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Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden 2021 Middle Tennessee State University, USA

Application Of The Global Srtm And Aw3d30 Digital Elevation Models To Mapping Folds At Cave Sites, Mark J. Abolins, Albert E. Ogden

International Journal of Speleology

A novel method to map and quantitatively describe very gentle folds (limb dip <5o) at cratonic cave sites was evaluated at Snail Shell and Nanna Caves, central Tennessee, USA. Elevations from the global SRTM digital terrain model (DTM) were assigned to points on late Ordovician geologic contacts, and the elevations of the points were used to interpolate 28 m cell size natural neighbor digital elevation models (DEM’s) of the contacts. The global Forest Canopy Height Dataset was subtracted from the global 28 m cell size AW3D30 digital surface model (DSM) to create a DTM, and that DTM was applied ...


An Investigation On Flow Field Partitioning Related To The Rheological Heterogeneities And Its Application To Geological Examples, Ankit Bhandari 2021 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation On Flow Field Partitioning Related To The Rheological Heterogeneities And Its Application To Geological Examples, Ankit Bhandari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Earth’s lithosphere is heterogeneous and composed of rheologically distinct elements at various scales of observations. This causes the flow of rocks to vary with space and time, which may influence the formation of various kinds of geological rock records. This thesis provides quantitative solutions to some first-order problems in structural geology regarding this heterogeneous flow variation and thereby the development of various geological rock records at different scales of observations.

Pressure in a rheologically heterogeneous element may deviate from its ambient value and if significant, may influence the metamorphic assemblages. This might cause problems in the routine use of ...


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution ...


The Lavrion Mines: A Unique Site Of Geological And Mineralogical Heritage, Panagiotis Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Adonis Photiades, Eugenia Moraiti, Branko Rieck, Uwe Kolitsch, Alexandre Tarantola, Christophe Scheffer, Denis Morin, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Paul G. Spry, James Ross, Konstantinos Soukis, Markos Vaxevanopoulos, Igor V. Pekov, Nikita V. Chukanov, Andreas Magganas, Marianna Kati, Athanasios Katerinopoulos, Stefanos Zaimis 2021 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

The Lavrion Mines: A Unique Site Of Geological And Mineralogical Heritage, Panagiotis Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Adonis Photiades, Eugenia Moraiti, Branko Rieck, Uwe Kolitsch, Alexandre Tarantola, Christophe Scheffer, Denis Morin, Olivier Vanderhaeghe, Paul G. Spry, James Ross, Konstantinos Soukis, Markos Vaxevanopoulos, Igor V. Pekov, Nikita V. Chukanov, Andreas Magganas, Marianna Kati, Athanasios Katerinopoulos, Stefanos Zaimis

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Lavrion area corresponds to the western part of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic belt, in the back-arc region of the active Hellenic subduction zone. Between the Eocene and the Miocene, metamorphic rocks (mainly marbles and schists) underwent several stages of metamorphism and deformation due to collision and collapse of the Cycladic belt. Exhumation during the Miocene was accommodated by the movement of a large-scale detachment fault system, which also enhanced emplacement of magmatic rocks, leading to the formation of the famous Lavrion silver deposits. The area around the mines shows the stacking of nappes, with ore deposition mainly localized within the ...


The Geology, Geochemistry, And Origin Of The Porphyry Cu-Au-(Mo) System At Vathi, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Paul G. Spry, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Katerina Giouri, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Anestis Filippidis 2021 University of Thessaloniki

The Geology, Geochemistry, And Origin Of The Porphyry Cu-Au-(Mo) System At Vathi, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece, Christos L. Stergiou, Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Paul G. Spry, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Alexandros Chatzipetros, Katerina Giouri, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Anestis Filippidis

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Vathi porphyry Cu-Au ± Mo mineralization is located in the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province of the Western Tethyan Metallogenic Belt. It is mainly hosted by a latite and is genetically associated with a quartz monzonite intrusion, which intruded the basement rocks of the Vertiskos Unit and the latite, 18 to 17 Ma ago. A phreatic breccia crosscuts the latite. The quartz monzonite was affected by potassic alteration, whereas the latite was subjected to local propylitic alteration. Both styles of alteration were subsequently overprinted by intense sericitic alteration. M-type and A-type veins are spatially associated with potassic alteration, whereas D-type veins are ...


