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Empirical Roughness Coefficients For Moderate Floods In An Open Conduit Cave: Fullers Stream Canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia, Lydia T. Albright, Gregory S. Springer 2022 Ohio University, USA

Empirical Roughness Coefficients For Moderate Floods In An Open Conduit Cave: Fullers Stream Canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia, Lydia T. Albright, Gregory S. Springer

International Journal of Speleology

Open conduit modeling of cave stream floods can yield useful information about water velocities and shear stresses, which can in turn be used to estimate sediment transport capabilities. All such calculations require roughness coefficients for estimating energy losses and a priori knowledge of either discharge or flow depths to set model boundary conditions. However, the difficulties associated with observing in-cave floods generally preclude measuring discharge; roughness coefficients must be assumed based on channel properties. To overcome these challenges, we monitored stream flow depths in Fullers Cave, Greenbrier County, West Virginia using pressure transducers, and simultaneously measured stage and discharge in ...


Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis And Surface Landform Evolution Along The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, Pavel Bosak 2022 State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia

Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis And Surface Landform Evolution Along The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, Pavel Bosak

International Journal of Speleology

Hypogene caves in the Plavecký hradný vrch Hill (Western Slovakia, Central Europe) were formed by waters ascending along faults in fractured Triassic carbonates related to the horst-graben structure at the contact of the Malé Karpaty Mountains and the NE part of the Vienna Basin. The Plavecká jaskyňa and Pec caves mostly contain horizontal passages and chambers with flat corrosion bedrock floors, fissure discharge feeders, wall water-table notches, replacement pockets, as well as a few other speleogens associated with sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The low-temperature sulfuric acid development phases of the Plavecká Jaskyňa are also indicated by the presence of ...


Hydrodynamic Model For Independent Cold And Thermo-Mineral Twin Springs In A Stratified Continental Karst Aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France, Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, Gérard Cazenave 2022 University Côte d'Azur, France

Hydrodynamic Model For Independent Cold And Thermo-Mineral Twin Springs In A Stratified Continental Karst Aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France, Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, Gérard Cazenave

International Journal of Speleology

The Camou springs (Arbailles Massif, French Western Pyrenees) display an unusual close association of a typically cold karstic spring that drains the Urgonian western limb of the Arbailles, and a thermo-mineral spring (33.5°C; salinity 17.7 g/L). The latter gains its mineralization at the contact of Triassic evaporites mainly through a deep loop in the Apanicé syncline. The fast upflow of this deep water occurs at the cross of large active lines (the North-Pyrenean thrust located at depth, and the Saison transverse fault). Cave diving in the nearby Maddalen Cave allowed reaching the phreatic passage at the ...


Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent speleoclimatological research has shed new light on air pressure dynamics inside barometric caves by identifying pressure-modifying processes and resulting systematic differences between cave and surface air pressure. Based on these new findings, a multi- step quantitative model is developed and explored to predict air pressure inside Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA – from external surface measurements. Therefore, each identified speleoclimatological pressure process is translated into a mathematical operation. Model evaluation based on Pearson correlation and mean (absolute) deviation between model outputs and control measurements yields good to ...


Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés 2022 Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain

Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés

International Journal of Speleology

Cova de sa Guitarreta is located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean). It was formed presumably by hypogenic processes in Upper Miocene reefal calcarenites. The cave hosts an important breeding colony of bats during the end of spring and early summer. Its microclimate is influenced by the presence of a thermal phreatic water table (27.7ºC) as well as by bat populations remaining in the cave along the reproductive season. The morphological bat-related features include bat claws and thumb marks scratches, together with several morphologies linked to bat excreta and aggressive leachates from guano. From the mineralogical ...


Investigation Into Karst Of Southwest Missouri Using Electrical Resistivity, Donald Zachary Wormington 2022 Missouri State University

Investigation Into Karst Of Southwest Missouri Using Electrical Resistivity, Donald Zachary Wormington

MSU Graduate Theses

Nixa, Missouri is located on the southwestern edge of the Ozark Dome which has a karst geomorphological environment. Near surface geophysical methods can be used in determining the location and nature of karst features such as caves and sinkholes. Electrical resistivity methods have been shown to be among the most useful methods in deciphering sinkholes and caves. To investigate a known cave and related sinkholes and faults within Mississippian carbonates south of Nixa, Missouri, a series of two-dimensional electrical resistivity profiles were collected using the dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays. Terrain data was collected to include in modeling. The data were ...


