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Rates Of Diagenesis Of Tropical Insectivorous Bat Guano Accumulations: Implications For Potential Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction, Donald A. McFarlane, Joyce Lundberg 2024 The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, USA

Rates Of Diagenesis Of Tropical Insectivorous Bat Guano Accumulations: Implications For Potential Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg

International Journal of Speleology

Cave guano deposits are increasingly being recognized as valuable repositories of paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental information. However, that value is constrained by rates of guano decomposition, and these rates have not been previously well-studied. Here we show that field and laboratory studies of deep insectivorous bat guano sequences in the caves of Borneo demonstrate the extreme dependence of decomposition rate on guano water content. Under tropical conditions, moist guanos exhibit decomposition coefficients (k) values of ~ 0.01, implying the loss of most of the organic content on decadal timescales. Under similar temperatures but drier conditions, k values drop to …


Climate Monitoring In The Caumont Cave And Quarry System (Northern France) Reveal Near Oxygen Isotopic Equilibrium Conditions For Carbonate Deposition, Ingrid Bejarano-Arias, Carole Nehme, Sebastian Breitenbach, Hanno Meyer, Sevasti Modestou, Damase Mouralis 2023 UMR 6266 IDEES CNRS, University of Rouen Normandy, France

Climate Monitoring In The Caumont Cave And Quarry System (Northern France) Reveal Near Oxygen Isotopic Equilibrium Conditions For Carbonate Deposition, Ingrid Bejarano-Arias, Carole Nehme, Sebastian Breitenbach, Hanno Meyer, Sevasti Modestou, Damase Mouralis

International Journal of Speleology

The study of modern cave deposits forming under near isotopic equilibrium conditions can potentially help disentangle the processes influencing the oxygen isotope system and suitability of stalagmites as archives of past hydrological or thermal changes. We used cave monitoring to evaluate the impact of kinetic isotope fractionation and assess the conditions under which modern cave carbonates form in the Caumont cave and quarry system, located in Normandy, northwest France. Over 20 months, we collected climatological data, dripwater, and modern carbonate samples at 2–4-week intervals at three different stations inside the Caumont cave and quarry system. We find highly stable (10.4 …


Reverse Pseudo-Gours: A New Sub-Type Of Folia Observed In The Nerja Cave (Se Spain), Cristina Liñán Baena, Concepción Jiménez de Cisneros, Yolanda Del Rosal, Paolo Forti 2023 Research Institute Nerja Cave and University of Malaga, Spain

Reverse Pseudo-Gours: A New Sub-Type Of Folia Observed In The Nerja Cave (Se Spain), Cristina Liñán Baena, Concepción Jiménez De Cisneros, Yolanda Del Rosal, Paolo Forti

International Journal of Speleology

A new sub-type of folia named “reverse pseudo-gour” has been observed and described in the Nerja Cave, southern Spain. It consists of fairly vertical, thin barriers (about 5 mm high and 2 mm thick) that develop on the underside of a sub-horizontal surface (shelfstone) and grow in the opposite direction to normal gours (rimstone dams), generating sinuous shapes. Their mineral composition is essentially calcium carbonate, although globular aggregates composed of clay and phosphate minerals have also been identified. The genesis and evolution of these reverse pseudo-gours occur just at the air-water interface and are controlled by (1) the sub-horizontality of …


Book Review: Australian Caves And Karst Systems, John Webb, Susan White, Garry K. Smith, Jo De Waele 2023 Italian Institute of Speleology, Bologna

Book Review: Australian Caves And Karst Systems, John Webb, Susan White, Garry K. Smith, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Paleokarst Coastal Caves At Torricelle Hills (Lessini Mountains, Venetian Prealps, Italy), Guido Gonzato, Enrico Borghi, Roberto Chignola, Nereo Preto, Guido Rossi 2023 University of Verona, Italy

Paleokarst Coastal Caves At Torricelle Hills (Lessini Mountains, Venetian Prealps, Italy), Guido Gonzato, Enrico Borghi, Roberto Chignola, Nereo Preto, Guido Rossi

International Journal of Speleology

This paper describes a set of paleokarst caves at Torricelle Hills near Verona (Southern Alps, Italy.) At this locality, erosional surfaces and paleokarst cavities show that sedimentation of late Paleogene neritic limestones was interrupted by subaerial exposure. Karst features developed during a phase of marine regression that started after the early Oligocene and ended in the mid Miocene. These caves were originally completely filled by iron oxides- and hydrated oxides-rich paleosol sediments (ochre) that, for centuries, have been mined for pigments. Mining activity emptied the caves, leaving the voids and related shapes mostly intact; as a result, the original morphologies …