Geologic Mapping Along The Benton Spring Fault, Nevada: Dextrally-Offset Tuff-Filled Paleovalleys In The Central Walker Lane, Peter Dubyoski 2021 Central Washington University

Geologic Mapping Along The Benton Spring Fault, Nevada: Dextrally-Offset Tuff-Filled Paleovalleys In The Central Walker Lane, Peter Dubyoski

All Master's Theses

Documenting the spatiotemporal evolution of fault systems along the western margin of North America is a prerequisite for characterizing the forces which drive faulting across the U.S. Cordillera. Within the Cordillera, the Walker Lane, characterized by active intracontinental faults, straddles the western edge of the Basin and Range Province and the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada. In the Gabbs Valley Range, central Nevada, eastern Central Walker Lane, I combine new mapping, geochronology, and structural studies to document the geometry and timing of dextral fault slip along the Benton Spring fault, an active intracontinental fault. The Benton Spring fault ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward 2021 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Heterogeneities And Syn-Deformational Partial Melting On Rock Strength Evolution And Melt Migration, Nicole Wagner

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In nature, the segregation of granitic melts at the source may be controlled by fabric and compositional heterogeneities in the source rock, such as foliation and lineation. To investigate the influence of foliation/lineation orientation and composition on rock strength and melt interconnectivity, I performed a series of experiments on cores of a fine-grained gneiss (Gneiss Minuti) and a fine-grained muscovite-bearing quartzite (Moine Thrust quartzite). These rocks were cored at six primary orientations parallel, 45 degrees, and perpendicular to the foliation and lineation and were deformed at a constant temperature of 900°C, pressure of ~2 GPa, and strain rate ...


Crustal Evolution Of The New England Appalachians: The Rise And Fall Of A Long-Lived Orogenic Plateau, Ian Hillenbrand 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Crustal Evolution Of The New England Appalachians: The Rise And Fall Of A Long-Lived Orogenic Plateau, Ian Hillenbrand

Masters Theses

The rise and demise of mountain belts, caused by growth, modification, or removal of the continental lithosphere are fundamental processes that influence almost all Earth systems. Understanding the nature, timing, and significance of active processes in the creation and evolution of modern mountain belts is challenged by a lack of middle crustal and lower crustal exposures. Analogues can be found in ancient orogens, whose deeply eroded roots offer a window into deeper processes, yet this record is complicated by overprinting events and complex deformational histories. Research presented herein constrains the tectonic history of multistage Appalachian Orogen, type locality of the ...


Magnetite Mineralization Of The Hammondville Pluton: Poly-Phase Kiruna Type Iocg Magnetite-Apatite Deposits In The Lyon Mountain Granite, Phillip Geer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Magnetite Mineralization Of The Hammondville Pluton: Poly-Phase Kiruna Type Iocg Magnetite-Apatite Deposits In The Lyon Mountain Granite, Phillip Geer

Masters Theses

Recent mapping of the Eagle Lake Quadrangle, NY, coupled with whole-rock geochemistry and microscopy has offered insight into the petrogenesis of the magnetite-apatite deposits of the Hammondville mining district in the eastern Adirondack Mountains. This study provides insight into the magmatic history of the ca. 1060-1050 Ma Lyon Mountain Granite (Hammondville Pluton) which is intimately related to, and hosts the deposits in this area. Magnetite seams are commonly surrounded by well layered magnetite gneiss, which typically parallel the seams, although in some outcrops appear to be slightly truncated by them. Mineralization is generally concordant with the weak layering found throughout ...


