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Cambrian Trilobites From The Nounan Dolomite And Lower St. Charles Formation (Upper Marjuman To Lower Sunwaptan; Miaolingian To Furongian Series), Smithfield Canyon, Northern Utah, Frederick A. Sundberg, Hannah R. Cothren, Carol M. Dehler 2024 University of New Mexico

Cambrian Trilobites From The Nounan Dolomite And Lower St. Charles Formation (Upper Marjuman To Lower Sunwaptan; Miaolingian To Furongian Series), Smithfield Canyon, Northern Utah, Frederick A. Sundberg, Hannah R. Cothren, Carol M. Dehler

Geosciences Faculty Publications

The trilobite faunas that occur with the Steptoean Positive Isotope Carbon Excursion (SPICE) at Smithfield Canyon, Utah, have been reported, but not illustrated. Given the importance of the SPICE at this section for international correlations, the trilobites from new collections from the upper Nounan Dolomite to lower St. Charles Formation at Smithfield Canyon are reported herein and integrated with the previously reported taxa. Trilobite assemblages indicate that the upper Cedaria to the Ellipsocephaloides biozones (Miaolingian Series, Guzhangian Stage to Furongian Series, Jiangshanian Stage) are present stratigraphically below or above the SPICE.

Some of the taxa reported herein may represent new …


Analyzing The Shark Paleoecology Of Coastal Georgia From The Miocene And Pliocene Epochs, Joshua Lee Clark, Benjamin Angalet 2023 College of Coastal Georgia

Analyzing The Shark Paleoecology Of Coastal Georgia From The Miocene And Pliocene Epochs, Joshua Lee Clark, Benjamin Angalet

Georgia Journal of Science

The field of shark paleoecology often yields indecisive conclusions based on the limited fossilization of their anatomical structures, with the exception of their teeth. The majority of the Atlantic coast has been studied regarding the presence of certain prehistoric shark species from the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene epochs. However, information pertaining to the Georgia coast and understanding its potential community structure is relatively understudied. This study was conducted in which thousands of fossil shark specimens and subsequent marine fauna were collected from dredge spoils created by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE): Savannah District. A total of 5,127 fossil …


Isotopic Ecology Of Bison And Bootherium At Big Bone Lick, Kentucky, Frances Stephenson 2023 East Tennessee State University

Isotopic Ecology Of Bison And Bootherium At Big Bone Lick, Kentucky, Frances Stephenson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Big Bone Lick (BBL) is a late Pleistocene and Holocene fossil locality in the Ohio River valley of Kentucky. This study utilized stable isotopes (δ13C, δ18O, and 87Sr/86Sr) in tooth enamel to reconstruct mobility and diet in Bison, as well as diet in Bootherium bombifrons. Isotopic results from seven Bison and two B. bombifrons are reported. Results suggest Pleistocene Bison and Bootherium occupied different dietary niches. Although both had C3-dominated diets, Bison occupied more open environments than B. bombifrons. Two bison from the late Holocene deposit had diets that consisted …


Early Pliocene Mice And Rats From The Gray Fossil Site Of Eastern Tennessee: Implications For The Evolution Of Cricetidae And Understanding Of The Past Ecosystem, Ziqi Xu 2023 East Tennessee State University

Early Pliocene Mice And Rats From The Gray Fossil Site Of Eastern Tennessee: Implications For The Evolution Of Cricetidae And Understanding Of The Past Ecosystem, Ziqi Xu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cricetidae ranks as the second-most species-rich and abundant mammalian family, with limited studies on eastern North American records prior to the Pleistocene. While cricetids has been previously noted at the early Pliocene Gray Fossil Site (GFS), this study provides a detailed description of eight taxa: Postcopemys (two species), Symmetrodontomys, Oryzomyini, Peromyscus, Neotoma, Neotomodon, and Xenomys. Postcopemys is the most common cricetid taxon at GFS, followed by Peromyscus and Neotoma. These records expand the stratigraphic and geographic range of multiple genera. Distinctive morphological features of GFS taxa suggest presence of several new species. The …


Enhancing Our Understanding Of Ancient Oceans Through The Investigation Of Molybdenum Behavior Under Sulfidic Conditions, Rachel Faye Phillips 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Enhancing Our Understanding Of Ancient Oceans Through The Investigation Of Molybdenum Behavior Under Sulfidic Conditions, Rachel Faye Phillips