An Attempt To Identify Source Areas Of Clastic Deposits From Selected Caves Of The Prokletije Mountains (Montenegro): A Mineralogical And U-Series Geochemistry Approach, Ditta Kicińska, Jacek Pawlak, Jacek Stienss 2023 Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland

An Attempt To Identify Source Areas Of Clastic Deposits From Selected Caves Of The Prokletije Mountains (Montenegro): A Mineralogical And U-Series Geochemistry Approach, Ditta Kicińska, Jacek Pawlak, Jacek Stienss

International Journal of Speleology

The Prokletije Mountains/Albanian Alps are the highest part of the Dinaric Mountains. Paradoxically, these mountains and their cave areas remain among the most enigmatic in Europe, having only recently become subjects of scientific research and cave exploration. This paper focuses on the Kolata and Greben massifs, where the highest, and thus the oldest, cave systems are located. Through the analysis of heavy mineral composition, the apatite-tourmaline index, and cluster analysis for mineralogical composition and uranium isotopic data, it becomes possible to identify the source areas for the cave clastic deposits. It also allow to distinguish multiple paleoflow directions, each corresponding …


Preliminary Data Of Potentially Hazardous Radon Concentrations In Modrič Cave (Croatia), Robert Lončarić, Vanja Radolić, Maša Surić, Igor Miklavčić, Matea Šatalić, Dalibor Paar, Lukrecija Obšivač 2023 Department of Geography, University of Zadar, Croatia

Preliminary Data Of Potentially Hazardous Radon Concentrations In Modrič Cave (Croatia), Robert Lončarić, Vanja Radolić, Maša Surić, Igor Miklavčić, Matea Šatalić, Dalibor Paar, Lukrecija Obšivač

International Journal of Speleology

Instigated by relatively high cave-air CO2 concentrations in Modrič Cave (Croatia) recorded for the purpose of speleothem-based paleoclimate research, we established preliminary monitoring of radon (222Rn) concentrations within the cave for a 4.5-year period (2018–2022). As radioactive geogenic gas, radon, which often correlates with cave-air CO2 concentrations, presents a potential health hazard in cases of longer exposure time in high concentration conditions. Since the Modrič Cave is open to tourists and long-term scientific research has been performed within, a safety assessment for radon concentrations was essential. The integrated measurements of radon concentrations were performed by passive …


Mg Records Of Two Stalagmites From B7-Cave (Northwest Germany) Indicating Long-Term Precipitation Changes During Early To Mid-Holocene, Dana F. C. Riechelmann, Klaus Peter Jochum, Detlev K. Richter, Denis Scholz 2023 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany

Mg Records Of Two Stalagmites From B7-Cave (Northwest Germany) Indicating Long-Term Precipitation Changes During Early To Mid-Holocene, Dana F. C. Riechelmann, Klaus Peter Jochum, Detlev K. Richter, Denis Scholz

International Journal of Speleology

Two stalagmites from B7-Cave in northwest Germany, which is part of the same cave system as the intensively studied Bunker Cave, were re-dated by multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) 230Th/U-dating. Furthermore, the concentration of Mg, Sr, Ba, P, Y, Zn, and Al were determined at high-resolution by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Stalagmite B7-1 grew from 10.8 to 5.8 ka BP. Stalagmite B7-7 grew during three growth phases from 11.0 to 6.2, 3.13 to 2.86 (late Bronze Age), and 1.27 to 1.15 ka BP (early Medieval Period). Aluminium is a proxy for detrital …


Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom 2023 University of South Florida, USA

Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Cryogenic cave carbonates have been described from several formerly or presently glaciated karst caves. In most of these occurrences, they precipitated as loose grains or aggregates with various morphologies and sizes. Here, we report on a new speleothem type (cryogenic ridges) identified in Sohodoalele Mici Cave (SW Romania) within a large chamber near the entrance shaft. This study was motivated by the presence of a network of calcite ridges over the stalactites’ surface and by the observation that during winter, these speleothems are covered by a thin ice layer. The higher δ18O (−3.5 to –1‰) and …


Carbon Cycling And Critical Zone Dynamics In An Urbanized Karst Groundwater System, Amy Hourigan 2022 Western Kentucky University

