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Subaqueous Carbonate Speleothems As Paleotemperature Archives – Clumped Isotope Thermometry And Stable Isotope Compositions Of Inclusion-Hosted Water, Attila Demeny, Ágnes Berentés, László Rinyu, Ivett Kovács, Gergely Surányi, Magdolna Virág 2024 Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Budapest, Hungary

Subaqueous Carbonate Speleothems As Paleotemperature Archives – Clumped Isotope Thermometry And Stable Isotope Compositions Of Inclusion-Hosted Water, Attila Demeny, Ágnes Berentés, László Rinyu, Ivett Kovács, Gergely Surányi, Magdolna Virág

International Journal of Speleology

Clumped isotope measurements of carbonates and stable isotope analyses of water trapped in fluid inclusions are both promising techniques to determine carbonate formation temperatures. Cave-hosted carbonate deposits (speleothems) are excellent targets for such studies, but kinetic fractionations and diagenetic influences frequently deteriorate the temperature data obtained from these methods. However, subaqueous carbonate deposits may provide reliable data, as kinetic fractionations are less significant in underwater environments. In this study, subaqueous speleothems, whose formation temperatures were directly measured in the water, were investigated. Additionally, temperatures calculated from the oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite and fluid inclusion-hosted water were compared with clumped …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Reverse Pseudo-Gours: A New Sub-Type Of Folia Observed In The Nerja Cave (Se Spain), Cristina Liñán Baena, Concepción Jiménez de Cisneros, Yolanda Del Rosal, Paolo Forti 2023 Research Institute Nerja Cave and University of Malaga, Spain

Reverse Pseudo-Gours: A New Sub-Type Of Folia Observed In The Nerja Cave (Se Spain), Cristina Liñán Baena, Concepción Jiménez De Cisneros, Yolanda Del Rosal, Paolo Forti

International Journal of Speleology

A new sub-type of folia named “reverse pseudo-gour” has been observed and described in the Nerja Cave, southern Spain. It consists of fairly vertical, thin barriers (about 5 mm high and 2 mm thick) that develop on the underside of a sub-horizontal surface (shelfstone) and grow in the opposite direction to normal gours (rimstone dams), generating sinuous shapes. Their mineral composition is essentially calcium carbonate, although globular aggregates composed of clay and phosphate minerals have also been identified. The genesis and evolution of these reverse pseudo-gours occur just at the air-water interface and are controlled by (1) the sub-horizontality of …


Environmental Fate Of Sulfur In Sulphur Creek, Valles Caldera, Nm: Implications For Metal Transport And Water Quality, Daniel Lavery 2023 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Environmental Fate Of Sulfur In Sulphur Creek, Valles Caldera, Nm: Implications For Metal Transport And Water Quality, Daniel Lavery

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The 1.2 Ma Valles Caldera in north-central New Mexico hosts a young igneous volcanic hydrothermal system after the model proposed in Goff and Janik (2000). The Sulphur Springs area within Valles Caldera is an acid-sulfate area typical of this model, discharging acidic waters (pH 1.5-3) formed by oxidation of magmatic H2S at the surface. We report on samples obtained from springs and streams collected between October 2021 and May 2023 in the Sulphur Creek and Alamo watersheds. Sulphur Creek receives input from Sulphur Springs and exhibits low pH (2-4) and high concentrations of Al (≤110 mg/L), Fe (≤60 …


Landscape/Atmosphere Interactions And Carbon-Dioxide Dynamics In The Great Onyx Groundwater Basin, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Meghan Raines 2023 Western Kentucky University

Landscape/Atmosphere Interactions And Carbon-Dioxide Dynamics In The Great Onyx Groundwater Basin, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Meghan Raines

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An increase in atmospheric CO2 since the Industrial Revolution has altered rates of global climate change and has motivated a need to better quantify the flux of carbon between Earth’s reservoirs. Attempts to quantify the exchange of atmospheric carbon between sources and sinks have led to an increasing interest in the terrestrial landscape, including the continental carbon sink associated with carbonate-mineral dissolution. This research sought to better inform an understanding of karst landscapes and their relationship with global climate change through carbon cycling. The study utilized high-resolution data collection of pH, temperature, and specific conductance of waters in the Cascade …