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The most abundant trace metal in the ocean today, molybdenum (Mo), exhibits distinct behavior in oxygenated water, where it remains predominantly dissolved, compared to euxinic (i.e., oxygen-free and sulfidic) water, in which it is sequestered into the sediment. This dissimilar behavior allows us to use Mo concentrations and isotopic compositions in sediment to reconstruct marine oxygenation conditions throughout geologic history. However, Mo sequestration mechanisms under euxinic conditions remain unresolved, which limits the accuracy and precision of reconstructions made using Mo signatures in the rock record. For my doctoral research, I experimentally investigated abiotic and biotic Mo sequestration mechanisms under various …


Pleistocene Bats (Late Irvingtonian And Late Rancholabrean) From Nuckolls And Sherman Counties, Nebraska, Nicholas J. Czaplewski, Richard George Corner 2023 University of Oklahoma

Pleistocene Bats (Late Irvingtonian And Late Rancholabrean) From Nuckolls And Sherman Counties, Nebraska, Nicholas J. Czaplewski, Richard George Corner

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

We document rare finds of fossil bats from two localities representing the Pleistocene epoch in southern and central Nebraska, Albert Ahrens locality (No-104, late Irvingtonian age, Middle Pleistocene), Nuckolls County, and Litchfield (Sm-102, late Rancholabrean age, latest Pleistocene), Sherman County. The Albert Ahrens local fauna with strong boreal influence has produced two bats, Lasiurus cf. borealis and Cf. Myotis sp. The Litchfield local fauna, also showing a strong boreal influence, has yielded two bats, Eptesicus fuscus and Cf. Myotis, among a diverse Pleistocene fauna of small vertebrates and a pollen record indicating a boreal mixed conifer and deciduous woodland, …


Field Guide To Big Bone Lick, Kentucky: Birthplace Of American Vertebrate Paleontology, Glenn W. Storrs, H Gregory McDonald, Eric Scott, Robert A. Genheimer, Stanley E. Hedeen, Cameron E. Schwalbach 2023 Cincinnati Museum Center, Geier Collections & Research Center

Field Guide To Big Bone Lick, Kentucky: Birthplace Of American Vertebrate Paleontology, Glenn W. Storrs, H Gregory Mcdonald, Eric Scott, Robert A. Genheimer, Stanley E. Hedeen, Cameron E. Schwalbach

Special Publication--KGS

Big Bone Lick is the birthplace of vertebrate paleontology in the Western Hemisphere and has a long and celebrated history in the exploration of the American colonial frontier and of the early United States. Notable European scientists of the 18th century such as Buffon, Cuvier, and Hunter discussed the fossils found there. Prominent Americans of the time, such as Boone, Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson are also part of the site’s history. It is the type locality for several extinct late Pleistocene megafaunal mammals, most notably the iconic American Mastodon, who were attracted to the area by salt licks dictated by …


Morphologic Analyses Of Paleozoic Rhombiferan Echinoderm Stems, Aidan R. Sweeney 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Morphologic Analyses Of Paleozoic Rhombiferan Echinoderm Stems, Aidan R. Sweeney

Doctoral Dissertations

During the Paleozoic, echinoderms exhibited a diverse array of morphologies. This work specifically deals with an extinct stemmed group called glyptocystitoid rhombiferans. The goal of this work is to investigate functional morphology of the stem in this enigmatic group. Abnormalities in form are addressed herein by a brief literature review of teratologic features and in the description of a new species of pleurocystitid Pleurocystites? scylla. Morphologic specialization is discussed in the investigation of the internal structure and morphometrics of the mesotem of Brockocystis. Linear morphometrics, multiple imputation, and multivariate statistics were used to describe the variability exhibited in …


Utilizing Phylogenetic And Geochemical Techniques To Examine Echinoderms Through Time, Maggie Ryan Limbeck 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Utilizing Phylogenetic And Geochemical Techniques To Examine Echinoderms Through Time, Maggie Ryan Limbeck

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding biotic changes through Earth’s history has been the goal of paleobiology since the inception of the field. Advances in science and technology have progressed allowing us to reassess old questions and new questions that could have not been addressed without these new methods. Echinoderms (sea stars, sea urchins, etc.) appear in the fossil record during the early Cambrian and are still abundant in marine ecosystems today. This persistence through time has made echinoderms model organisms to answer questions about Earth’s past and present. Despite this role as a model organism there are many questions that remain with respect to …


