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Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom 2023 University of South Florida, USA

Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Cryogenic cave carbonates have been described from several formerly or presently glaciated karst caves. In most of these occurrences, they precipitated as loose grains or aggregates with various morphologies and sizes. Here, we report on a new speleothem type (cryogenic ridges) identified in Sohodoalele Mici Cave (SW Romania) within a large chamber near the entrance shaft. This study was motivated by the presence of a network of calcite ridges over the stalactites’ surface and by the observation that during winter, these speleothems are covered by a thin ice layer. The higher δ18O (−3.5 to –1‰) and …


Changes Of Water Chemistry From Rainfall To Stream Flow In Obagbile Catchment, Southwest Nigeria, Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN 2022 Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, 220101, Nigeria

Changes Of Water Chemistry From Rainfall To Stream Flow In Obagbile Catchment, Southwest Nigeria, Mojisola Hannah Omogbehin, Isaac Ayo Oluwatimilehin

Regional Sustainability

Water chemistry changes when it flows through different pathways. This study aims to characterize the differences of water (including rainwater, overland flow, soil water, groundwater, and stream water) chemistry of five kinds of water in Obagbile Catchment in Southwest Nigeria, determine the changes in water chemistry that occur as the water moves from one pathway to another, and identify the factors responsible for the water chemistry changes. To do these, we collected 50 water samples from 10 heavy storms that received equal to or more than 10 mm of rain within an hour to test the changes of water chemical …


Silting Dynamics And Metal Contaminants In The Georgetown Inner Harbor, Ezekiel Wil Meyers 2022 Coastal Carolina University

Silting Dynamics And Metal Contaminants In The Georgetown Inner Harbor, Ezekiel Wil Meyers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Georgetown inner harbor is an abandoned oxbow-like river loop and a vital historic site with a wealth of traditional businesses and heavy local industry located within Winyah Bay. Since the modification of the Sampit River in 1949, chronic rapid silting has plagued the inner harbor. With these substantial amounts of fine-grained material accumulating inside the inner harbor, business operations along the waterfront, navigational and maritime operations, and contamination within the harbor are of major concern. The goals of this study were to (a) understand the silting dynamics inside the inner harbor, (b) identify heavy metals which might be of …


Natural, Experimental, And Educational Explorations Of The Interiors Of Terrestrial Planetary Bodies, Nadine L. Grambling 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Natural, Experimental, And Educational Explorations Of The Interiors Of Terrestrial Planetary Bodies, Nadine L. Grambling

Doctoral Dissertations

Planetary interiors are enigmatic, inaccessible, and vital to the processes that have formed the rocks we see on the surface of bodies in the inner Solar System today. Based on geophysical explorations of the Moon and Earth, along with information gleaned from rocks at the surface today, there is understanding of the basic structure and processes at depth. Using a combination of natural samples and experimental studies, we attempt to learn more about the physical conditions beneath the surface, and their effect on material properties and tectonics processes in the mantle.

On Earth, mid-ocean ridge processes have long been debated, …


Geochemical And Climatic Controls On The Sulfur Cycle In Volcanic Settings: Implications For The Origin Of Sulfur-Rich Deposits Investigated By The Spirit And Opportunity Rovers On Mars, Rhianna D. Moore 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Geochemical And Climatic Controls On The Sulfur Cycle In Volcanic Settings: Implications For The Origin Of Sulfur-Rich Deposits Investigated By The Spirit And Opportunity Rovers On Mars, Rhianna D. Moore

Doctoral Dissertations

On Earth, volcanic activity with elevated sulfur (S) degassing in the presence of water leads to the formation of hydrothermal deposits enriched in S-bearing minerals. Similar processes may have been an important source of S on Mars. The landing sites of Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum investigated by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, respectively, showed elevated SO42- [sulfate] concentrations, suggesting high- and low-temperature aqueous processes. However, the SO42- contribution from subsequent aqueous weathering of hydrothermal S deposits has been poorly constrained, thus its importance to regional S cycling in the landing sites is unclear. In this …


