evaluation Of Commission And Omission Errors During Differential Reinforcement Of Other Behavior, Lindsey M. Hronek

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a reinforcement schedule that commonly includes the delivery of a reinforcer following an interval during which a target behavior did not occur and extinction (i.e., the reinforcer is withheld following any instances of the target behavior). Although interventions using DRO schedules can decrease target behavior when implemented as designed, little is known about the efficacy of DRO interventions when they include fidelity errors. A growing field of literature has demonstrated different ways fidelity errors can affect the outcomes of other interventions (e.g., DRA, response cost, and skill acquisition). One study by Foreman et …


Sentence Length And Perceptions Of Dangerousness As A Function Of Race, Attributional Complexity, And Ability To Meet Bail, Hannah Baldwin 2023 Roger Williams University

Sentence Length And Perceptions Of Dangerousness As A Function Of Race, Attributional Complexity, And Ability To Meet Bail, Hannah Baldwin

Psychology Theses

Defendant race and ethnicity impact sentencing length decisions, leading to discrimination in the criminal justice system. Aspects of the pretrial process that strongly correlate with a defendant’s socioeconomic status, the use of cash bail, may also influence sentencing length, given the negative stereotypes about individuals of lower socioeconomic statuses. Relatively few studies have explored the impact of cash bail use on sentencing decisions or sought to understand why use of cash bail might influence these decisions. The current study investigates the impact of defendant ability to meet bail (yes v. no) on judgments of sentence length and dangerousness within the …


The Predictive Effect Of Parent Closeness On Substance Use For Coping In Adoptees: An Application Of Motivational Models Of Substance Use, Alison B. Klein 2023 Roger Williams University

The Predictive Effect Of Parent Closeness On Substance Use For Coping In Adoptees: An Application Of Motivational Models Of Substance Use, Alison B. Klein

Psychology Theses

To explain a previously observed triad of substance abuse, adoption, and poor mental health adjustment in adoptees, the proposed study applies the Substance Use Motivation Model. This model would suggest that adoptees are motivated to use substances to negatively reinforce (remove or mitigate) depression and anxiety symptomology. Parent closeness is an established protective factor against negative mental health symptomology and substance use, suggesting closeness may influence the relationship between negative mental health symptomology and motivations to use substances for coping. To test this relationship, 100 adoptees were administered the Substance Use Motives Measure (SUMM), the Personal Health Questionaire-9 (Depression), the …


Evaluation Of Renewal During Differential Reinforcement With Asymmetrical Choices And A Context Fading Mitigation Technique, Kacey R. Finch 2023 West Virginia University

Evaluation Of Renewal During Differential Reinforcement With Asymmetrical Choices And A Context Fading Mitigation Technique, Kacey R. Finch

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Successful clinical behavior analytic treatment often results in decreases in challenging behavior and increases in appropriate behavior. These reductions in challenging behavior are often achieved by implementing differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA; Petscher et al., 2009). One variation of DRA to decrease challenging behavior is differential reinforcement with asymmetrical choices, which are two or more concurrently available response options associated with differential outcomes (Fisher & Mazur, 1997; Kestner et al., 2023). However, responding that was previously reduced sometimes reemerges. Specifically, renewal is the reemergence of a previously reduced response following a context change. The first two experiments evaluated renewal …


Towards An Ecosystem Of Youth Leadership Development, Trisha Swed 2023 Antioch University - PhD Program in Leadership and Change

Towards An Ecosystem Of Youth Leadership Development, Trisha Swed

Antioch University Dissertations & Theses

This study is aimed at understanding how youth leadership development programs can be more inclusive and promote a broader range of leadership values, qualities, and behaviors by focusing on young people who have been disaffected by leadership development programs. The study design was intended to provide a creative space for youth to engage in meaningful conversations about their evolving concepts and expectations of leadership. Using critical youth participatory action research to engage a group of youth, cohort members co-created a new youth leadership development program while addressing their identified challenges and needs. Findings from this study highlight the importance of …


An Examination Of Transitioning Meso-Institutions And Markets In The Landscape Of American Politics, Devin Thomas Marconi 2023 University of Montana, Missoula

An Examination Of Transitioning Meso-Institutions And Markets In The Landscape Of American Politics, Devin Thomas Marconi

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This paper bridges the gap in the literature between sociological accounts of market actors provided by Mark Granovetter and Douglas North, meso-institutional examinations of polarization provided by Paul Pierson and Eric Schickler, and the psychological exploration into cross-cutting identities provided by Liliana Mason. I argue that the nationalization and concentration of markets, identities, and politics have led to a transition within the meso-institution of the market from maintaining self-regulating punishment mechanisms to replacing them with self-reinforcing mechanisms, exacerbating affective polarization. Previous works explore the transition within the meso-institutions of the media, interest groups, and political parties. I include the market …


