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Antarctic Ice Sheet Stability During Warm Periods: Integrating Numerical Modeling With Geologic Data, Anna Ruth W. Halberstadt 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Antarctic Ice Sheet Stability During Warm Periods: Integrating Numerical Modeling With Geologic Data, Anna Ruth W. Halberstadt

Doctoral Dissertations

Sea level rise is one of the major social and environmental challenges that threatens modern civilization, yet the response of polar ice sheets to future warming is deeply uncertain. Mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet is projected to dominate global sea level rise in the near future, but how much, and when, remains a key unknown. The challenges associated with projecting Antarctica’s future sea level contribution are derived from a knowledge gap of physical ice sheet processes in a world warmer than today, and a lack of understanding of climatic thresholds that drive potentially irreversible retreat.

Future and ...


Analysis Of Fossil Pollen From A Pleistocene Cypress Forest Preserved On The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Continental Shelf, Kathryn Joyce Garretson 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Analysis Of Fossil Pollen From A Pleistocene Cypress Forest Preserved On The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Continental Shelf, Kathryn Joyce Garretson

Master's Theses

This study presents the findings of fossil pollen analysis performed on terrestrial sediments preserved on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf (site hereafter known as the Underwater Forest or DF). This research aims to establish vegetation composition on a continental shelf glacial refuge and provide a better understanding of vegetation response to sea-level rise. Two cores (15DF1 and 15DF3B) located at different locations within the forest were recovered and analyzed. Pollen results from both cores were similar, with high percentages of Taxodium and Nyssa pollen in the lowermost sections reflecting an assemblage typical of contemporary baldcypress swamps. Pollen assemblages ...


Cosmogenic Ages Indicate No Mis 2 Refugia In The Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, Caleb K. Walcott, Jason P. Briner, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, Joseph M. Licciardi 2022 University of Buffalo

Cosmogenic Ages Indicate No Mis 2 Refugia In The Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, Caleb K. Walcott, Jason P. Briner, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, Joseph M. Licciardi

Publications and Research

The late-Pleistocene history of the coastal Cordilleran Ice Sheet remains relatively unstudied compared to chronologies of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Yet accurate reconstructions of Cordilleran Ice Sheet extent and the timing of ice retreat along the Pacific Coast are essential for paleoclimate modeling, assessing meltwater contribution to the North Pacific, and determining the availability of ice-free land along the coastal Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin for human migration from Beringia into the rest of the Americas. To improve the chronology of Cordilleran Ice Sheet history in the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, we applied 10Be and 36Cl dating to boulders and glacially sculpted ...


Black Carbon And Organic Carbon Dataset Over The Third Pole, Shichang Kang, Yulan Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Junming Guo, Qianggong Zhang, Zhiyuan Cong, Susan Kaspari, Lekhendra Tripathee, Tanguang Gao, Hewen Niu, Xinyue Zhong, Xintong Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaofei Li, Yang Li, Bigyan Neupane, Fangping Yan, Dipesh Rupakheti, Chaman Gul, Wei Zhang, Guangming Wu, Ling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, Chaoliu Li 2022 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Black Carbon And Organic Carbon Dataset Over The Third Pole, Shichang Kang, Yulan Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Junming Guo, Qianggong Zhang, Zhiyuan Cong, Susan Kaspari, Lekhendra Tripathee, Tanguang Gao, Hewen Niu, Xinyue Zhong, Xintong Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaofei Li, Yang Li, Bigyan Neupane, Fangping Yan, Dipesh Rupakheti, Chaman Gul, Wei Zhang, Guangming Wu, Ling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, Chaoliu Li

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

The Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings, also known as the Third Pole, play an important role in the global and regional climate and hydrological cycle. Carbonaceous aerosols (CAs), including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), can directly or indirectly absorb and scatter solar radiation and change the energy balance on the Earth. CAs, along with the other atmospheric pollutants (e.g., mercury), can be frequently transported over long distances into the inland Tibetan Plateau. During the last decades, a coordinated monitoring network and research program named “Atmospheric Pollution and Cryospheric Changes” (APCC) has been gradually set up and continuously ...


