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Acid Mine Drainage In The Shamokin Creek Watershed: A Spatial Analysis Of Economic And Environmental Consequences Of Coal Mining, Ben Shimer 2022 Bucknell University

Acid Mine Drainage In The Shamokin Creek Watershed: A Spatial Analysis Of Economic And Environmental Consequences Of Coal Mining, Ben Shimer

Student Project Reports

No abstract provided.


Revisiting 228Th As A Tool For Determining Sedimentation And Mass Accumulation Rates, Joseph J. Tamborski, Pinghe Cai, Meagan Eagle, Paul Henderson, Matthew A. Charette 2022 Old Dominion University

Revisiting 228Th As A Tool For Determining Sedimentation And Mass Accumulation Rates, Joseph J. Tamborski, Pinghe Cai, Meagan Eagle, Paul Henderson, Matthew A. Charette

OES Faculty Publications

The use of 228Th has seen limited application for determining sedimentation and mass accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Recent analytical advances have enabled rapid, precise measurements of particle-bound 228Th using a radium delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). Herein we review the 228Th cycle in the marine environment and revisit the historical use of 228Th as a tracer for determining sediment vertical accretion and mass accumulation rates in light of new measurement techniques. Case studies comparing accumulation rates from 228Th and 210Pb are presented for a micro-tidal salt marsh and a marginal sea …


Accurate Whole-Rock Geochemistry Analysis By Combined Icp-Oes And La-Icp-Ms Instruments, Gönenç GÖÇMENGİL, Fatma ŞİŞMAN TÜKEL, Fulya UZUN, Marcel GUILLONG, İsak YILMAZ, Namık AYSAL, Nurullah HANİLÇİ 2022 Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration

Accurate Whole-Rock Geochemistry Analysis By Combined Icp-Oes And La-Icp-Ms Instruments, Gönenç Göçmengi̇l, Fatma Şi̇şman Tükel, Fulya Uzun, Marcel Guillong, İsak Yilmaz, Namık Aysal, Nurullah Hani̇lçi̇

Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration

ICP-OES and LA-ICP-MS instruments routinely used to assess the geochemical properties of the various natural and synthetic materials. In this contribution, the analytical routines and method development procedures of the ICP-OES and LA-ICP-MS facilities installed at the İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa Geological Engineering Department, Geochronology and Geochemistry Laboratory have been evaluated using well-known international rock standards. Sample preparation techniques, method development, experimental setup and measurement conditions for the both ICP-OES and LA-ICP-MS instruments were discussed and specific analyze results of NIST SRM 614, BCR-2, AGV-2, BCR-2G and AGV-2G were evaluated. Flux-free USGS glass standards were produced by in-house techniques and flux-bearing glasses …


Efficiency Of Singularity And Pca Mapping Of Mineralization-Related Geochemical Anomalies: A Comparative Study Using Bleg And <180Μm Stream Sediment Geochemical Data, Fatma Nuran SÖNMEZ, Simay KOÇKAR, Hüseyin YILMAZ 2022 Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration

Efficiency Of Singularity And Pca Mapping Of Mineralization-Related Geochemical Anomalies: A Comparative Study Using Bleg And <180Μm Stream Sediment Geochemical Data, Fatma Nuran Sönmez, Simay Koçkar, Hüseyin Yilmaz

Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration

In gold (Au) exploration, the analysis of both bulk leach extractable gold (BLEG) and acid-extractable Au in the <180μm stream sediment fraction are the two most common approaches. The Eskişehir- Sivrihisar region in Western Türkiye hosts several orogenic type mineral deposits. The purpose of this study is to delineate geochemical anomalies of ore-related elements and track their dispersion, which may lead to discovery of unknown ore deposits. This research also compares the capability of conventional statistical and principal component analysis (PCA), with concentration area (C-A) and number-size/concentration (N-S/C) fractal methods as well as singularity index method to differentiate anomalous and background Au distributions. Known Au mineralization in the region of interest is strongly reflected in stream sediment BLEG Au patterns, which have robust singularity indices with C-A and N-S multifractal modeling and PCA. A hundred % of the Au deposits were detected using either BLEG Au and Ag singularity index mapping with C-A fractal analysis whereas the factor analysis of which revealed 85% efficiency. Several strong Au-Ag anomalies defined by the singularity index and factor analysis in this study requires further follow up for the discovery of new deposits.