Toward A Behavior Analysis Of Discrimination And Prejudice: Racism, Sexism, And The Stigmatization Of Autism, Claire M. Zuch 2023 Missouri State Univertsity

Toward A Behavior Analysis Of Discrimination And Prejudice: Racism, Sexism, And The Stigmatization Of Autism, Claire M. Zuch

MSU Graduate Theses

Behavior analysts are becoming increasingly aware of and involved in the study of issues related to sex, gender, disability, prejudice, and discrimination. This thesis integrates and discusses two collaborative manuscripts that revolve around the shared subject matter of multi-level research on systemic issues. In the first chapter, sexism and gender bias are conceptualized and informed by the framework of the nested sociobehavioral model of racism developed by Belisle et al. (2022), including implicit bias, selective gender norms, and systemic oppression, while integrating feminist and queer theories in the analysis. A model-dependent scoping review of research in major behavior analytic journals …


An Exploration Of The Relationship Between Physical Therapists’ Pyschological Characteristics And Feedback Methods, Dustin Cox 2023 Northern Illinois University

An Exploration Of The Relationship Between Physical Therapists’ Pyschological Characteristics And Feedback Methods, Dustin Cox

Graduate Research Theses & Dissertations

Providing treatment interventions to clients with chronic pain is a complex task for any professional. Research suggests that clients with chronic pain experience declines in physical, emotional, and psychological quality of life. Client’s that have chronic pain have complex effects from dealing with this condition in their lives. Hashmi and colleagues found that clients with chronic pain (i.e., pain lasting > three months) process pain through the emotional and reward circuitry in the brain. The literature base provides evidence that clients with chronic pain who receive psychologically based interventions along with physical rehabilitation have better outcomes than individuals with chronic pain …


Discovering Child Sexual Abuse Material Creators’ Behaviors And Preferences On The Dark Web, Vuong Ngo, Rahul Gajula, Christina Thorpe, Susan Mckeever 2023 Technological University Dublin

Discovering Child Sexual Abuse Material Creators’ Behaviors And Preferences On The Dark Web, Vuong Ngo, Rahul Gajula, Christina Thorpe, Susan Mckeever

Articles

Background: Producing, distributing or discussing child sexual abuse materials (CSAM) is often committed through the dark web in order to remain hidden from search engines and regular users. Additionally, on the dark web, the CSAM creators employ various techniques to avoid detection and conceal their activities. The large volume of CSAM on the dark web presents a global social problem and poses a significant challenge for helplines, hotlines and law enforcement agencies.

Objective: Identifying CSAM discussions on the dark web and uncovering associated metadata insights into characteristics, behaviours and motivation of CSAM creators.

Participants and Setting: We have conducted an …


Dining Layout Effects On Attendance, Communication, And Happiness In Older Adults, Juliana Lia Bertolucci 2023 Humboldt State University

Dining Layout Effects On Attendance, Communication, And Happiness In Older Adults, Juliana Lia Bertolucci

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Our growing national age and the unique challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic stress the importance of conducting applied research that identifies effective systems of support for older adults as they age. Behavioral Gerontology is a promising field that applies behavior-analytic procedures to age-related issues. The current behavioral research has primarily focused on older adults in assisted living or nursing homes with major neurocognitive disorders. The current study hopes to add to behavioral gerontological research by applying previous research methods to novel populations. Direct observations were used to examine the effects of manipulating the physical dining layouts on the attendance, …


Improving Caregiver Implementation Of Communication Supports For Young Children With Autism, Heather Coleman, Selena J. Layden, Lynda Gayle Horner 2023 University of North Carolina Greensboro

Improving Caregiver Implementation Of Communication Supports For Young Children With Autism, Heather Coleman, Selena J. Layden, Lynda Gayle Horner

Communication Disorders & Special Education Faculty Publications

The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the child's natural setting is critical for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve communication skills and promote generalization. Yet, to implement EBPs effectively, caregivers often require training. The purpose of this study is to explore the efficacy of behavior skills training (BST) to teach a caregiver to implement a parent-implemented discrete trial training (DTT) intervention in their home. Using a multiple baseline design, one caregiver was taught to implement the intervention focused on three verbal behavior operants. Results demonstrated a functional relation between the BST and caregiver implementation. This study …


Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Smart Residential Environment With User Behavioral Modeling, Ashutosh Timilsina 2023 University of Kentucky

Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Smart Residential Environment With User Behavioral Modeling, Ashutosh Timilsina

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

Electric power systems are transforming from a centralized unidirectional market to a decentralized open market. With this shift, the end-users have the possibility to actively participate in local energy exchanges, with or without the involvement of the main grid. Rapidly reducing prices for Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs), supported by their ease of installation and operation, with the facilitation of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Smart Grid (SG) technologies to make bidirectional flow of energy possible, has contributed to this changing landscape in the distribution side of the traditional power grid.

Trading energy among users in a decentralized fashion has been referred …


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