Snow Cover Variability And Trend Over The Hindu Kush Himalayan Region Using Modis And Srtm Data, Nirasindhu Desinayak, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham el-Askary, Menas Kafatos, Ghassem R. Asrar 2022 Indian Institute of Technology

Snow Cover Variability And Trend Over The Hindu Kush Himalayan Region Using Modis And Srtm Data, Nirasindhu Desinayak, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham El-Askary, Menas Kafatos, Ghassem R. Asrar

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Snow cover changes have a direct bearing on the regional and global energy and water cycles and the change in the Earth's climate conditions. We studied the relatively long-term (2000–2017) altitudinal spatiotemporal changes in the coverage of snow and glaciers in one of the world's largest mountainous regions, the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region, including Tibet, using remote sensing data (5 km grid resolution) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra satellite. This dataset provided a unique opportunity to study zonal and hypsographic changes in the intra-annual (accumulating season and melting season) and ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Andes And The Himalayas: How Climate Change Effects The Health Of Glaciers And The Social Impacts This Has On Surrounding Communities, Jacqueline Mountford 2022 Connecticut College

A Comparative Analysis Of The Andes And The Himalayas: How Climate Change Effects The Health Of Glaciers And The Social Impacts This Has On Surrounding Communities, Jacqueline Mountford

Environmental Studies Honors Papers

The glacial ice in both the Andean and Himalayan Mountain ranges act as water towers for the billions of people that live within their watersheds. Throughout the year, these communities rely on the glacial meltwater to increase the flow of rivers, but this meltwater is the most impactful during the dry season when there is less precipitation. Communities in both the Andes and Himalayas use this glacial meltwater for human and animal consumption, agricultural purposes, and harnessing hydroelectric power as a clean energy source. One of the biggest worries for scientists and people around the world is how climate change ...


Research Sites Get Closer To Field Camps Over Time: Informing Environmental Management Through A Geospatial Analysis Of Science In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Stephen M. Chignell, Madeline E. Myers, Adrian Howkins, Andrew Fountain 2021 University of British Columbia

Research Sites Get Closer To Field Camps Over Time: Informing Environmental Management Through A Geospatial Analysis Of Science In The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Stephen M. Chignell, Madeline E. Myers, Adrian Howkins, Andrew Fountain

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

As in many parts of the world, the management of environmental science research in Antarctica relies on cost-benefit analysis of negative environmental impact versus positive scientific gain. Several studies have examined the environmental impact of Antarctic field camps, but very little work looks at how the placement of these camps influences scientific research. In this study, we integrate bibliometrics, geospatial analysis, and historical research to understand the relationship between field camp placement and scientific production in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica. Our analysis of the scientific corpus from 1907–2016 shows that, on average, research sites have become ...


Late Pleistocene And Early Holocene Sea-Level History And Glacial Retreat Interpreted From Shell-Bearing Marine Deposits Of Southeastern Alaska, Usa, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, Risa J. Carlson, Nicholas S. Schmuck, Jane L. Smith, Dennis J. Landwehr, Jason P. Briner 2021 Tongass National Forest

Late Pleistocene And Early Holocene Sea-Level History And Glacial Retreat Interpreted From Shell-Bearing Marine Deposits Of Southeastern Alaska, Usa, James F. Baichtal, Alia J. Lesnek, Risa J. Carlson, Nicholas S. Schmuck, Jane L. Smith, Dennis J. Landwehr, Jason P. Briner

Publications and Research

We leverage a data set of >720 shell-bearing marine deposits throughout southeastern Alaska (USA) to develop updated relative sea-level curves that span the past ~14,000 yr. This data set includes site location, elevation, description when avail-able, and 436 14C ages, 45 of which are published here for the first time. Our sea-level curves suggest a peripheral forebulge developed west of the retreating Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) margin between ca. 17,000 and 10,800 calibrated yr B.P. By 14,870 ± 630 to 12,820 ± 340 cal. yr B.P., CIS mar-gins had retreated from all of southeastern Alaska ...


A Case Study Using 2019 Pre-Monsoon Snow And Stream Chemistry In The Khumbu Region, Nepal, Heather M. Clifford, Mariusz Potocki, Inka Koch, Tenzing Sherpa, Mike Handley, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas Introne, Susan Kaspari, Kimberley Miner, Tom Matthews, Baker Perry, Heather Guy, Ananta Gajurel, Praveen Kumar Singh, Sandra Elvin, Aurora C. Elmore, Alex Tait, Paul A. Mayewski 2021 University of Maine

