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Bathymetry Based Modeling Of Subaxial Magma Flows Under The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 0 To 30° N, Adam R. Tjoelker, Neil Van Kanegan, Simon Detmer, C. Renee Sparks 2022 Calvin University

Bathymetry Based Modeling Of Subaxial Magma Flows Under The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 0 To 30° N, Adam R. Tjoelker, Neil Van Kanegan, Simon Detmer, C. Renee Sparks

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Fracture patterns of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) provide evidence of tectonic forces related to divergence and magma upwelling at the ridge axis. In this study, we focus on the MAR from 0 to 30° N, where the N-S ridge exhibits slow spreading rates (2-4 cm/yr) and pronounced axial topography. Ridge segments and transform faults identified in bathymetry data were analyzed for strike orientation and axial depth profiles. Azimuths of transform faults and ridge segments exhibit increasing clockwise rotation with latitude, and all have left lateral displacement. Bathymetric sampling along ridge segments occurred at 9 km intervals with 20 km ...


Pronounced Changes In Thermal Signals Associated With The Madoi (China) M 7.3 Earthquake From Passive Microwave And Infrared Satellite Data, Feng Jing, Lu Zhang, Ramesh P. Singh 2022 China Earthquake Administration

Pronounced Changes In Thermal Signals Associated With The Madoi (China) M 7.3 Earthquake From Passive Microwave And Infrared Satellite Data, Feng Jing, Lu Zhang, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Thermal variations in surface and atmosphere observed from multiple satellites prior to strong earthquakes have been widely reported ever since seismic thermal anomalies were discovered three decades ago. These thermal changes are related to stress accumulation caused by the tectonic activities in the final stage of earthquake preparation. In the present paper, we focused on the thermal changes associated with the 2021 Madoi M 7.3 earthquake in China and analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution of the Index of Microwave Radiation Anomaly (IMRA) and the Index of Longwave Radiation Anomaly (ILRA) based on 8-year microwave brightness temperature (MWBT) and ...


Processing Seismic, Gravity And Magnetic Data Over Diebold Knoll On Juan De Fuca Plate, Md Ariful Islam, Irina Filina 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Processing Seismic, Gravity And Magnetic Data Over Diebold Knoll On Juan De Fuca Plate, Md Ariful Islam, Irina Filina

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Graduate

The Juan de Fuca plate is subducting beneath the North American plate along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The CSZ is associated with multiple earthquakes, although compared to other subduction zones, it is less active. Many studies suggest that subduction will cause major mega thrust earthquake in near future, while others oppose this view. This project is focused on the Diebold Knoll on the JdF plate Various geophysical methods will be integrated to determine its origin and tectonic history.


Regional Correlation And Depositional History Using Well Log And Core Data Of The Geneseo-Burket From The Poseidon 8m Well, Westmoreland County Pa, Usa, Spencer Leonard Williams Jr. 2022 West Virginia University

Regional Correlation And Depositional History Using Well Log And Core Data Of The Geneseo-Burket From The Poseidon 8m Well, Westmoreland County Pa, Usa, Spencer Leonard Williams Jr.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Abstract

Regional Correlation and Depositional History using Well Log and Core Data of the Geneseo-Burket from the Poseidon 8M Well, Westmoreland County PA, USA



Spencer Williams

Natural gas producers have invested billions of dollars in Pennsylvania and West Virginia to establish significant gas production from the Devonian Marcellus Shale and the deeper Ordovician Utica-Point Pleasant interval. In addition, commercial gas production has been reported from several other Devonian shale units in the Appalachian region, including the Rhinestreet, Levanna, and Geneseo-Burket. The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas play in the United States. The Marcellus is located directly under the ...


Structural And Petrologic Insights Into The Emplacement Of Effusive Silicic Lavas: Inyo Domes, California, Shelby L. Isom 2022 West Virginia University

Structural And Petrologic Insights Into The Emplacement Of Effusive Silicic Lavas: Inyo Domes, California, Shelby L. Isom

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The Long Valley volcanic region, eastern California, USA is most famous for the caldera-forming eruption which produced the Bishop Tuff ~760,000 years ago. Over the last 3,000 years volcanism has been focused in the western margin of the region through punctuated eruptions of silicic lavas and domes. Three simultaneous effusive silicic eruptions, ~600 years ago, generated three lava domes: Obsidian Dome; Glass Creek Dome; and Deadman Dome which erupted onto vastly different topographies. These domes are exceptionally unique as they erupted variable amounts of two textural and chemical endmember lavas (crystal-rich and crystal-poor) that intimately mixed. The overarching ...