A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan 2022 Western University

A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Zircon is a mineral that can commonly be found in many rocks in the Earth’s crust and other planetary bodies. Meteorite impact sites have also been shown to contain zircon and its high-pressure polymorph, Reidite.


Fate Of Metals In Presence Of Minerals And Mineral-Organic Assemblages, Neha Sharma 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Fate Of Metals In Presence Of Minerals And Mineral-Organic Assemblages, Neha Sharma

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Metals can enter aquatic systems from natural and anthropogenic processes associated with weathering, sediment re-suspension, industrial activities, and atmospheric deposition. Metals pose health and environmental risks at high concentrations due to their potential toxicity and bioaccumulation, but many trace metals also serve as essential micronutrients for biogeochemical processes in natural aquatic systems. Biogeochemical processes such as methanogenesis, denitrification, and mercury methylation require transition metals such as nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo) for completion. These biogeochemical processes can be substantial contributors of greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), into the atmosphere. The behavior, …


Investigation Of Basal Imnaha Basalt Flows And Their Relationship To The Picture Gorge Basalt Of The Columbia River Basalt Group, Luke James Fredenberg 2022 Portland State University

Investigation Of Basal Imnaha Basalt Flows And Their Relationship To The Picture Gorge Basalt Of The Columbia River Basalt Group, Luke James Fredenberg

Dissertations and Theses

The lower American Bar flows (AB 1 and 2) of the Imnaha Basalt have previously been observed as being chemically similar to those of the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB). Previous age data separate eruption of the Imnaha and Picture Gorge Basalts by approximately 1.5 Ma, precluding the possibility of a genetic link between the two basalt units. New age data for the Picture Gorge Basalt has expanded the eruptive timeframe and the earliest flows coincide with the eruption of the Imnaha Basalt, making it possible that the lower American Bar flows of the Imnaha Basalt and the Picture Gorge Basalt …


Immobilization Of Uranium And Iodine By Calcium Phosphate Minerals, Angel L. Jimenez-Arroyo 2022 Mississippi State University

Immobilization Of Uranium And Iodine By Calcium Phosphate Minerals, Angel L. Jimenez-Arroyo

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is comprised of three independent but interconnected studies with the scope of further understanding uranium and iodine partitioning between apatite and fluid. The studies herein presented investigated: 1) brushite to apatite crystallization method; 2) the degree of uranium incorporation into apatite; 3) the degree of iodine incorporation into apatite. The importance of this work is assessing the role of apatite in immobilizing these elements, where uranium is a major component of spent nuclear fuel and iodine is a chemical analog of its radioactive isotope (129I). Once we understand the incorporation mechanisms, we will provide data that …


Determining The Effects Of Elevated Carbon Dioxide On Soil Acidification, Cation Depletion, And Soil Inorganic Carbon And Mapping Soil Carbons Using Artificial Intelligence, Jannatul Ferdush 2022 Mississippi State University

Determining The Effects Of Elevated Carbon Dioxide On Soil Acidification, Cation Depletion, And Soil Inorganic Carbon And Mapping Soil Carbons Using Artificial Intelligence, Jannatul Ferdush

Theses and Dissertations

Soil carbon is the largest sink and source of the global carbon cycle and is disturbed by several natural, anthropogenic, and environmental factors. The global increase of atmospheric CO2 affects soil carbon cycling through varied biogeochemical processes. The first chapter is a compilation of current information on potential factors triggering soil acidification and weathering mechanisms under elevated CO2 and their consequences on soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool and quality. Soil water content and precipitation were critical factors influencing elevated CO2 effects on the SIC pool. The second chapter examines a detailed column experiment in which six soils …


Rock-Fluid Interaction And The Incorporation Of Cations Into Calcite During Recrystallization In Multiple Hydrothermal Systems., Van Anh Nguyen 2022 Mississippi State University