A Case Study Using 2019 Pre-Monsoon Snow And Stream Chemistry In The Khumbu Region, Nepal, Heather M. Clifford, Mariusz Potocki, Inka Koch, Tenzing Sherpa, Mike Handley, Elena Korotkikh, Douglas Introne, Susan Kaspari, Kimberley Miner, Tom Matthews, Baker Perry, Heather Guy, Ananta Gajurel, Praveen Kumar Singh, Sandra Elvin, Aurora C. Elmore, Alex Tait, Paul A. Mayewski

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

This case study provides a framework for future monitoring and evidence for human source pollution in the Khumbu region, Nepal. We analyzed the chemical composition (major ions, major/trace elements, black carbon, and stable water isotopes) of pre-monsoon stream water (4300–5250 m) and snow (5200–6665 m) samples collected from Mt. Everest, Mt. Lobuche, and the Imja Valley during the 2019 pre-monsoon season, in addition to a shallow ice core recovered from the Khumbu Glacier (5300 m). In agreement with previous work, pre-monsoon aerosol deposition is dominated by dust originating from western sources and less frequently by transport from ...


Letters To A Glacier; An Experiment And Critique Of M. Jackson’S Glacier-Ruins Narrative, Lily Fife Schaeufele 2021 SIT Study Abroad

Letters To A Glacier; An Experiment And Critique Of M. Jackson’S Glacier-Ruins Narrative, Lily Fife Schaeufele

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

“Words are events, they do things, change things. They transform both speaker and hearer; they feed energy back and forth and amplify it. They feed understanding or emotion back and forth and amplify it.” —Ursula K. Le Guin

Letters to a Glacier; The Buoy Project Isafjordur is an ongoing invitation to the people of Isafjordur to write a letter to a specific glacier in Iceland onto a collection of discarded buoys gathered from the Isafjorudur and Bolungarvik junk yards. Over a period of two days on November 9th and 10th, I actively invited customers in the local cafe Heimabyggð to ...


Science Is For Everybody: A Resource For Understanding Glaciers, Climate, And Modeling, Emma Watson 2021 SIT Study Abroad

Science Is For Everybody: A Resource For Understanding Glaciers, Climate, And Modeling, Emma Watson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change threatens the existence of glaciers worldwide. In order to properly interact with these changing systems, we must first understand them. Glacial models provide an excellent way to do this; however, the language and mathematical concepts used in their creation is generally inaccessible to a common audience. This project presents an online resource for a general audience to interact with climate science, glaciology, and glacial modeling. Long term goals for the project include the incorporation of a glacial model of Drangajökull, Vestfirðir, NW Iceland. As such, focus for the project includes a literature review of glaciers, Drangajökull in particular ...


Climate On The Blanca Massif, Sangre De Cristo Mountains, Colorado, Usa, During The Last Glacial Maximum, Keith A. Brugger, Eric M. Leonard, Kurt A. Refsnider, Peter Dolan 2021 University of Minnesota, Morris

Climate On The Blanca Massif, Sangre De Cristo Mountains, Colorado, Usa, During The Last Glacial Maximum, Keith A. Brugger, Eric M. Leonard, Kurt A. Refsnider, Peter Dolan

Geology Publications

Temperature-index modeling is used to determine the magnitude of temperature depression on the Blanca Massif, Colorado, required to maintain steady-state mass balances of nine reconstructed glaciers at their extent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The mean temperature depression thus determined is ~8.6 +0.7/−0.9 degrees C where the uncertainties account for those inherent in the glacier reconstructions, in model parameters (e.g., melt factors), and possible modest changes in LGM precipitation. Associated equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) exhibit a statistically significant directional dependency being lower toward the north and east. Under the assumption that regional temperature change was ...


The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff 2021 Western University

The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Quantifying Surface Changes On Mcmurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Ann M. Hill 2021 University of Maine

Quantifying Surface Changes On Mcmurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Ann M. Hill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The amount of ice stored in Antarctica has the potential to raise sea level by almost 60 meters. Mass is primarily lost through glaciers draining the ice sheet and flowing into and ice shelves. Ice shelves float on the ocean and act as a resisting force to the flow of the glaciers, thereby modulating the flow of tributary glaciers, and consequently glacier contribution to global sea level rise. McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) buttresses four tributary glaciers, three of which will be discussed in this thesis, as well as the northwest corner of the faster flowing Ross Ice Shelf, which has ...