Experimental Approaches To Evaluating Silicate Melt Properties And Trace Element Fractionation During Crystallization At High Pressures And High Temperatures, Megan D. Mouser 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Experimental Approaches To Evaluating Silicate Melt Properties And Trace Element Fractionation During Crystallization At High Pressures And High Temperatures, Megan D. Mouser

Doctoral Dissertations

Current understanding of the evolution and behavior of silicate materials that form in planetary interiors at high-pressures and high-temperatures largely come from experimental work as natural samples are either rare, or physically inaccessible. Laboratory experiments provide a comprehensive way to constrain the crystallization history, elemental partitioning, and viscosity of different silicate materials at planetary mantle pressure and temperature conditions. This work utilizes two high-pressure experimental techniques, the Paris-Edinburgh apparatus, and the piston cylinder apparatus, to measure physical and chemical properties of silicate materials. The viscosity of reduced, Fe-free silicate liquids, with and without sulfur (S-free and S-bearing), were measured to …


Phosphate Mineralogy And Paragenesis Of The Fletcher Pegmatite, North Groton, New Hampshire, Susanna T. Kreinik 2022 University of New Orleans

Phosphate Mineralogy And Paragenesis Of The Fletcher Pegmatite, North Groton, New Hampshire, Susanna T. Kreinik

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Investigation of phosphate assemblages selectively collected at the Fletcher Mine pegmatite, North Groton, New Hampshire, yielded eighteen discrete secondary phosphate species. Secondary phases were formed via metasomatic (high temperature) and hydrothermal (low temperature) alteration of primary triphylite and fluorapatite. Mineral associations bear proximal phases known to occur under contrasting conditions, both oxidizing and reducing, suggesting the formation of microenvironments during concomitant mineral generation. Late-stage hydrothermal fluids provide ions taken up in low temperature secondary phases with calcium and magnesium most prevalent in these suites. High iron to manganese ratios in analyzed specimens establish the relative evolution of the pegmatite host. …


Ligand-Promoted Dissolution Of Uranyl Phosphate Across Scales, Brennan Ferguson 2022 Clemson University

Ligand-Promoted Dissolution Of Uranyl Phosphate Across Scales, Brennan Ferguson

All Dissertations

The formation of uranyl phosphate precipitate is a remediation strategy because the low solubility of uranyl phosphate minerals, like chernikovite, limits the mobility of uranium in contaminated soils. However, organic ligands can complex with aqueous metal cations to form more soluble species. For example, citrate is a commonly occurring organic ligand produced by plants and microbes that increases the solubility of uranium and therefore the dissolution of uranyl phosphate minerals in the uranyl phosphate-citrate system. This effect is an important control on the mobility of uranium in organic-rich, and near-surface vegetated environments. Nevertheless, key aspects of the citrate-uranyl phosphate system …


Computational And Experimental Investigations Of Alkali Cation Interactions At The Rutile – Water Interface, Isaac Johnston 2022 Clemson University

Computational And Experimental Investigations Of Alkali Cation Interactions At The Rutile – Water Interface, Isaac Johnston

All Dissertations

Overall, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the degree of sorption for the alkali cations on rutile to ascertain the impact of different cation properties, such as ion size and charge density, on sorption mechanics as well as probe how the ion may alter the surface – aqueous interface. Initial molecular dynamic simulations and batch experiments showed minimal surface sorption for any alkali cation at relatively low concentrations while simultaneously suggesting the enthalpy of deprotonation shifts slightly in the presence of the alkali cations at different ionic strengths. The cations are likely causing small reorientations of the near-surface …


Sulfur Behavior In The 1257 Ce Samalas Magma (Lombok, Indonesia) As Revealed By Volcanic Apatite, Yasmin Jackson 2022 Southern Methodist University

Sulfur Behavior In The 1257 Ce Samalas Magma (Lombok, Indonesia) As Revealed By Volcanic Apatite, Yasmin Jackson

