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Improvements To Isru For Rocket Fuel Generation, Justin Sharp 2023 James Madison University

Improvements To Isru For Rocket Fuel Generation, Justin Sharp

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The development of efficient in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technologies is crucial for the establishment of an extraterrestrial, self-sustaining colony. The generation of rocket fuel at potential colony locations is necessary to provide the transportation of people and cargo to and from these locations.Three processes are discussed for the improvement of ISRU methods to generate rocket fuel: electrolysis and electrochemical improvements to the process of crude fuel production, physical and chemical methods for separation of gaseous H2 and O2, and materials and cryogenics engineering for storage and transportation of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Storage and transportation of cryogenics …


Experimental Determination Of Zinc, Potassium And Rubidium Diffusion Coefficients In Olivine, Christopher J. Willingham 2023 Missouri State University

Experimental Determination Of Zinc, Potassium And Rubidium Diffusion Coefficients In Olivine, Christopher J. Willingham

MSU Graduate Theses

One of NASAs key strategies is to learn more about the early solar system and its formation. Chondrites were formed from the most primitive materials at the collapse of the solar system and over time have been classified into different categories based on their elemental abundance. These chondrites have fallen to Earth and have even formed entities such as asteroids and planetary bodies. It has been found through studies that one of these chondrites is close to the elemental abundance of the Sun. The other types of chondrites were up to two orders of magnitude less in concentration …


Size, Timing, And Landscape Impacts Of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods In The Channeled Scabland Of Eastern Washington, Usa, Karin E. Lehnigk 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Size, Timing, And Landscape Impacts Of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods In The Channeled Scabland Of Eastern Washington, Usa, Karin E. Lehnigk

Doctoral Dissertations

Extreme floods have dramatically altered landscapes on Earth and Mars through bedrock erosion, sediment deposition, and canyon formation. The Channeled Scabland of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington, USA, is perhaps the most striking example of such a landscape, where outburst floods from an ice-dammed glacial Lake Missoula eroded immense canyons and transported large volumes of sediment during the late Pleistocene. Despite advances in numerical modeling and geochemical exposure dating methods, it has remained a challenge to untangle the complex interactions between floodwater, bedrock, and glacial ice to link the size of a flood with its impact on the landscape. …


Meteorite Investigation And Classification, Olivia N. Benest 2022 Western University

Meteorite Investigation And Classification, Olivia N. Benest

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Several meteorites arrive on Earth every day, but only a small percentage of them are found. They are easiest to spot on deserts or frozen ice. Western has a large number of unclassified meteorites found in the Northwest Africa (NWA) and Oman deserts. These meteorites include chondrites, achondrites, irons, and even Lunar and Martian meteorites. Classifying a meteorite requires detailed examination by optical microscopy, as well as micro X-ray diffraction (µXRD), and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), to observe their mineralogy (metal, oxide, sulfide, and silicate mineral phases), textures (e.g. chondrules, CAIs) and composition, in order to classify their petrologic type …


Halogen And Non-Traditional Isotope Geochemistry Of Planetary And Terrestrial Materials, Anthony Gargano, Zachary Sharp, Justin Simon, Charles Shearer, Adrian Brearley, James Day 2022 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Halogen And Non-Traditional Isotope Geochemistry Of Planetary And Terrestrial Materials, Anthony Gargano, Zachary Sharp, Justin Simon, Charles Shearer, Adrian Brearley, James Day

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

This dissertation presents the advances in non-traditional isotope geochemistry of planetary and terrestrial materials encompassing chlorine, sulfur, and zinc isotopes, as well as halogen geochemistry. A wide breadth of materials was studied throughout the completion of this work including iron meteorites, achondrites, chondrites, Apollo lunar samples, as well ancient marine chert, and carbonate sediments. Much of the focus involved the development of a method capable of simultaneously measuring the halogen contents and chlorine isotope compositions of geological materials. Here, I present these data sets to broadly characterize the process of devolatilization of planetary materials, and specifically the problem of ‘halogen-poisoning’ …