Carbon Cycling And Critical Zone Dynamics In An Urbanized Karst Groundwater System, Amy Hourigan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are correlated to rising global temperatures. Investigating the cumulative global carbon cycling processes is important to understand and quantify the global carbon cycle. By investigating basic geochemical parameters, EpCO2, DIC, and δ13CDIC, at four sites along Lost River Cave (LRC), in Bowling Green, Kentucky, concentrations, fluxes and sources of C dissolved in groundwater were determined. Urban karst groundwater systems, compared to more natural karst landscapes, typically exhibit widespread impervious, heat-absorbing surfaces, urban heat island effects, and increased anthropogenic groundwater inputs and localized CO2 emissions. Carbonate hydrogeochemical …


Sub-Recent Microfauna Within Allogenic Sediments At The Bottom Of A Deep Cave, Njemica (Biokovo Mt., Croatia), Tomislav Kurečić, Valentina Hajek Tadesse, Lara Wacha, Marija Horvat, Nina Trinajstić, Ivan Mišur 2022 Croatian Geological Survey, Department of Geology, Milana Sachsa 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Sub-Recent Microfauna Within Allogenic Sediments At The Bottom Of A Deep Cave, Njemica (Biokovo Mt., Croatia), Tomislav Kurečić, Valentina Hajek Tadesse, Lara Wacha, Marija Horvat, Nina Trinajstić, Ivan Mišur

International Journal of Speleology

Clastic sediments deposited at the bottom of the vertical, nearly 1000 m deep Njemica Cave (Biokovo Mountain, Croatia) were analysed. Owing to the vertical morphology of the cave, the occurrences of clastic sediments are sparse. Small, up to decimetre-thick, undisturbed sediment accumulations situated near the siphon lake revealed interesting palaeontological and mineralogical data. These data are used as a useful proxy for discussing depositional processes, the provenance of the sediments and paleo-habitats of the subterranean fauna.

The sub-recent assemblages of ostracods were discovered within the sediment, and they were shown to be correlative to the known endemic species in the …


Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Increasing demand for water for agricultural use within the Dougherty Plain of the Southeastern United States has depleted surface water bodies. In karstic landscapes, such as the Dougherty Plain in southwest Georgia where the linkages between surface and ground waters are close, there is a need to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface that allow these close linkages. Having a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics will aid numerical modeling efforts that underpin policy decisions and economic analyses. Two common features on this karstic landscape are draws and geographically isolated wetlands. Using LiDAR, aerial imagery, and ground-penetrating radar, this …


Flow Regime Evolution Of A Major Cave System In The Eastern Alps (Hirlatzhöhle, Dachstein), Lukas Plan, Gottfried Buchegger, Eva Kaminsky, Gabriella Koltai, Tanguy Racine, Jacek Szczygieł 2022 Karst- and Cave Group, Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

Flow Regime Evolution Of A Major Cave System In The Eastern Alps (Hirlatzhöhle, Dachstein), Lukas Plan, Gottfried Buchegger, Eva Kaminsky, Gabriella Koltai, Tanguy Racine, Jacek Szczygieł

International Journal of Speleology

The 116 km-long and 1560 m-deep Hirlatzhöhle is one of the major cave systems in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA; Austria). It is located in the NW part of the Dachstein, an extensive karst massif encompassing 576 km² with its highest point at 2995 m a.s.l. In contrast to most other caves in the NCA, Hirlatzhöhle comprises old (epi)phreatic passages located up to 1 km above the base level as well as two modern major drainage systems. The aim of this study is to define the palaeo- and the active flow conditions in combination with speleogenesis, and the age of …


Airflow Dynamics In Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Barometric Caves Breathe?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum

Airflow Dynamics In Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Do Barometric Caves Breathe?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent research on air pressure propagation through barometric caves has revealed various speleoclimatological processes, which cause a more complex relationship between surface air pressure changes and resulting pressure gradients between cave and surface air than previously assumed. So far, however, studies on barometric cave airflow have only been based on surface air pressure measurements. Thus, this study investigates and compares airflow at the openings of Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in South Dakota, USA – as a response to surface air pressure changes and air pressure gradients. Based on high-resolution long-term air pressure measurements …


Speleothems In Sandstone Crevice And Boulder Caves Of The Elbe River Canyon, Czech Republic, Jiří Adamovič, Jaroslav Kukla, Michal Filippi, Roman Skála, Noemi Mészárosová 2022 Institute of Geology, Czech Acad. Sci.