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject massive amounts of volatiles, including SO2 and H2S, into the stratosphere, inducing drastic tropospheric cooling via sulfate aerosols. Greenland and Antarctic ice cores record evidence of these substantial releases of SO2 and H2S, including the massive release during the ultraplinian 1257 CE Samalas eruption. The 1257 CE Samalas eruption is estimated to have released ~158 Tg of SO2, making it the largest volcanogenic release of SO2 within the last 2000 years. Vidal et al. (2016) propose that most of this sulfur (S) was hosted in a …


Evaluating The Impact Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge On Nutrients And Trace Elements In Coastal Systems: The Examples Of The Tuckean Swamp (Australia) And The Mississippi Sound (Usa), Amy Moody 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Evaluating The Impact Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge On Nutrients And Trace Elements In Coastal Systems: The Examples Of The Tuckean Swamp (Australia) And The Mississippi Sound (Usa), Amy Moody

Dissertations

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the advective flow of both fresh terrestrial groundwater and recirculating seawater through aquifer sediments, which is released into the coastal ocean. In this dissertation, I evaluated the impact of SGD on the distributions and input of trace metals and nutrients. In the Tuckean Swamp, an estuary in Australia dominated by coastal acid sulfate soils, I determined the impact of groundwater on Ba and U during the flood season, when the local aquifer is flushed out after a rapid increase in water table elevation. For Ba and U, groundwater contributed up to 18 and 66 % …


Geomorphic And Paleoclimatic Implications Of Glacial Extent Records In The Sierra Nevada Del Cocuy, Colombia During Termination 1, Jordan Nickerson Herbert 2022 Dartmouth College

Geomorphic And Paleoclimatic Implications Of Glacial Extent Records In The Sierra Nevada Del Cocuy, Colombia During Termination 1, Jordan Nickerson Herbert

Dartmouth College Master’s Theses

Reconstructions of past glacial extents using geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic dating provide an opportunity to infer past climates. A record of the past extents of tropical mountain glaciers is particularly useful because there are few other means to reconstruct past temperatures in high-altitude, low-latitude locations. The tropics play an outsized role in mediating global climate, yet there is a lack of understanding of how the tropics may have influenced past climate changes such as the most recent deglaciation (Termination 1, ~18–11.7 ka). Improving reconstructions of tropical mountain glaciers will aid in understanding the role of the tropics in the global …


Acid Mine Drainage In The Shamokin Creek Watershed: A Spatial Analysis Of Economic And Environmental Consequences Of Coal Mining, Ben Shimer 2022 Bucknell University

Acid Mine Drainage In The Shamokin Creek Watershed: A Spatial Analysis Of Economic And Environmental Consequences Of Coal Mining, Ben Shimer

Student Project Reports

No abstract provided.


Revisiting 228Th As A Tool For Determining Sedimentation And Mass Accumulation Rates, Joseph J. Tamborski, Pinghe Cai, Meagan Eagle, Paul Henderson, Matthew A. Charette 2022 Old Dominion University

Revisiting 228Th As A Tool For Determining Sedimentation And Mass Accumulation Rates, Joseph J. Tamborski, Pinghe Cai, Meagan Eagle, Paul Henderson, Matthew A. Charette

OES Faculty Publications

The use of 228Th has seen limited application for determining sedimentation and mass accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Recent analytical advances have enabled rapid, precise measurements of particle-bound 228Th using a radium delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). Herein we review the 228Th cycle in the marine environment and revisit the historical use of 228Th as a tracer for determining sediment vertical accretion and mass accumulation rates in light of new measurement techniques. Case studies comparing accumulation rates from 228Th and 210Pb are presented for a micro-tidal salt marsh and a marginal sea …


A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan 2022 Western University

A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Zircon is a mineral that can commonly be found in many rocks in the Earth’s crust and other planetary bodies. Meteorite impact sites have also been shown to contain zircon and its high-pressure polymorph, Reidite.