Early Solar System Chronology And Isotopic Linkage Of Non-Carbonaceous Chondrules, Clasts And Achondrites, Philip M. Reger 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Early Solar System Chronology And Isotopic Linkage Of Non-Carbonaceous Chondrules, Clasts And Achondrites, Philip M. Reger

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chondrules are ubiquitous igneous spherules, the main constituents of ordinary chondrites, and are considered to be critical building blocks of planetesimals, yet their age and formation mechanism(s) remain debated. Differences between ages determined from the long-lived Pb-Pb and the short-lived 26Al-26Mg chronometers have been attributed to the heterogeneous distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula, a radionuclide that was responsible for early differentiation of planetesimals.

To evaluate this hypothesis, the 26Al-26Mg and the 207Pb-206Pb isotopic compositions were both measured by multi-collector ICP-MS in individual chondrules and igneous clasts in unequilibrated …


Petrology And Geochemistry Of Evolved Achondrites: Planetesimal Mantles And Crusts, Zoltan Vaci 2021 University of New Mexico

Petrology And Geochemistry Of Evolved Achondrites: Planetesimal Mantles And Crusts, Zoltan Vaci

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

Melting and differentiation are fundamental to early solar system evolution on planetary bodies that accreted enough material to heat up radioactively or through impacts and breach their solidi. Partially and fully melted material is present in the meteorite record in the form of primitive achondrites and achondrites, which are fragments of planetesimals that underwent heating events in the first few million years of solar system history. Although the vast majority of this material is mafic or ultramafic, new evolved samples, recovered in the last few decades, are pushing the petrologic and geochemical boundaries of planetesimal melting, differentiation, and crust formation. …


Implications Of An Improved Water Equation Of State For Water-Rich Planets, Chenling Huang, David R. Rice, Zachary M. Grande, Dean Smith, John H. Boisvert, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Jason Steffen 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Implications Of An Improved Water Equation Of State For Water-Rich Planets, Chenling Huang, David R. Rice, Zachary M. Grande, Dean Smith, John H. Boisvert, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Jason Steffen

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Water (H2O), in all forms, is an important constituent in planetary bodies, controlling habitability and influencing geological activity. Under conditions found in the interior of many planets, as the pressure increases, the H-bonds in water gradually weaken and are replaced by ionic bonds. Recent experimental measurements of the water equation of state (EOS) showed both a new phase of H-bonded water ice, ice-VIIt, and a relatively low transition pressure just above 30 GPa to ionic bonded ice-X, which has a bulk modulus 2.5 times larger. The higher bulk modulus of ice-X produces larger planets for a given mass, thereby either …


Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Icy planetesimals are significant objects of study for meteoritics, planetary science, and astrobiology due to their connections to the origins of life and liquid water on Earth. An existing closed system aqueous alteration model was adapted to simulate several scenarios involving early Solar System geologic processes occurring in an icy planetesimal interior. The model described in this work has been developed not only to test the validity of constraints currently thought to apply to CM1 parent bodies, but to directly compare the implications of these constraints for the isotopic composition and the modal mineralogy of carbonaceous chondrites. Isotopic ratios of …


Microstructural And Microchemical Studies Of Fluid–Chondrule Interactions In A Pristine Cr Carbonaceous Chondrite And Apatite In Martian Nakhlites, Marina Martínez 2021 University of New Mexico

Microstructural And Microchemical Studies Of Fluid–Chondrule Interactions In A Pristine Cr Carbonaceous Chondrite And Apatite In Martian Nakhlites, Marina Martínez

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

PROJECT 1: Chondrites are the most primitive objects in the solar system, aggregates of the material that formed in the solar protoplanetary disk during the first 1-5 million years of its formation. However, petrographic observations indicate that most chondrites have been modified by secondary processes, including aqueous alteration, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Fortunately, a few chondrites largely escaped these processes and are considered pristine, such as the CR carbonaceous chondrite Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. QUE 99177 is an excellent sample for deciphering information about the reactions that took place between unaltered anhydrous solar nebular components and water under highly …