Geometric Morphometric Analysis Of Modern Viperid Vertebrae Facilitates Identification Of Fossil Specimens, Lance D. Jessee 2023 East Tennessee State University

Geometric Morphometric Analysis Of Modern Viperid Vertebrae Facilitates Identification Of Fossil Specimens, Lance D. Jessee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Snake vertebrae are common in the fossil record, whereas cranial remains are generally fragile and rare. Consequently, vertebrae are the most commonly studied fossil element of snakes. However, identification of snake vertebrae can be problematic due to extensive variation. This study utilizes 2-D geometric morphometrics and canonical variates analysis to 1) reveal variation between genera and species and 2) classify vertebrae of modern and fossil eastern North American Agkistrodon and Crotalus. The results show that vertebrae of Agkistrodon and Crotalus can reliably be classified to genus and species using these methods. Based on the statistical analyses, four of the …


New Species Of Dryolestoid From The Late Cretaceous Allen Formation And Implications For South American Faunal Diversity., Brigid Erin Connelly 2023 University of Louisville

New Species Of Dryolestoid From The Late Cretaceous Allen Formation And Implications For South American Faunal Diversity., Brigid Erin Connelly

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dryolestoids are extinct cladotherians mammals from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. I describe a collection of dryolestoid specimens from the Late Cretaceous localities of Cerro Tortuga (Allen Formation), Anfiteatro 1, and Shining (both La Colonia Formation) from Patagonia, Argentina. Using comparative morphology, I identify a new species of meridiolestidan dryolestoid based on eleven specimens across both formations. The new species’ recovery from La Colonia Formation represents the first dryolestoid connection between the two approximately contemporaneous formations. The species’ morphology may represent an ecological shift within Meridiolestida from insectivory to herbivory, showing a transition in characters between the plesiomorphic sharp-toothed meridiolestidans …


Age And Paleontology Of The Turin Pit Locality, Monona County, Iowa, Samantha Wright 2023 East Tennessee State University

Age And Paleontology Of The Turin Pit Locality, Monona County, Iowa, Samantha Wright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Turin Pit locality (Monona county, Iowa) has been known to paleontologists since 1908, yet the age of the fauna has been unclear. Early paleontologists considered Turin Pit to date to a pre-Illinoian interglacial (the “Aftonian).” Subsequent researchers suggested it dated to the last glaciation. This study provides a partial list of mammals in the Turin Pit fauna, and together with stratigraphic information, uses the known age ranges of taxa to estimate an age for the assemblage. The presence of Mammuthus, Aenocyon, and Castoroides combined with a magnetically-reversed till located stratigraphically above fossil-bearing deposits, suggest the Turin Pit …


History Of Ice-Rafting In The Arctic Ocean During Glacial Maxima Through Marine Isotope Stage 6, Shannon M. Cofield 2023 Old Dominion University

History Of Ice-Rafting In The Arctic Ocean During Glacial Maxima Through Marine Isotope Stage 6, Shannon M. Cofield

OES Theses and Dissertations

Numerous studies attempted to reconstruct Arctic paleoclimate, specifically ice mass timing and locations, during glacial maxima. While some regions, like the Barents-Svalbard Ice Sheet (BSIS) are well-studied, they may benefit from a high-resolution paleo proxy. Other regions are highly contested, such as the East Siberian Sea or the presence of a central Arctic Ocean ice mass.

This research uses an Fe-grain provenance method to (1) define how the BSIS behaved during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, 4, and 6, and when it retreated; (2) determine the presence and ages of Shelf Ice Masses (SIMs) in the Beaufort Sea and East …


Exploring The Relationships Between Mammalian Functional Trait Distributions And Regional Biomes, With Application To Miocene Paleoecology, Devra Hock-Reid 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Exploring The Relationships Between Mammalian Functional Trait Distributions And Regional Biomes, With Application To Miocene Paleoecology, Devra Hock-Reid

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Paleoecology relies on understanding relationships between modern animals and their environment. Animals are adapted to niches in their environments, and those physical adaptations, or functional traits, are utilized as proxies to interpret aspects of paleo-ecosystems. Much is known about individual functional traits in extant mammals and their relationship to the environment. Less is known about how multiple functional traits across a community can be utilized for paleoecological interpretations. I develop models utilizing traits in mammalian communities at the biome level. For Chapter 1, I build a model for North American regional biomes using mammalian trait frequencies. I quantify changes in …