Investigation Of Basal Imnaha Basalt Flows And Their Relationship To The Picture Gorge Basalt Of The Columbia River Basalt Group, Luke James Fredenberg 2022 Portland State University

Investigation Of Basal Imnaha Basalt Flows And Their Relationship To The Picture Gorge Basalt Of The Columbia River Basalt Group, Luke James Fredenberg

Dissertations and Theses

The lower American Bar flows (AB 1 and 2) of the Imnaha Basalt have previously been observed as being chemically similar to those of the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB). Previous age data separate eruption of the Imnaha and Picture Gorge Basalts by approximately 1.5 Ma, precluding the possibility of a genetic link between the two basalt units. New age data for the Picture Gorge Basalt has expanded the eruptive timeframe and the earliest flows coincide with the eruption of the Imnaha Basalt, making it possible that the lower American Bar flows of the Imnaha Basalt and the Picture Gorge Basalt …


Geochemical Characterization Of The Louann Salt, Puma Field, Green Canyon, Gulf Of Mexico Basin – Using Xrf And Xrd, Brian Lesh 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geochemical Characterization Of The Louann Salt, Puma Field, Green Canyon, Gulf Of Mexico Basin – Using Xrf And Xrd, Brian Lesh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Jurassic-aged Louann Salt is an evaporite sequence deposited in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOMB). It is an important component of the GOMB petroleum system and influences the facies pattern in overlying strata and the distribution of petroleum stratigraphic traps. The Louann Salt is composed primarily of halite with intercalated anhydrites and silty or sandy-halite intervals, with overall thicknesses in excess of four kilometers (~13,000 feet). Suture zones occur intermittently within the Louann Salt, formed by the collision of allochthonous evaporite layers. The mineralogy and geochemistry of the suture zones are currently understudied and can be hazardous during drilling …


Geochemical Characterization Of The Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, Using Chemostratigraphy And Integrated Petrophysics, David Tonner 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geochemical Characterization Of The Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, Using Chemostratigraphy And Integrated Petrophysics, David Tonner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin forms part of West Texas's and New Mexico’s famous petroleum-generating Permian Basin. The Bone Spring Formation is a prolific hydrocarbon producer within this basin, creating one of the world’s richest oil shales. This formation has lithological sequences that are characterized by repeating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals of a third-order cycle which can largely be correlated to highstand and lowstand systems tracts, respectively. Lithological complexity and facies change are manifested by debris flows, turbidites, and slumps. In addition to glacio-eustasy, both tectonism and broader Milankovitch cycles have influenced the depositional history. Previous investigations have utilized cores and wireline …


Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky

Doctoral Dissertations

Molar-tooth structure (MTS) is an enigmatic carbonate fabric that occurs mainly within Proterozoic carbonate host rocks. It is composed of two distinct features: cracks of various morphologies and crack-filling calcite microspar. Although the origins of MTS remain unknown, most previous investigation has focused on the formation of the cracks and mechanisms involved in the void space generation, with less emphasis on the intriguing carbonate fill. In this study I have investigated molar-tooth bearing carbonates from regions that span both paleogeography and geologic time. Analysis at the microscopic scale, including traditional petrography, cathodoluminescence petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and micrometer-scale geochemical analyses …


Petrochronology And Statistical Analysis To Integrate Different Types Of Data To Solve Complex Earth Systems Problems, Claire Ostwald Harrigan 2022 Boise State University

Petrochronology And Statistical Analysis To Integrate Different Types Of Data To Solve Complex Earth Systems Problems, Claire Ostwald Harrigan

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Complex Earth systems problems, like reconstructing orogens and calibrating the geologic time scale, require investigations that link time to geologic processes. To use time as a means of organizing geologic evidence, geochronometric dates must be contextualized by integrating with different data types. This is the work of petrochronology—linking mineral ages to geochemical, textural, or other geologic information. The U-Pb isotopic system as preserved in the minerals zircon (ZrSiO4) and titanite (CaTiSiO5) can be used in a petrochronological context to date geologic events including the age of granitoid pluton emplacement, the age of rock fabric formation in …


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