An Experimental Study Of Evaporites On Titan: Implications For Lake Composition And Future Missions, Ellen Czaplinski 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Experimental Study Of Evaporites On Titan: Implications For Lake Composition And Future Missions, Ellen Czaplinski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Titan is the only other planetary body in the solar system with liquid on the surface. With a surface temperature and pressure of 89 – 94 K and 1.5 bar (N2), respectively, Titan’s lakes are comprised of liquid hydrocarbons, predominantly methane and ethane. Over time, Titan’s lakes may evaporate, leaving behind residual deposits (evaporites). The evaporation processes and composition of the evaporites is poorly understood. I address these outstanding questions by experimentally investigating the physical and spectral properties of evaporites at Titan surface conditions using an experimental chamber.

Chapter 1 addresses the formation of ethylene evaporites. Ethylene evaporites form more …


Microstructural Constraints On The Nebular And Asteroidal Histories Of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions From Cv3 Chondrites, Shaofan Che 2020 University of New Mexico

Microstructural Constraints On The Nebular And Asteroidal Histories Of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions From Cv3 Chondrites, Shaofan Che

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The petrology and mineralogy of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The goal of this dissertation is twofold: (1) to gain new insights into the nebular processes, such as vapor-solid reactions, accretion, transport, that are responsible for the formation of non-igneous CAIs, and (2) to better understand the role of fluid in the secondary alteration of CAIs on the CV3 chondrite parent body. This work represents the first systematic microstructural study of CAIs from CV3 chondrites.

Chapter 2 presents the microstructural observations of primary mineralogies of fine-grained, spinel-rich inclusions (FGIs) from …


Mars 2020: A Step Closer To The Red Planet, Kevin Ng, Matthew Khargie, Omadevi Singh, Sashi Singh, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud 2020 Brooklyn Technical High School

Mars 2020: A Step Closer To The Red Planet, Kevin Ng, Matthew Khargie, Omadevi Singh, Sashi Singh, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud

Publications and Research

This research paper primarily focuses on the NASA Mars 2020 mission, but will also revisit and discuss past rover missions. As the Mars 2020 mission is ongoing, some information will be updated accordingly. For decades, humans have dreamed of the colonization of Mars for many reasons, such as some similarities shared by Earth and Mars or the close proximity to our planet. In fact, dozens of films, books, and articles have been written, especially in the past 2 decades, about the possibility. As technology advances, we develop newer equipment to hopefully make this possibility into a reality. Of course, placing …


Microgravity And Its Bearing With Space Flight-Related Research, Farhan Tanvir, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud, Jeff Guan 2020 Bronx High School for the Sciences

Microgravity And Its Bearing With Space Flight-Related Research, Farhan Tanvir, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud, Jeff Guan

Publications and Research

This study investigates the unique properties and applications of microgravity in the context of spaceflight research. Understanding and harnessing the behaviors of a microgravity environment opens up the doors to long-term space travel and consequently, future missions to other planets within our solar system. More specifically, simulating and conducting experiments in microgravity environments helps us explore its effects on the various necessary tasks and behaviors that are carried out during spaceflight. The most immediate and pronounced effects of microgravity are on human physiology. In particular, studies have shown that prolonged exposure to microgravity can result in a 20% decrease in …


Human Health And Wellness In Space: A Review Of Common Effects, Current Research, And Methods Of Prevention, Sonnet Xu, Rajendra Persaud, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Jasmin Budhan 2020 Troy High School

Human Health And Wellness In Space: A Review Of Common Effects, Current Research, And Methods Of Prevention, Sonnet Xu, Rajendra Persaud, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Jasmin Budhan

Publications and Research

Space poses a threat to space crew wellness, where microgravity, isolation, radiation, and other conditions exert strain on human health. This study explores the changes to the human body in space and how it contributes to major threats to health during spaceflights. The effects of the hostile environment of outer space are all examined here, along with resultant changes to behavior, physiology, and the difficulty of remote diagnosis for health treatment in space. This review also considers the implications to the human cartilage, brain, and eyes along with the various other hazards and physiological alterations.