Rock-Fluid Interaction And The Incorporation Of Cations Into Calcite During Recrystallization In Multiple Hydrothermal Systems., Van Anh Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Fluid-rock interaction causes an exchange of isotopes or elements through various reactions. The rate of these reactions strongly depends on temperature. The interaction involves dissolution precipitation, chemical exchange reactions, redox reactions, diffusion, and their combinations. The goal of studying fluid-rock interaction is to understand the change in mineral chemistry of the rock materials when in contact with an aqueous solution. These processes occur in all regions of the Earth where aqueous solutions are found. This work is comprised of three independent studies which provide an understanding about crystallization processes under multiple hydrothermal conditions with geological and environmental applications.

In the …


Geochemical Characterization Of The Louann Salt, Puma Field, Green Canyon, Gulf Of Mexico Basin – Using Xrf And Xrd, Brian Lesh 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geochemical Characterization Of The Louann Salt, Puma Field, Green Canyon, Gulf Of Mexico Basin – Using Xrf And Xrd, Brian Lesh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Jurassic-aged Louann Salt is an evaporite sequence deposited in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOMB). It is an important component of the GOMB petroleum system and influences the facies pattern in overlying strata and the distribution of petroleum stratigraphic traps. The Louann Salt is composed primarily of halite with intercalated anhydrites and silty or sandy-halite intervals, with overall thicknesses in excess of four kilometers (~13,000 feet). Suture zones occur intermittently within the Louann Salt, formed by the collision of allochthonous evaporite layers. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the suture zones are currently understudied and can be hazardous during drilling …


Geochemical Characterization Of The Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, Using Chemostratigraphy And Integrated Petrophysics, David Tonner 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geochemical Characterization Of The Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, Using Chemostratigraphy And Integrated Petrophysics, David Tonner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin forms part of West Texas's and New Mexico’s famous petroleum-generating Permian Basin. The Bone Spring Formation is a prolific hydrocarbon producer within this basin, creating one of the world’s richest oil shales. This formation has lithological sequences that are characterized by repeating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals of a third-order cycle which can largely be correlated to highstand and lowstand systems tracts, respectively. Lithological complexity and facies change are manifested by debris flows, turbidites, and slumps. In addition to glacio-eustasy, both tectonism and broader Milankovitch cycles have influenced the depositional history. Previous investigations have utilized cores and wireline …


Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky

Doctoral Dissertations

Molar-tooth structure (MTS) is an enigmatic carbonate fabric that occurs mainly within Proterozoic carbonate host rocks. It is composed of two distinct features: cracks of various morphologies and crack-filling calcite microspar. Although the origins of MTS remain unknown, most previous investigation has focused on the formation of the cracks and mechanisms involved in the void space generation, with less emphasis on the intriguing carbonate fill. In this study I have investigated molar-tooth bearing carbonates from regions that span both paleogeography and geologic time. Analysis at the microscopic scale, including traditional petrography, cathodoluminescence petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and micrometer-scale geochemical analyses …


Antler Foreland Basin Evolution Recorded In Detrital Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, James Duncan 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Antler Foreland Basin Evolution Recorded In Detrital Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, James Duncan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Antler orogeny was a Devonian-Mississippian (375-320 Ma) mountain building event that occurred along the western Laurentian margin. The initiation of the Antler orogeny is marked by the emplacement of the Roberts Mountain Allochthon (RMA) that thrust Cambrian-Devonian deep water marine siliciclastic rocks 100 km eastward onto the western Laurentian margin. Shortening related to the Antler orogeny deformed RMA strata and caused a flexural response in the continental crust that resulted in the formation of the adjacent Antler Foreland basin. The paleogeographic history of the RMA strata and tectonic drivers for the Antler orogeny are still debated. Proposed models suggest …


Petrochronology And Statistical Analysis To Integrate Different Types Of Data To Solve Complex Earth Systems Problems, Claire Ostwald Harrigan 2022 Boise State University

Petrochronology And Statistical Analysis To Integrate Different Types Of Data To Solve Complex Earth Systems Problems, Claire Ostwald Harrigan