Wonderstone And Its Connection To Liesegang, Microbes, And Beyond, Haden S. Mandery 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Wonderstone And Its Connection To Liesegang, Microbes, And Beyond, Haden S. Mandery

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In the western and southwestern United States, the term wonderstone is used to describe volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks with variegated banding produced by iron oxide mineralization or staining. This iron oxide mineralization is typically described as Liesegang banding. In this paper I will (1) test if the banding in wonderstone follows the spacing and width laws characteristic of Liesegang, (2) identify the source of iron that ultimately precipitated in the bands, and (3) examine the role that microbes played in the formation of the mineralization in these rocks. I conclude that the iron oxide mineralization is not Liesegang banding. …


Characterizing Silicate Materials Via Raman Spectroscopy And Machine Learning: Implications For Novel Approaches To Studying Melt Dynamics, Blake O. LaDouceur 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterizing Silicate Materials Via Raman Spectroscopy And Machine Learning: Implications For Novel Approaches To Studying Melt Dynamics, Blake O. Ladouceur

Doctoral Dissertations

Silicate melt characteristics impose dramatic influence over igneous processes that operate, or have operated on, differentiated bodies: such as the Earth and Mars. Current understanding of these melt properties, such as composition, primarily comes from investigations on their volcanic byproducts. Therefore, it is imperative to innovate on modalities capable of constraining melt information in environments where a reliance on laboratory methods is severed. Recent investigations have turned to Raman Spectroscopy and amorphous volcanics as a suitable pairing for exploring these ideas. Silicate glasses are a proxy for igneous melts; and Raman spectroscopy is a robust analytical technique capable of operating …


Enhancing Our Understanding Of Ancient Oceans Through The Investigation Of Molybdenum Behavior Under Sulfidic Conditions, Rachel Faye Phillips 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Enhancing Our Understanding Of Ancient Oceans Through The Investigation Of Molybdenum Behavior Under Sulfidic Conditions, Rachel Faye Phillips

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The most abundant trace metal in the ocean today, molybdenum (Mo), exhibits distinct behavior in oxygenated water, where it remains predominantly dissolved, compared to euxinic (i.e., oxygen-free and sulfidic) water, in which it is sequestered into the sediment. This dissimilar behavior allows us to use Mo concentrations and isotopic compositions in sediment to reconstruct marine oxygenation conditions throughout geologic history. However, Mo sequestration mechanisms under euxinic conditions remain unresolved, which limits the accuracy and precision of reconstructions made using Mo signatures in the rock record. For my doctoral research, I experimentally investigated abiotic and biotic Mo sequestration mechanisms under various …


Geospatial Analysis Of Weathering And Recession On Architectural Limestone At The 1891 Powerhouse/Icehouse In Eureka Springs, Arkansas, Stuart Bruce Wright 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Geospatial Analysis Of Weathering And Recession On Architectural Limestone At The 1891 Powerhouse/Icehouse In Eureka Springs, Arkansas, Stuart Bruce Wright

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study of the architectural limestone of the 1891 Powerhouse/Icehouse in Eureka Springs, Arkansas was to analyze the environmental factors that influenced the deterioration and surface recession of this historical stone structure. The focus of this research was to examine and establish a baseline study that may assist in future monitoring and documentation of this historic limestone structure on stone weathering. A replicable methodology was specifically created toward this baseline research in hopes that it represented a solid baseline study. Observations and data analyses revealed the relationship between the architectural limestone building structure and the dominating recession …


Labile Dissolved Nickel (Ni) Concentrations In The North Pacific, Calyn M. Crawford 2023 University of South Florida

Labile Dissolved Nickel (Ni) Concentrations In The North Pacific, Calyn M. Crawford

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nickel (Ni) is an important micronutrient for phytoplankton and bacteria that serves as a required co-factor in several metalloenzymes. Despite these known biological uses, total dissolved Ni concentrations remain elevated in global surface waters, in contrast to the surface depletion commonly observed for macronutrients and other nutrient-type trace elements. A prevailing hypothesis for the muted depletion of dissolved Ni concentrations in surface waters is that dissolved Ni in seawater is not in a bioavailable form. The chemical lability of Ni in seawater provides insight into Ni speciation and bioavailability, but few measurements have been made in the open ocean to …