Implications And Significance Of Partial Melting On The Tectonic History Of The Eastern Adirondack Mountains, Claire Rose Pless 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Implications And Significance Of Partial Melting On The Tectonic History Of The Eastern Adirondack Mountains, Claire Rose Pless

Doctoral Dissertations

The eastern Adirondack Mountains contain abundant exposures of high-grade metamorphic rocks. These exposures are interpreted to be a window into the mid/deep crust of an ancient, large, hot, long-duration orogen, allowing the Adirondack Mountains to be used as an analogue to the deep processes of modern orogens. Currently interpreted thermo-tectonic events in the eastern Adirondack Mountains include the ca. 1245-1220 Ma Elzevirian orogeny, the ca. 1190-1150 Ma Shawinigan orogeny, emplacement of the ca. 1150 Ma AMCG igneous suite, the ca. 1090-1050 Ma Ottawan orogeny, and a ca. 1050-1020 Ma extensional collapse phase. This dissertation focuses on six migmatite domains ...


New Research On A Case Of Linear Discontinuous Ground Deformation (Ldgd), Andrzej Kowalski, Bartosz Apanowicz, Piotr Polanin 2020 Central Mining Institute

New Research On A Case Of Linear Discontinuous Ground Deformation (Ldgd), Andrzej Kowalski, Bartosz Apanowicz, Piotr Polanin

Journal of Sustainable Mining

LSDS is defined as surface fissures, steps as well as structures formed by them in the form of stairs (several steps), thresholds, ditches, and flexure. The paper presents a case study of formed LSDS – the origin, and possible methods to assess its occurrence on the basis of the research carried out in the Central Mining Institute. The authors showed that the presence of LSDS leads not only to the horizontal deformation but also contributes to the formation of vertical curvatures of terrain that cause fissures in the near-surface layer of the rock mass in the areas with a thick layer ...


Delineating Of The Utica Shale/Point Pleasant Formation Play System To Determine Influence Of The Precambrian Basement In Northeastern Ohio, Jarrod R. Bridges 2020 Stephen F Austin State University

Delineating Of The Utica Shale/Point Pleasant Formation Play System To Determine Influence Of The Precambrian Basement In Northeastern Ohio, Jarrod R. Bridges

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Utica Shale/Point Pleasant Formation system has recently become a highly developed unconventional target for oil and natural gas production, leading to an increased desire for knowledge of the controls on deposition of this system. Precambrian basement features have long been known to affect deposition of older strata near these features across Ohio, but the effects of far field tectonics is not fully agreed upon. Precambrian faults and lineaments are known to exist and have been mapped, but are thought to have ceased their influence on deposition by the time of the Knox unconformity during the Cambrian. In the ...


Neogene And Quaternary Events Shaped Diversification And Speciation In Bhutanese Rheophilic Fishes Of The Family Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) And Sisoridae (Siluriformes), Karma Wangchuk 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Neogene And Quaternary Events Shaped Diversification And Speciation In Bhutanese Rheophilic Fishes Of The Family Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) And Sisoridae (Siluriformes), Karma Wangchuk

Theses and Dissertations

Biogeography of the Himalayan region [to include the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP)] evolved over a ~30M year span, catalyzed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The resulting uplift produced major ecological and climatic effects, that in turn drove the diversification of biodiversity. As a result, the QTP is designated as a global biodiversity hotspot particularly vulnerable to cumulative climatic effects, including shrinking distributions, declining numbers, and local extinctions. Understanding how the biodiversity within the Himalaya/ QTP was established and maintained is a necessary first step in prioritizing conservation efforts.

Fishes in global montane regions, such as the Himalaya ...


The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham DM Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey 2020 West Virginia University

The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham Dm Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Folds on the surfaces of mafic lavas are among the most readily recognized geological structures and are used as first-order criteria for identifying ancient lavas on Earth and other planetary bodies. However, the presence of surface-folds on the surface of silicic lavas is contested in this study and we challenge the widely accepted interpretation that silicic lava surfaces contain folds using examples from the western United States and Sardinia, Italy. We interpret the ridges and troughs on their upper surfaces, typically referred to as ‘ogives’ or ‘pressure ridges’, as fracture-bound structures rather than folds. We report on the absence of ...


