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Spatial Analyses Of Gray Fossil Site Vertebrate Remains: Implications For Depositional Setting And Site Formation Processes, David Carney 2021 East Tennessee State University

Spatial Analyses Of Gray Fossil Site Vertebrate Remains: Implications For Depositional Setting And Site Formation Processes, David Carney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This project uses exploratory 3D geospatial analyses to assess the taphonomy of the Gray Fossil Site (GFS). During the Pliocene, the GFS was a forested, inundated sinkhole that accumulated biological materials between 4.9-4.5 mya. This deposit contains fossils exhibiting different preservation modes: from low energy lacustrine settings to high energy colluvial deposits. All macro-paleontological materials have been mapped in situ using survey-grade instrumentation. Vertebrate skeletal material from the site is well-preserved, but the degree of skeletal articulation varies spatially within the deposit. This analysis uses geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the distribution of mapped specimens at different ...


Isotopic Analysis And Mobility Mapping Of Mammuthus Columbi From The Mammoth Site In South Dakota, Matthew Harrington 2021 East Tennessee State University

Isotopic Analysis And Mobility Mapping Of Mammuthus Columbi From The Mammoth Site In South Dakota, Matthew Harrington

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mammoth Site in Hot Springs, South Dakota preserves a unique death assemblage of sub-adult and adult male Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi). Extensive work on the site has led to a detailed understanding of the taphonomy of the assemblage; yet the life histories and ecology of these mammoths remain relatively unknown. Tooth enamel from four Mammoth Site mammoth individuals were bulk sampled with one of the individuals (MSL 742) also serially micro-sampled for 𝛿13C, 𝛿18O, and 87Sr/86Sr. Isotopic results indicate that MSL 742 remained within the southern and western Black Hills year-round with ...


Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Tracks From The Iron Springs Formation, Iron County, Utah, Jennifer K. Crowell, Grant T. Shimer 2021 Ohio University

Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Tracks From The Iron Springs Formation, Iron County, Utah, Jennifer K. Crowell, Grant T. Shimer

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Located in Iron County, Utah, the Parowan Gap dinosaur track site contains over one hundred natural casts of non-avian dinosaur tracks preserved in sandstones and siltstones of the Late Cretaceous (≈83 Ma) Iron Springs Formation. For this study, the authors returned to the area to survey for and describe previously unidentified tracks. Many tracks from this new study occur as in situ casts found on the basal surfaces of sandstones deposited by braided and meandering rivers on the coastal plain of the Western Interior Seaway, with some specimens from fallen talus blocks. Over the course of two years, the research ...


Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson 2021 University of New Hampshire

Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Numerous large boulders at the base of Wishbone Hill, northeast of Anchorage, Alaska, suggest a historic rockfall event and potential for future surface instability, putting lives and property at risk. The source of the rockfall-boulders is an exposed syncline with a cliff face composed of conglomerate. The age of trees growing atop boulders provides a minimum exposure-age of those boulders and, thus, the rockfall event. To determine when the rockfall occurred, we dated trees growing atop the boulders using tree-ring samples collected from 30 Alaska paper birch trees. After mounting and polishing, each tree-ring sample was dot-counted, and tree-ring widths ...


Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt 2021 Georgia College

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Gravel Geology And Muskoxen Paleontology Of A Late Pleistocene Fossil Site In Saltville, Virginia, Nickolas A. Brand 2021 East Tennessee State University

Gravel Geology And Muskoxen Paleontology Of A Late Pleistocene Fossil Site In Saltville, Virginia, Nickolas A. Brand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two distinct studies within the Saltville Valley of southwestern Virginia revealed insights into local Pleistocene geology and paleontology. A variety of analytical techniques were applied to gravel deposits within the paleontological site of SV-5/7 that revealed this unit is very poorly sorted, has a subangular matrix, and contains significant components of silt and sand in addition to rounded cobbles. These results suggest that rather than being deposited by fluvial processes as previously suggested, these gravels were likely the result of one or many debris flows. Additionally, the identity of fossil muskoxen from Saltville was reassessed using cranial and dental ...


Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan 2021 Utah State University

Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

An Apatosaurus sp. locality from Dinosaur National Monument designated DNM-15 was excavated in 1985, and associated with two Allosaurus teeth and one Ceratosaurus tooth that were near one of the caudal vertebrae. The Ceratosaurus tooth was buried between an overlying rib and that same caudal vertebra. The caudal vertebrae of the DNM-15 Apatosaurus were intact and articulated, but the anterior skeleton was mostly absent, with a row of articulated sacral vertebrae in close association with a femur. Two other Allosaurus teeth were reported near the preserved ilium of the Apatosaurus, but they could not be located in the collections.

Field ...


Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi 2021 William & Mary

Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The College Woods, west of William & Mary’s campus, consists of ~900 acres of protected southern mixed hardwood forest. The woods surround Lake Matoaka, a former millpond established in ~1700. Despite the rich history of the area, little is known about how the dominant vegetative landcover has shifted over the last 300 years. This study set out to quantify the modern vegetation within the College Woods via the phytolith assemblages within the soil and identify shifts in the assemblages since the creation of Lake Matoaka and whether these changes are distinct from the vegetation that existed in the area before the lake. To accomplish this, I studied the composition and preservation of phytoliths – silica bodies generated within and between plant cells. The study focused on the two questions: do the modern phytolith assemblages in the soil of the College Woods reflect the vegetation present and can phytoliths within the sediments of Lake Matoaka be used to identify the dominant vegetative communities over the last ~300 years? I addressed these questions with three approaches: 1) Identify the primary phytolith producing taxa within the College Woods; 2) Identify the modern phytolith assemblages within the soil of the College Woods; 3) Identify the differences between phytolith assemblages from the lake sediment core samples. I found the following: 1) The production of phytoliths varies heavily between and within different common taxa of the College Woods, with species of oaks (Quercus spp.) unpredictably producing phytoliths and beeches (Fagus grandifolia) likely contributing the majority of dicot phytoliths; 2) The modern phytolith assemblages of the College Woods reflect a low phytolith producing environment, and the vegetative homogeneity is reflected in the phytolith record; 3) The ...


357— Dacryoconarids Of The Genundewa And West River Formations, Upper Devonian In Western New York, Emily de Jong 2021 SUNY Geneseo

357— Dacryoconarids Of The Genundewa And West River Formations, Upper Devonian In Western New York, Emily De Jong

GREAT Day

The Dacryoconarids, small, thin-walled, and cone-shaped, are an extinct taxon in Class Tentaculitoidea, which is of uncertain affinities. Dacryoconarids were widespread throughout the middle Silurian to the Late Devonian when they went extinct. This study focuses on the lower Upper Devonian Dacryoconarids of the Genundewa and West River formations from western New York State. Samples collected from these formations revealed many smooth shelled Styliolinids, however, no difinitive ribbed Dacryoconarids. Calcite was found to have internally filled in the shell of some Styliolinids, showing how thin the external shell is and raising questions about septa orientations. Due to their global occurrence ...


356— Conodonts, Microtektites, And Thermal Alteration, Of The Jefferson Formation, Upper Devonian, Wyoming, Joshua Yanuck, Ryan Lee 2021 SUNY Geneseo

356— Conodonts, Microtektites, And Thermal Alteration, Of The Jefferson Formation, Upper Devonian, Wyoming, Joshua Yanuck, Ryan Lee

GREAT Day

The Jefferson Formation, composed of two members, a limestone and dolomite dominated layer called the lower member, and the dolomite-dominated Birdbear Member, is distributed throughout southern Montana and northern Wyoming. Samples were taken from multiple levels within the Birdbear Member, dissolved in buffered 10% formic acid, and the insoluble residue separated using heavy liquid. The heavy fraction was searched for conodonts and microtektites. Conodonts indicate the Middle Frasnian stage of the Upper Devonian and thermal heating of less than 80 degrees Celsius. Microtektites, speculated to occur in the interval corresponding to the Alamo Impact in Nevada, were not found.


Reconstructing Surface Water Carbonate Ion Concentration Changes In The Eastern Equatorial Pacific Across Glacial Transitions, Lenzie Gail Ward 2021 Old Dominion University

Reconstructing Surface Water Carbonate Ion Concentration Changes In The Eastern Equatorial Pacific Across Glacial Transitions, Lenzie Gail Ward

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Today, the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) plays a critical role in the global CO2 budget as a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere, but recent studies suggest the region may shift to a sink for atmospheric CO2 under different climate states. Here, I focus on two transitional periods, the last deglaciation (25 kyr to present) and last glaciation (the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a-4 transition, 96 to 60 kyr), to investigate how the carbon system in the EEP responds to major climate changes. I measured B/Ca ratios in the planktic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides from core ...


Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways

Zea E-Books Collection

A survey of the archeological and paleontological literature allowed a compilation of Holocene records of mammals in Nebraska. This survey identified Holocene records from 338 sites in 62 of the 93 Nebraska counties. These counties were located throughout state, but there was a concentration of sites in southwestern Nebraska where there were 27 fossil sites in Frontier County and 22 in Harlan County. Fossils sites were underrepresented in the Sand Hills region. Records of fossil mammals covered the entire Holocene period from 13,000 years ago until AD 1850. A minimum of 57 species (with eight additional species potentially present ...


The Influence Of Juvenile Dinosaurs On Community Structure And Diversity, Katlin Schroeder, S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith 2021 University of New Mexico

The Influence Of Juvenile Dinosaurs On Community Structure And Diversity, Katlin Schroeder, S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Despite dominating biodiversity in the Mesozoic, dinosaurs were not speciose. Oviparity constrained even gigantic dinosaurs to less than 15 kg at birth; growth through multiple morphologies led to the consumption of different resources at each stage. Such disparity between neonates and adults could have influenced the structure and diversity of dinosaur communities. Here, we quantified this effect for 43 communities across 136 million years and seven continents. We found that megatheropods (more than 1000 kg) such as tyrannosaurs had specific effects on dinosaur community structure. Although herbivores spanned the body size range, communities with megatheropods lacked carnivores weighing 100 to ...


Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2020, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2020, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

The term “groundwater” has come to be all but synonymous with Nebraska. Nearly three-quarters of the total volume of the High Plains Aquifer lies beneath the state. Groundwater maintains our streams, our ecosystems, our people, and our vitally important agricultural economy. Nebraska’s total groundwater resource is vast, yet it is also vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic changes, necessitating a long-term commitment to wise management through informed decision-making. Monitoring, studying, and reporting form the essential basis for such management and, ultimately, for meeting the myriad challenges presented by change.


Annual Report 2020 Conservation And Survey Division, Robert Matthew Joeckel 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Annual Report 2020 Conservation And Survey Division, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

The Conservation and Survey Division (Nebraska Geological Survey), the natural resource survey component of the School of Natural Resources, is a unique, multi-disciplinary research, service and data-collection organization established by state statute in 1921.

The Division's mission is to investigate and record information about Nebraska's geologic history, its rock and mineral resources, the quantity and quality of its water resources, land cover and other aspects of its geography, as well as the nature, distribution and uses of its soils.


Curation Techniques Of Small-Sized Natural History Specimens: A Collection Of Microfossils., Zachary V Biven-Leslie, Guillermo W. Rougier 2021 University of Louisville

Curation Techniques Of Small-Sized Natural History Specimens: A Collection Of Microfossils., Zachary V Biven-Leslie, Guillermo W. Rougier

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Small-sized fossil specimens are challenging regarding safety, storage and traceability of information. A recent collection of several hundred minute early mammalian teeth and jaws (most about 1mm) made impossible the standard practices of specimen numbering. A reliable association of the specimen and the collection number is the minimum required, however, a number of other data easily recoverable from the specimen/curating material is desirable. Geological provenance, locality, systematic and anatomical ID, collector, year, etc. is often included if possible. Use of the specimen is expected to be on the order of hundreds of years, manipulated by investigators, transported, and stored ...


Founding Monsters, Maggie Colangelo, Bernard Means 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Founding Monsters, Maggie Colangelo, Bernard Means

Founding Monsters

The Founding Monsters comic book was created as a science-friendly graphical storytelling framework that tells the story of the Founding Fathers and their obsession with prehistoric megafauna, especially mastodons and giant ground sloths. Founding Monsters combines sequential art (e.g. comic book style) with historical and scientific data. The first mastodon (Mammut americanum) fossils were found in New York in the early 18th century. Later in the 18th century, Thomas Jefferson was sent fossils from what is now West Virginia for what were eventually identified as bones from a giant ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersoni). The founding fathers, including not only ...


African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson 2020 American Museum of Natural History

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs ...


Stratigraphy, Petrology, Diagenesis, Paleontology, And Depositional Environments Of The Harrisburg Member Of The Kaibab Formation In Northern Arizona And Southern Utah, Zachery T. Case 2020 Stephen F. Austin State University

Stratigraphy, Petrology, Diagenesis, Paleontology, And Depositional Environments Of The Harrisburg Member Of The Kaibab Formation In Northern Arizona And Southern Utah, Zachery T. Case

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Kaibab Formation has two members, the Fossil Mountain Member below and the Harrisburg Member above. They were deposited in shallow-marine shelf to restricted coastal settings. Stratigraphically above are the Rock Canyon Conglomerate and the Moenkopi Formation; consisting of the Timpoweap and Lower Red members; which are the only members present in the study area. The Rock Canyon Conglomerate was deposited in depressions and as a regolith. The Timpoweap and Lower Red members were deposited in shallow marine to tidal environments.

Nine stratigraphic units were identified in the Harrisburg Member. Units one, two, three, five, six, seven, and nine are ...


Constraining Respired Carbon Storage In The Eastern Tropical Pacific Over The Last 25 Thousand Years Using Benthic Foraminiferal Boron/Calcium Ratios, Brian James Close 2020 Old Dominion University

Constraining Respired Carbon Storage In The Eastern Tropical Pacific Over The Last 25 Thousand Years Using Benthic Foraminiferal Boron/Calcium Ratios, Brian James Close

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

The storage of inorganic carbon in the deep Pacific Ocean is thought to play an important role in regulating both glacial-interglacial and millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Broecker and Barker 2007; Sigman et al., 2010). A recent study by Loveley et al. (2017) showed that sedimentary authigenic uranium (aU) concentrations, a proxy for suboxic bottom-water conditions, increased significantly in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18 kyr – 23 kyr). If this is correct, the low-oxygen, CO2-rich waters would also have a lower pH and a lower carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]). Yu ...


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