Shared Roots: A Geochemical Investigation Of Basaltic Andesites To Understand Magmatic Cogenesis At The Middle Sister And South Sister Volcanoes, Central Oregon, Sean Francis Halstead 2023 Western Washington University

Shared Roots: A Geochemical Investigation Of Basaltic Andesites To Understand Magmatic Cogenesis At The Middle Sister And South Sister Volcanoes, Central Oregon, Sean Francis Halstead

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

The Middle Sister and South Sister volcanoes, near Bend, Oregon, are overlapping, active Cascade Arc stratovolcanoes which share a complex, contemporaneous eruptive history. This history is characterized by an extreme compositional diversity of lavas erupted in alternating phases of high activity from one neighboring volcano to the other, with both vents producing material ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. This system is understood to be predominantly fed by basaltic andesites fractionated from partial mantle melts within the lower crust, but magma compositions are additionally impacted by mixing, assimilation, and crustal contamination while in transit to the surface. Thus, the subterranean …


More Than Energy: Coal As A Mineral Resource, University of North Dakota. Energy and Environmental Research Center 2023 University of North Dakota

More Than Energy: Coal As A Mineral Resource, University Of North Dakota. Energy And Environmental Research Center

EERC Brochures and Fact Sheets

Brochure on Carbon Ore, Rare Earth, and Critical Minerals (CORE-CM) Initiative, an Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. Explores the benefits of utilizing lignite coal from the Williston Basin.


Core-Cm Williston Basin Carbon Ore, Rare Earth, And Critical Minerals, University of North Dakota. Energy and Environmental Research Center 2023 University of North Dakota

Core-Cm Williston Basin Carbon Ore, Rare Earth, And Critical Minerals, University Of North Dakota. Energy And Environmental Research Center

EERC Brochures and Fact Sheets

Fact sheet on the Carbon Ore, Rare Earth and Critical Minerals (CORE-CM) Initiative, an Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. Includes information on the importance of critical minerals and utilizing lignite from the Williston Basin.


North Bergen Outcrop Field And Geochemical Data, Jane L. Alexander, Sean T. Thatcher, Jay Tobon, Victoria Rivelli 2023 CUNY College of Staten Island

North Bergen Outcrop Field And Geochemical Data, Jane L. Alexander, Sean T. Thatcher, Jay Tobon, Victoria Rivelli

Publications and Research

This file contains the data collected on an outcrop of the Stockton Formation in North Bergen, NJ. It contains field observations, mineralogy and geochemical data for major, trace and rare earth elements.


Hydrothermal Carbonization Of Biomass Wastes: Sustainability And Geochemistry, Michael A. Kruge, Teresa A. Centeno, Alvaro Amado-Fierro, José Manuel González-LaFuente, Ruben Forjan-Castro, José Luis Gallego 2023 INCAR-CSIC

Hydrothermal Carbonization Of Biomass Wastes: Sustainability And Geochemistry, Michael A. Kruge, Teresa A. Centeno, Alvaro Amado-Fierro, José Manuel González-Lafuente, Ruben Forjan-Castro, José Luis Gallego

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Introduction. To reduce the stream of solid waste going to landfills, innovative means for beneficial use are essential. The diversity and volume of organic wastes pose singular problems and opportunities for recovery and circularity. Common processes for organics include conversion to biofuels and carbonization to biochar, typically done by torrefaction (dry pyrolysis). Research on biochar explores its potential as pollutant adsorbent, agricultural or polluted soil amendment, biofuel (directly or as feedstock), and for carbon sequestration (Ighalo et al., 2022; Cavali et al., 2023). Recently, other processes at lower temperatures such as hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) offer new possibilities (Seshadri et al., …


The Upper Ocean At The End Of An Ice Age: Using Proxies In Benthic Foraminifera To Investigate Intermediate Water Changes During The Last Glacial Termination, Cassandre R. Stirpe 2023 University of Maine