Geologic Map Of The Structural Margin Of Northeastern North America, Daniel Melnick 2020 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Geologic Map Of The Structural Margin Of Northeastern North America, Daniel Melnick

Earth & Space Sciences Student Work

No abstract provided.


Multi-Stage Introduction Of Precious And Critical Metals In Pyrite: A Case Study From The Konos Hill And Pagoni Rachi Porphyry/Epithermal Prospects, Ne Greece, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Federica Zaccarini, Stephan Klemme, Jasper Berndt, Alexandre Tarantola, Vasilios Melfos, Paul G. Spry 2020 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Multi-Stage Introduction Of Precious And Critical Metals In Pyrite: A Case Study From The Konos Hill And Pagoni Rachi Porphyry/Epithermal Prospects, Ne Greece, Constantinos Mavrogonatos, Panagiotis Voudouris, Federica Zaccarini, Stephan Klemme, Jasper Berndt, Alexandre Tarantola, Vasilios Melfos, Paul G. Spry

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Konos Hill and Pagoni Rachi porphyry-epithermal prospects in northeastern Greece are characterized by abundant pyrite that displays important textural and geochemical variations between the various ore stages. It is commonly fine-grained and anhedral in the porphyry-related mineralization (M- and D-type veins), while it forms idiomorphic, medium- to coarse-grained crystals in the late, epithermal style veins (E-type). Porphyry-style pyrite from both prospects is characterized by an enrichment in Co, Se, Cu, and minor Zn, and a depletion in other trace elements, like Bi, Mo, Ag, etc. Pyrite in epithermal-style mineralization is mostly characterized by the presence of As, Bi, Pb ...


Earth’S Outgoing Longwave Radiation Variability Prior To M ≥6.0 Earthquakes In The Taiwan Area During 2009–2019, Ching-Chou Fu, Lou-Chang Lee, Dimitar Ouzounov, Jyh-Cherng Jan 2020 Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Earth’S Outgoing Longwave Radiation Variability Prior To M ≥6.0 Earthquakes In The Taiwan Area During 2009–2019, Ching-Chou Fu, Lou-Chang Lee, Dimitar Ouzounov, Jyh-Cherng Jan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This paper proposes an analysis method, using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite data, to trace variations in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) for finding the precursors of earthquakes. The significance of these observations is investigated using data sets of recent M ≥6.0 earthquakes around the Taiwan area from 2009 to 2019. We suggest that the precursory signal could be an EIndex anomaly (EA) in the form of substantial thermal releases distributed near the epicenter. The consecutive appearances of OLR EAs are observed as precursors 2–15 days before significant earthquakes, and we refer to this as a ...


Toward Near‐Field Tsunami Forecasting Along The Cascadia Subduction Zone Using Rapid Gnss Source Models, Amy L. Williamson, Diego Melgar, Brendan W. Crowell, Diego Argas, Timothy I. Melbourne, Yong Wei, Kevin Kwong 2020 University of Oregon

Toward Near‐Field Tsunami Forecasting Along The Cascadia Subduction Zone Using Rapid Gnss Source Models, Amy L. Williamson, Diego Melgar, Brendan W. Crowell, Diego Argas, Timothy I. Melbourne, Yong Wei, Kevin Kwong

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Over the past 15 years and through multiple large and devastating earthquakes, tsunami warning systems have grown considerably in their efficacy in providing timely and accurate forecasts to affected communities. However, one part of tsunami warning that still needs improvement is forecasts catered to local, near‐field communities in the time after an earthquake rupture but before coastal inundation. In this study, we test a rapid, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)‐driven earthquake characterization model using a large data set of synthetic megathrust ruptures for its near‐field tsunami forecasting potential. We also provide a framework for tsunami forecasting that ...


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