A Review Of Theropithecus Oswaldi With The Proposal Of A New Subspecies, Dagmawit Abebe Getahun, Eric Delson, Chalachew Mesfin Seyoum 2023 CUNY Graduate Center

A Review Of Theropithecus Oswaldi With The Proposal Of A New Subspecies, Dagmawit Abebe Getahun, Eric Delson, Chalachew Mesfin Seyoum

Publications and Research

Theropithecus oswaldi darti, as currently understood, is the oldest Theropithecus taxon in the fossil record and the earliest subspecies in the Theropithecus oswaldi lineage. Theropithecus oswaldi darti is typified at the site of Makapansgat in South Africa, and a similar form (T. o. cf. darti) is usually recognized at Hadar, Dikika, some Middle Awash localities, and Woranso-Mille in Ethiopia. This taxon is also tentatively believed to occur in Kenya at Kanam and Koobi Fora and in Member C of the Shungura Formation in Ethiopia. While there is a general consensus that the East African ‘darti’ specimens are …


New Insights Into The Paleovegetation Of The Ancient Underwater Forest Located In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Karla Lizarraga Garcia 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

New Insights Into The Paleovegetation Of The Ancient Underwater Forest Located In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Karla Lizarraga Garcia

Master's Theses

A well-preserved remnant of an ancient bald cypress forest (hereafter, Underwater Forest) constitutes the only known archive of a glacial refuge on the once exposed continental shelf of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. This forest existed around 41-72 yBP (MIS 3-5) according to the existing dating methods applied on previous studies. As the climate conditions and sea levels changed, the vegetation of this glacial refuge shifted from bald cypress forests to open marshes, altering the vegetation dynamics. The present research analyzed four new cores (21DF-5A, 21DF-5B, 15DF-6, and 16DF-3A), which provided additional insights into the vegetation that once existed in …


Automated Classification Of Pectinodon Bakkeri Teeth Images Using Machine Learning, Jacob A. Bahn 2023 Southern Adventist University

Automated Classification Of Pectinodon Bakkeri Teeth Images Using Machine Learning, Jacob A. Bahn

MS in Computer Science Project Reports

Microfossil dinosaur teeth are studied by paleontologists in order to better under- stand dinosaurs. Currently, tooth classification is a long, manual, error-ridden process. Deep learning offers a solution that allows for an automated way of classifying images of these microfossil teeth. In this thesis, we aimed to use deep learning in order to develop an automated approach for classifying images of Pectinodon bakkeri teeth. The proposed model was trained using a custom topology and it classified the images based on clusters created via K-Means. The model had an accuracy of 71%, a precision of 71%, a recall of 70.5%, and …


Assessing College Students' Understanding Of Geologic Timescales, Ethan Couture 2023 University of Maine - Main

Assessing College Students' Understanding Of Geologic Timescales, Ethan Couture

Honors College

Geologic timescales are central to many concepts in the natural sciences, including evolution, climate change and plate tectonics. However, geologic time scales can be challenging to appreciate, especially for those who have not had exposure to such topics previously. During primary and secondary education (K-12) students are provided with foundational information about geology that is then further developed in specialized classes in college. Yet most students are not getting this foundation, which could arguably lead to deficits in their post-secondary education. Despite the importance of these concepts, especially for those interested in careers associated with geologic timescales, there have been …


Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2022, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Jeffrey Westrop 2023 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2022, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Jeffrey Westrop

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Rapid Growth In Late Cretaceous Sea Turtles Reveals Life History Strategies Similar To Extant Leatherbacks, Laura E. Wilson 2023 Fort Hays State University

Rapid Growth In Late Cretaceous Sea Turtles Reveals Life History Strategies Similar To Extant Leatherbacks, Laura E. Wilson

Geosciences Faculty Publications

Modern sea turtle long bone osteohistology has been surprisingly well-studied, as it is used to understand sea turtle growth and the timing of life history events, thus informing conservation decisions. Previous histologic studies reveal two distinct bone growth patterns in extant sea turtle taxa, with Dermochelys (leatherbacks) growing faster than the cheloniids (all other living sea turtles). Dermochelys also has a unique life history compared to other sea turtles (large size, elevated metabolism, broad biogeographic distribution, etc.) that is likely linked to bone growth strategies. Despite the abundance of data on modern sea turtle bone growth, extinct sea turtle osteohistology …


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