The Upper Ocean At The End Of An Ice Age: Using Proxies In Benthic Foraminifera To Investigate Intermediate Water Changes During The Last Glacial Termination, Cassandre R. Stirpe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ocean is an important component of the global climate system and plays a key role as a storage reservoir for heat and carbon. Under glacial conditions, the ocean sequestered carbon from the atmosphere, contributing to a cooler global climate. During the last glacial termination, that carbon was released back into the atmosphere, but the exact timing and mechanisms of this transfer are still not fully understood. This study examines waters from the intermediate depths of the Southern Ocean to gain insight into deglacial processes. Intermediate waters are capable of reacting to climate change on decadal timescales, making them a …


Investigating Mercer's Paradox: A 10be Chronology Of Moraines Deposited During The Last Glaciation At Soda Lake, Wind River Range, Wyoming, U.S.A., Lauren M. Woods 2023 University of Maine

Investigating Mercer's Paradox: A 10be Chronology Of Moraines Deposited During The Last Glaciation At Soda Lake, Wind River Range, Wyoming, U.S.A., Lauren M. Woods

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Here I use geomorphic mapping and 10Be surface-exposure dating to address the paradox that lies within the general understanding of the mechanisms driving ice-age climate and glacial cycles. The long-standing and widely accepted Murphy-Milankovitch hypothesis suggests glacial cycles are controlled by the local intensity of summer-time insolation. By this hypothesis, glacier maxima should be achieved at times of low insolation intensity and asynchronously between the polar hemispheres, a pattern which is inconsistent with the glacial geomorphic record. The 10Be chronology I have constructed of moraines at Soda Lake, Wind River Range, Wyoming, U.S.A. shows nine glacial advances to …


Utilizing Phylogenetic And Geochemical Techniques To Examine Echinoderms Through Time, Maggie Ryan Limbeck 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Utilizing Phylogenetic And Geochemical Techniques To Examine Echinoderms Through Time, Maggie Ryan Limbeck

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding biotic changes through Earth’s history has been the goal of paleobiology since the inception of the field. Advances in science and technology have progressed allowing us to reassess old questions and new questions that could have not been addressed without these new methods. Echinoderms (sea stars, sea urchins, etc.) appear in the fossil record during the early Cambrian and are still abundant in marine ecosystems today. This persistence through time has made echinoderms model organisms to answer questions about Earth’s past and present. Despite this role as a model organism there are many questions that remain with respect to …


Metagenomic Investigation Of Microbial Dark Carbon Fixation, Viral Interactions, And Horizonal Gene Transfer Within A Convergent Margin Subsurface Ecosystem, Timothy Joseph Rogers 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Metagenomic Investigation Of Microbial Dark Carbon Fixation, Viral Interactions, And Horizonal Gene Transfer Within A Convergent Margin Subsurface Ecosystem, Timothy Joseph Rogers

Doctoral Dissertations

Convergent margins are geological regions where two or more tectonic plates collide, and the denser “subducting slab” is pushed beneath the less dense overriding plate. As the slab descends, it devolatilizes under higher temperatures and pressures, allowing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and redox active volatile rich fluids to cycle between the upper crust and Earth’s mantle. These fluids migrate through cracks and fissures in the upper mantle and crust, fueling chemolithoautotrophy-based microbial ecosystems in the subsurface before they are expelled on the surface in the form of hydrothermal seeps and springs. Chemolithoautotrophic ecosystems, such as those in the Costa Rican …


A Hybrid Lateral Flow Sand Filter Wastewater Treatment System: An Evaluation On The Treatment And Disposal Capabilities Of A Modified Sand Filter, Harry McCaskill IV 2023 University of South Alabama

A Hybrid Lateral Flow Sand Filter Wastewater Treatment System: An Evaluation On The Treatment And Disposal Capabilities Of A Modified Sand Filter, Harry Mccaskill Iv

Theses and Dissertations

Decentralized wastewater treatment exists primarily in suburban and rural areas where centralized treatment is not an option. Traditional on-site treatment systems usually include the use of a septic tank and a drain field. This orthodox method works well when implemented into environments that are accommodating for the infiltration of effluents, and thus allowing for soil treatment. Unfortunately, there are some circumstances that prevent traditional systems from working such as impermeable soil conditions. The Wastewater Treatment System analyzed in this thesis was created to overcome such inhospitable environments. More specifically, this system is catered towards the rural residences of The Alabama …


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