Modern And Paleo Perspectives On The Role Of The Westerlies In Glaciation, Alexander Audet 2021 University of Maine

Modern And Paleo Perspectives On The Role Of The Westerlies In Glaciation, Alexander Audet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Deciphering causes of glaciations and their abrupt terminations over the last >700,000 yrs remains an important problem for understanding the behavior of the climate system and how it might change in the future. In particular, the role of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) Westerlies in global change has arisen as an important research direction. Glaciers are highly sensitive to climate change. Examination of mid-latitude glaciers under the influence of westerly wind systems in both hemispheres can help provide insight into the role of the Westerlies in climate change. In this thesis, I present a twofold strategy to refine knowledge of ...


Kinematics Of The Exceptionally-Short Surge Cycles Of Sít’ Kusá (Turner Glacier), Alaska, From 1983 To 2013, Andrew Nolan, William Kochtitzky, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Robert McNabb, Karl J. Kreutz 2021 University of Maine

Kinematics Of The Exceptionally-Short Surge Cycles Of Sít’ Kusá (Turner Glacier), Alaska, From 1983 To 2013, Andrew Nolan, William Kochtitzky, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Robert Mcnabb, Karl J. Kreutz

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Glacier surges are periodic episodes of mass redistribution characterized by dramatic increases in ice flow velocity and, sometimes, terminus advance. We use optical satellite imagery to document five previously unexamined surge events of Sít’ Kusá (Turner Glacier) in the St. Elias Mountains of Alaska from 1983 to 2013. Surge events had an average recurrence interval of ~5 years, making it the shortest known regular recurrence interval in the world. Surge events appear to initiate in the winter, with speeds reaching up to ~25 m d−1. The surges propagate down-glacier over ~2 years, resulting in maximum thinning of ~100 m ...


Examining Summertime Melt And Temperatures In The North Pacific Cordillera, Ingalise Kindstedt 2021 University of Maine

Examining Summertime Melt And Temperatures In The North Pacific Cordillera, Ingalise Kindstedt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Temperature changes in glaciated regions are of immediate concern for estimates of future sea level rise. Alaska and the surrounding region contain over 40 mm of potential sea level rise in its many alpine glaciers, which are experiencing some of the highest rates of mass loss globally. However, records of both past and present temperatures in the region’s alpine sectors are sparse and limited in temporal and spatial extent. Here I examine the application of MODIS land surface temperatures and layers of refrozen melt in ice cores as temperature indicators in the St. Elias and Alaska Ranges. First, I ...


Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson 2021 The Ohio State University

Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Himalayan glaciers are melting due to atmospheric warming, with the potential to limit access to water for more than 25 % of the global population that resides in these glacier meltwater catchments. Black carbon has been implicated as a factor that is contributing to Himalayan glacier melt, but its sources and mechanisms of delivery to the Himalayas remain controversial. Here, we provide a 211-year ice core record spanning 1781–1992 CE for refractory black carbon (rBC) deposition from the Dasuopu glacier ice core that has to date provided the highest-elevation ice core record (7200 m). We report an average rBC concentration ...


Glaciology, Geomorphology Giant Roger Hooke Passes Away At 82, Division of Marketing and Communications 2021 The University of Maine

Glaciology, Geomorphology Giant Roger Hooke Passes Away At 82, Division Of Marketing And Communications

General University of Maine Publications

Roger Hooke, beloved University of Maine mentor and researcher and giant in the fields of glaciology and geomorphology, died March 10 [2021] at the age of 82.

Hooke joined the School of Earth and Climate Sciences and Climate Change Institute in 2000 as a research professor and adviser. One of Hooke's interests during his time at UMaine involved examining what glacial landforms in Maine revealed about the Laurentide Ice Sheet.


Glacier Clear Ice Bands Indicate Englacial Channel Microbial Distribution, Gilda Varliero, Alexandra Holland, Gary L. A. Barker, Marian L. Yallop, Andrew G. Fountain, Alexandre M. Anesio 2021 University of Bristol

Glacier Clear Ice Bands Indicate Englacial Channel Microbial Distribution, Gilda Varliero, Alexandra Holland, Gary L. A. Barker, Marian L. Yallop, Andrew G. Fountain, Alexandre M. Anesio

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Distant glacial areas are interconnected by a complex system of fractures and water channels which run in the glacier interior and characterize the englacial realm. Water can slowly freeze in these channels where the slow freezing excludes air bubbles giving the ice a clear aspect. This ice is uplifted to the surface ablation zone by glacial movements and can therefore be observed in the form of clear surface ice bands. We employed an indirect method to sample englacial water by coring these ice bands. We were able, for the first time, to compare microbial communities sampled from clear (i.e ...


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