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Complex Earth systems problems, like reconstructing orogens and calibrating the geologic time scale, require investigations that link time to geologic processes. To use time as a means of organizing geologic evidence, geochronometric dates must be contextualized by integrating with different data types. This is the work of petrochronology—linking mineral ages to geochemical, textural, or other geologic information. The U-Pb isotopic system as preserved in the minerals zircon (ZrSiO4) and titanite (CaTiSiO5) can be used in a petrochronological context to date geologic events including the age of granitoid pluton emplacement, the age of rock fabric formation in …


Glaciochemical Investigations In Three Southern Hemisphere Mountain Sites, Mariusz Potocki 2022 University of Maine

Glaciochemical Investigations In Three Southern Hemisphere Mountain Sites, Mariusz Potocki

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on glaciochemical records of trace elements, major ions, and stable water isotopes from three mountain regions: the Antarctic Peninsula, the Central Chilean Andes, and South Georgia Island.

The first section reports a significant increase in U concentration over 27 years on Detroit Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula. U concentrations in the ice core increase by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s, accompanied by increased variability in recent years. The U concentration increase coincides with expanded open pit mining in the Southern Hemisphere, most notably Australia. Since other land-source dust elements do not …


Evaluation Of Carbon Isotopic Chemostratigraphy Of The Cedar Mountain Formation Of Utah, Clayton Forster 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Carbon Isotopic Chemostratigraphy Of The Cedar Mountain Formation Of Utah, Clayton Forster

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Lower Cretaceous rocks of Utah preserve the origin of a multitude of dinosaur taxa, spread of angiosperms on the North American continent, and evolution of marsupial and eutherian mammals. However, the timing of deposition of these rocks is not well understood and must be determined to understand climatic controls on these biological events. Estimates of the age of the Cedar Mountain Formation and its constituent members range from Late Jurassic to early Late Cretaceous. Understanding the timing of deposition of the Cedar Mountain Formation is critical to dinosaurian and associated taxa studies as well as paleoclimate reconstructions from within …


Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Rockfalls and unstable slopes pose a serious threat to people and property along roads/highways in the southwestern mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia. In this study, the application of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology was applied aiming to propose a strategy to analyze and accurately depict the detection of rockfall changes, calculation of rockfall volume, and evaluate rockfall hazards along the Habs Road, Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A series of temporal LiDAR scans were acquired at three selected sites. Our results show that these three sites have different degrees of hazard due to their geological differences. The mean volume …


Geoarchaeology Of The 1926 Seeberger Excavation - Jackson County, Iowa, Nicolas Duffy, Chad Heinzel Ph.D., Faith Luce, William Green 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Geoarchaeology Of The 1926 Seeberger Excavation - Jackson County, Iowa, Nicolas Duffy, Chad Heinzel Ph.D., Faith Luce, William Green

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

In 1926, Paul Nesbitt discovered around 350 shards of clay pottery in Seeberger Cave, located 6 miles north of Maquoketa, Iowa. It is unknown if these artifacts were made in Iowa, or brought over from neighboring states. For this project, Dr. Heinzel, Faith Luce and I traveled to the area to collect samples of clay and stone. We got close to the cave, but didn’t have the equipment to cross the river at the time. The area we collected our samples from is about 600 meters away from the original site. The samples will be used to characterize the site, …


Oxygen Speciation In Potassium Silicate And Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses: Insights From X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ryan Sawyer 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Oxygen Speciation In Potassium Silicate And Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses: Insights From X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ryan Sawyer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In a geological context, glasses are useful analogues for silicate melts as they are more readily studied in the laboratory using a wide range of techniques that are impractical for molten liquids. Understanding the structure of binary silicate glasses can help us understand more about the magmatic processes that affect terrestrial planetary bodies.

Potassium silicate glasses ranging in composition from 10 mol% to 35 mol% K2O were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). From high resolution O 1s XPS spectra, Bridging Oxygen (BO) mole fractions were calculated and compared with those of previous 29Si MAS NMR studies. …


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