Speleogenesis In A Lens Of Metamorphosed Limestone And Ankerite: Ochtiná Aragonite Cave, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák, Petr Pruner, Helena Hercman, Katarína Pukanská, Karol Bartoš, Ľudovít Gaál, Dagmar Haviarová, Peter Tomčík, Šimon Kdýr 2021 Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia

Speleogenesis In A Lens Of Metamorphosed Limestone And Ankerite: Ochtiná Aragonite Cave, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Pavel Bosák, Petr Pruner, Helena Hercman, Katarína Pukanská, Karol Bartoš, Ľudovít Gaál, Dagmar Haviarová, Peter Tomčík, Šimon Kdýr

International Journal of Speleology

The Ochtiná Aragonite Cave (Western Carpathians) represents an unique natural phenomenon. It originated under particular lithological and hydrogeological conditions of the Ochtiná Karst in which several isolated lenses of Paleozoic crystalline limestone (marbles), partly metasomatically altered to ankerite, are enclosed by phyllites. Meteoric water seepage through non-carbonate rocks dissolved limestone and caused the oxidation of ankerite to Fe oxyhydroxides. Carbon dioxide produced during ankerite oxidation enhanced limestone dissolution. The maze cave consists of parallel fault-controlled linear passages and chambers interconnected by transverse horizontal passages. Phreatic and epiphreatic solution morphologies resulted from slowly moving or standing water. These include flat ceilings ...


Low Impact Sampling Of Speleothems – Reconciling Scientific Study With Cave Conservation, Claire L.V. MacGregor, John C. Hellstrom, Jon D. Woodhead, Russell N. Drysdale, Rolan S. Eberhard 2021 School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia

Low Impact Sampling Of Speleothems – Reconciling Scientific Study With Cave Conservation, Claire L.V. Macgregor, John C. Hellstrom, Jon D. Woodhead, Russell N. Drysdale, Rolan S. Eberhard

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems are increasingly valued as important paleoclimate archives and yet the removal of samples from caves can come at a cost to natural heritage, impacting delicate environments with limited mechanisms for repair. Conservation of cave environments is a key responsibility for scientists and, with this in mind, we are working to develop and implement techniques that allow us to extract valuable scientific data, with minimal impact. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of low-impact reconnaissance dating surveys on caves in southern Tasmania and southwest Western Australia as a precursor to the removal of stalagmites for paleoclimate reconstruction. Small flakes ...


Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll 2021 University of Oviedo, Spain

Continuous Color Model As A Tool To Improve Speleothem Age Model Development, Celia Campa-Bousoño, Ángel García-Pérez, Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Heather Stoll

International Journal of Speleology

Because they can archive a variety of geochemical proxies and be precisely and accurately dated with the U-Th decay series chronometer, stalagmites are widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, limitations in the use of this chronometer arise because U-Th dating is analytically time consuming, expensive, and requires a relatively large sample size. These limitations restrict the number of absolute dates usually obtained, which can result in significant uncertainties in the age model and inhibit the ability to archive high resolution records of environmental variability, particularly in those stalagmites where there are variations in growth rate not constrained by U-Th dates ...


The Relative Importance Of Wind-Driven And Chimney Effect Cave Ventilation: Observations In Postojna Cave (Slovenia), Lovel Kukuljan, Franci Gabrovsek, Matthew Covington 2021 ZRC SAZU, Karst Research Institute, Slovenia

The Relative Importance Of Wind-Driven And Chimney Effect Cave Ventilation: Observations In Postojna Cave (Slovenia), Lovel Kukuljan, Franci Gabrovsek, Matthew Covington

International Journal of Speleology

Density-driven chimney effect airflow is the most common form of cave ventilation, allowing gas exchange between the outside and the karst subsurface. However, cave ventilation can also be driven by other mechanisms, such as barometric changes or pressure differences induced by the outside winds. We discuss the mechanism and dynamics of wind-driven ventilation using observations in Postojna Cave, Slovenia. We show how seasonal airflow patterns driven by the chimney effect are substantially modified by outside winds. Wind flow over irregular topography forms near-surface air pressure variations and thus pressure differences between cave entrances at different locations. These pressure differences depend ...


Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch 2021 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Pressure Waves Travel Through Barometric Caves?, Annika K. Gomell, Daniel C. Austin, Marc J. Ohms, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

In barometric caves, air pressure gradients between the outside atmosphere and the cave induce strong bidirectional compensating currents, which control almost all elements of speleoclimatology, including air temperature, humidity, and CO2 dynamics. Therefore, this study set out to investigate air pressure propagation through Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Based on high-resolution air pressure data from both the surface and several measurement sites inside the caves, four systematic changes of pressure waves during their journey through the caves and their related speleoclimatological processes were identified and discussed ...


Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. McFarlane, Joyce Lundberg 2021 The Claremont Colleges, California, USA

Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg

International Journal of Speleology

Some recent publications on the paleo- and historical environmental interpretation of bat guano sequences have relied on 210Pb and 137Cs distribution to establish age-depth models, even when these are at odds with radiocarbon models in the lower parts of the sequence. Here, we present both field and laboratory evidence for the unpredictable mobility of lead and cesium in decomposing bat guano deposits. We suggest that 210Pb- and 137Cs-based chronologies of bat guano deposits should only be used when independently supported, for example, by a robust radiocarbon age-depth model.