Speleothems In Sandstone Crevice And Boulder Caves Of The Elbe River Canyon, Czech Republic, Jiří Adamovič, Jaroslav Kukla, Michal Filippi, Roman Skála, Noemi Mészárosová

International Journal of Speleology

A variety of speleothems are present in crevice and boulder caves developed in Cretaceous sandstones of the Elbe River Canyon in northern Czech Republic. A set of complementary instrumental mineralogical methods was applied to characterize the speleothems and cave dripwaters, including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis, Raman spectroscopy and optical emission spectrometry. Four morphological types were distinguished and characterized in terms of their mineral and chemical composition: 1, rusty brown mud-dominated coatings with micro-gours, composed of a mixture of clay minerals; 2, white “chalky” coatings (moonmilk) composed of calcite with minor gypsum; 3, cauliflower-shaped coralloids composed of …


Empirical Roughness Coefficients For Moderate Floods In An Open Conduit Cave: Fullers Stream Canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia, Lydia T. Albright, Gregory S. Springer 2022 Ohio University, USA

Empirical Roughness Coefficients For Moderate Floods In An Open Conduit Cave: Fullers Stream Canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia, Lydia T. Albright, Gregory S. Springer

International Journal of Speleology

Open conduit modeling of cave stream floods can yield useful information about water velocities and shear stresses, which can in turn be used to estimate sediment transport capabilities. All such calculations require roughness coefficients for estimating energy losses and a priori knowledge of either discharge or flow depths to set model boundary conditions. However, the difficulties associated with observing in-cave floods generally preclude measuring discharge; roughness coefficients must be assumed based on channel properties. To overcome these challenges, we monitored stream flow depths in Fullers Cave, Greenbrier County, West Virginia using pressure transducers, and simultaneously measured stage and discharge in …


Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis And Surface Landform Evolution Along The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, Pavel Bosak 2022 State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia

Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis And Surface Landform Evolution Along The Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia, Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, Pavel Bosak

International Journal of Speleology

Hypogene caves in the Plavecký hradný vrch Hill (Western Slovakia, Central Europe) were formed by waters ascending along faults in fractured Triassic carbonates related to the horst-graben structure at the contact of the Malé Karpaty Mountains and the NE part of the Vienna Basin. The Plavecká jaskyňa and Pec caves mostly contain horizontal passages and chambers with flat corrosion bedrock floors, fissure discharge feeders, wall water-table notches, replacement pockets, as well as a few other speleogens associated with sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The low-temperature sulfuric acid development phases of the Plavecká Jaskyňa are also indicated by the presence of sulfate minerals …


Hydrodynamic Model For Independent Cold And Thermo-Mineral Twin Springs In A Stratified Continental Karst Aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France, Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, Gérard Cazenave 2022 University Côte d'Azur, France

Hydrodynamic Model For Independent Cold And Thermo-Mineral Twin Springs In A Stratified Continental Karst Aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France, Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, Gérard Cazenave

International Journal of Speleology

The Camou springs (Arbailles Massif, French Western Pyrenees) display an unusual close association of a typically cold karstic spring that drains the Urgonian western limb of the Arbailles, and a thermo-mineral spring (33.5°C; salinity 17.7 g/L). The latter gains its mineralization at the contact of Triassic evaporites mainly through a deep loop in the Apanicé syncline. The fast upflow of this deep water occurs at the cross of large active lines (the North-Pyrenean thrust located at depth, and the Saison transverse fault). Cave diving in the nearby Maddalen Cave allowed reaching the phreatic passage at the origin of the cold …


Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch 2022 Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany

Modeling Air Pressure Propagation Through Wind Cave And Jewel Cave: How Can Air Pressure Signals Inside Barometric Caves Be Predicted From Surface Pressure Measurements?, Annika K. Gomell, Andreas Pflitsch

International Journal of Speleology

Recent speleoclimatological research has shed new light on air pressure dynamics inside barometric caves by identifying pressure-modifying processes and resulting systematic differences between cave and surface air pressure. Based on these new findings, a multi- step quantitative model is developed and explored to predict air pressure inside Wind Cave and Jewel Cave – two major barometric cave systems in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA – from external surface measurements. Therefore, each identified speleoclimatological pressure process is translated into a mathematical operation. Model evaluation based on Pearson correlation and mean (absolute) deviation between model outputs and control measurements yields …


Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés 2022 Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain

Guano-Derived Morphologies And Associated Minerals Found In Cova De Sa Guitarreta, Llucmajor, Balearics, Antonio Merino Juncadella, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Mulet, Joaquín Ginés

International Journal of Speleology

Cova de sa Guitarreta is located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean). It was formed presumably by hypogenic processes in Upper Miocene reefal calcarenites. The cave hosts an important breeding colony of bats during the end of spring and early summer. Its microclimate is influenced by the presence of a thermal phreatic water table (27.7ºC) as well as by bat populations remaining in the cave along the reproductive season. The morphological bat-related features include bat claws and thumb marks scratches, together with several morphologies linked to bat excreta and aggressive leachates from guano. From the mineralogical point …


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