Human health in space is …


An Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Hydrocarbons In A Simulated Titan Environment, Kendra Farnsworth 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Hydrocarbons In A Simulated Titan Environment, Kendra Farnsworth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Saturn’s moon, Titan, has surface conditions (89–94 K, 1.5-bar atmosphere) that permit lakes of methane, ethane, and dissolved atmospheric nitrogen. The effects of atmospheric nitrogen on methane-ethane liquid properties is poorly understood, leading to uncertainty in Titan modeling. I address this question by experimentally investigating the physical properties of methane-ethane liquids under a 1.5-bar nitrogen atmosphere in a simulated Titan environmental chamber.

Chapter 1 addresses nitrogen dissolution kinetics in Titan’s liquid hydrocarbons. I found an exponential increase in nitrogen quantity and diffusion coefficients with increasing methane mol%. I find that Titan’s liquids are likely not saturated in nitrogen, with dissolution …


Effects Of Terrestrial Weathering On Rare Earth Element Concentrations And Sulfur Isotopic Signatures Of Carbonaceous And Ordinary Chondrites, Ruby Virginia Patterson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Terrestrial Weathering On Rare Earth Element Concentrations And Sulfur Isotopic Signatures Of Carbonaceous And Ordinary Chondrites, Ruby Virginia Patterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the effects of weathering of chondrites is essential to gaining accurate and useful information about the formation of our solar system, as well as a more detailed account of the mobilization of chondritic compounds when they encounter terrestrial conditions. Elemental concentrations and stable isotope analyses of chondrites, considered to be the most primordial material in the solar system, are two tools which help unlock the weathering patterns of these specimens when they enter the earth system. However, it is not currently known exactly how time spent in the field alters rare earth element (REE) concentration or δ34S signatures within …


Early Meteoritic Records Of Asteroidal Melt And Impact Environments, Brendt Hyde 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Early Meteoritic Records Of Asteroidal Melt And Impact Environments, Brendt Hyde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The characterization of meteorites formed in early melt and impact environments helps deepen our understanding of the processes involved in the formation and modification of terrestrial bodies in the solar system. The main objective of this thesis is to interpret and describe a range of igneous and metamorphic environments on asteroidal bodies, through the chemical, microstructural and isotopic analysis of meteorites, and to place these in the context of evolving rocky bodies in the early protoplanetary disk. Study of the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 869 has led to the novel discovery of a eucrite impactor clast in chondritic regolith material. …


Measured Optical Absorption Cross Sections Of Tio, Peter Bernath 2020 Old Dominion University

Measured Optical Absorption Cross Sections Of Tio, Peter Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A laboratory emission spectrum of TiO in the visible and near-infrared regions (476–1176 nm) has been calibrated and corrected. High-resolution experimental absorption cross sections for TiO with natural isotopic abundance are provided at a temperature of about 2300 K. These cross sections have been compared with those derived from the ExoMol line list. The experimental cross sections can be used directly as a template for cross correlation TiO detection in hot Jupiter exoplanets.


The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. McCauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun 2019 Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow

The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. Mccauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An experimental study of the phase and amplitude observations of sub‐ionospheric very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) signals is performed to analyze the response of the lower ionosphere during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse in the United States of America. Three different sub‐ionospheric wave paths are investigated. The length of the paths varies from 2,200 to 6,400 km, and the signal frequencies are 21.4, 25.2, and 40.75 kHz. The two paths cross the region of the total eclipse, and the third path is in the region of 40–60% of obscuration. None of the signals reveal any noticeable amplitude …


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