The Impact Of Burning On The Structure And Mineral Composition Of Bat Guano, Joyce Lundberg, Donald A. McFarlane 2021 Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

The Impact Of Burning On The Structure And Mineral Composition Of Bat Guano, Joyce Lundberg, Donald A. Mcfarlane

International Journal of Speleology

Here we addressed the question of whether burning of guano produces a characteristic suite of morphological changes and/or unique mineralogical products. The changes observed in our experimental burning of guano (both fresh and decayed) included colour change (blackening), grain size and morphological change (grain size generally reduced, morphology rendered generally less distinct), alteration of minerals by dehydration (e.g., gypsum to anhydrite, brushite to whitlockite), and production of new minerals or compounds (e.g., augelite, bayerite, giniite, graphite, oldhamite, strontium apatite, tridymite). The key morphological feature we found that may be diagnostic of burning was severe damage to crystals ...


Multi-Criteria Analysis For Mapping Susceptibility To Iron Formation Caves Development In The Gandarela Mountain Range (Mg), Southeast Brazil, Iraydes Tálita Nola, Luis Almeida Bacellar 2021 Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brasil

Multi-Criteria Analysis For Mapping Susceptibility To Iron Formation Caves Development In The Gandarela Mountain Range (Mg), Southeast Brazil, Iraydes Tálita Nola, Luis Almeida Bacellar

International Journal of Speleology

In tropical regions, abundant in iron-rich geological materials, caves that are genetically and geographically associated with exploitable mineral deposits may develop. These caves have speleological relevance and are environmentally and legally protected in Brazil. Thus, for better planning of exploitation and environmental licensing, it is necessary to study the genesis and development of the iron formation caves seeking to preserve them without impeding the advancement of mining. This subject is complex, rarely studied, and few are the knowledges on alternatives to predict the occurrence of these caves. This gap justifies the development of research and products capable of assisting decision-makers ...


Flow Dynamics In A Vadose Shaft – A Case Study From The Hochschwab Karst Massif (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), Eva Kaminsky, Lukas Plan, Thomas Wagner, Barbara Funk, Pauline Oberender 2021 Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

Flow Dynamics In A Vadose Shaft – A Case Study From The Hochschwab Karst Massif (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), Eva Kaminsky, Lukas Plan, Thomas Wagner, Barbara Funk, Pauline Oberender

International Journal of Speleology

Karst aquifers are highly vulnerable to contamination due to quick water flow through conduits. Their high heterogeneity and the poorly known infiltration effect of the vadose zone make quantification of recharge processes difficult. This study characterizes the water flow and storage in the upper vadose zone with almost four years monitoring of a permanent stream in a vadose shaft (Furtowischacht). Its small catchment of 4,500 m² is located in a former glaciated high Alpine environment (Hochschwab, Austria). High discharge fluctuations between 0.002 and 19 l/s, relatively high hydrograph recession coefficients, and transit velocities between 0.0015 and ...


Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec 2021 Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia

Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean calcite dissolution and precipitation are often considered as strictly geochemical processes. The active involvement of microbes in these processes is commonly underestimated in the literature due to general oligotrophic conditions in caves, except in particular cave conditions, such as sulfidic caves and moonmilk deposits, where the presence of microbes likely plays a key role in mineral deposition. Here, we study the possible involvement of microbes from Postojna Cave, Slovenia, in carbonate dissolution (litholysis) and precipitation (lithogenesis). Microbes were sampled from small pools below hydrologically diverse drip sites and incubated on polished limestone tablets at 10 and 20°C for ...


Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda 2021 University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (France)

Bat Guano Minerals And Mineralization Processes In Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, Philippe Audra, Vasile Heresanu, Lionel Barriquand, Mohamed El Kadiri Boutchich, Stephane Jaillet, Edwige Pons-Branchu, Pavel Bosak, Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, Michel Renda

International Journal of Speleology

The decay of bat guano deposits in caves produces mineral accumulations, mainly phosphates and secondary sulfates. Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, is located in the semi-arid Bni Snassen Mountains. It is composed of semi-active and dry passages, and is featured by strong condensation-corrosion on the walls, presence of fluvial sediments, and old corroded flowstones. Due to forced and convective airflow, the cave is generally very dry, with some damp sites related to condensation. Samples collected on the surface of different passages and along two sediment profiles yielded minerals related to bat guano decay. On recent or fresh guano, precursor minerals correspond ...


Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden 2021 Middle Tennessee State University, USA

Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden

International Journal of Speleology

A novel method to map and quantitatively describe very gentle folds (limb dip <5o) at cratonic cave sites was evaluated at Snail Shell and Nanna Caves, central Tennessee, USA. Elevations from the global SRTM digital terrain model (DTM) were assigned to points on late Ordovician geologic contacts, and the elevations of the points were used to interpolate 28 m cell size natural neighbor digital elevation models (DEM’s) of the contacts. The global Forest Canopy Height Dataset was subtracted from the global 28 m cell size AW3D30 digital surface model (DSM) to create a DTM, and that DTM was applied ...


Full Issue 49(3), 2021 University of South Florida

Full Issue 49(3)

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2021 University of South Florida

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


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