Syn- To Post-Orogenic Evolution Of Collisional Mountain Systems: Investigating The Potential For Crustal Flow Using Thermochronology And Numerical Models, Brandon Spencer 2022 University of Kentucky

Syn- To Post-Orogenic Evolution Of Collisional Mountain Systems: Investigating The Potential For Crustal Flow Using Thermochronology And Numerical Models, Brandon Spencer

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

This dissertation is composed of three distinct manuscripts which collectively investigate processes that contribute to the late evolution of collisional mountain systems —specifically, the ancient Appalachian-Caledonian system. In the first paper, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological data are used to constrain the timing of exhumation of the Scandian orogenic wedge of northern Scotland. Muscovite and amphibole samples yield dates of ca. 420-411 Ma, consistent with cooling after peak orogenesis. During this cooling phase, dates from both systems in individual thrust sheets show an increase in cooling rate in the later stage of exhumation; in the orogenic core, the cooling rate ...


Deformation Of Wall Rocks And Overburden Sequences Proximal To Salt Diapirs In Salt Valley, Utah: Implications For Predicting Subseismic Damage In Salt Tectonic Systems, William Swanger 2022 University of Kentucky

Deformation Of Wall Rocks And Overburden Sequences Proximal To Salt Diapirs In Salt Valley, Utah: Implications For Predicting Subseismic Damage In Salt Tectonic Systems, William Swanger

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

Although deformation related to salt tectonics is generally considered to be an ancillary field of structural geology, owing to its relatively limited occurrence in the geologic record, the preponderance of salt-involved systems in multiple hydrocarbon-rich basins around the world (e.g., Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic passive margins, Iran, etc.) creates a necessity for understanding salt-related deformation. Traditionally, salt was considered to be relatively weak and thus was mostly unable to drive deformation of adjacent wall rocks and cover sequences. However, a number of recent numerical modeling studies have shown that mobilized and pressurized salt may have the ability to actively ...


Geology Of The Jacksonville 7.5 Minute Quadrangle And U–Pb And (U–Th)/He Reveal Sediment Routing And Uplift In The Southern Appalachian Valley And Ridge Province, Derek L. Spurgeon 2022 Missouri State University

Geology Of The Jacksonville 7.5 Minute Quadrangle And U–Pb And (U–Th)/He Reveal Sediment Routing And Uplift In The Southern Appalachian Valley And Ridge Province, Derek L. Spurgeon

MSU Graduate Theses

The southern Appalachian Mountains have experienced multiple deformation events having undergone two full Wilson cycles. The foreland Valley and Ridge province is composed of sedimentary Paleozoic rock that range in age from earliest Cambrian to Middle Pennsylvanian. This sedimentary basin was intensely folded and faulted during the collision of Gondwana during the Middle to Late Carboniferous Period. From previous geologic structural mapping that has taken place, some large-scale structures in the Valley and Ridge Province seem to be out of sequence. To better understand the relationships in these structures, geologic mapping in high detail at the 1:24,000 scale ...


Dynamic Relationship Study Between The Observed Seismicity And Spatiotemporal Pattern Of Lineament Changes In Palghar, North Maharashtra (India), Biswajit Nath, Ramesh P. Singh, Vineet K. Gahalaut, Ajay P. Singh 2021 University of Chittagongc

Dynamic Relationship Study Between The Observed Seismicity And Spatiotemporal Pattern Of Lineament Changes In Palghar, North Maharashtra (India), Biswajit Nath, Ramesh P. Singh, Vineet K. Gahalaut, Ajay P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Palghar region (north Maharashtra, India), located in the northwestern part of the stable continental region of India, experienced a low magnitude earthquake swarm, which was initiated in September 2018 and is continuing to date (as of October 2021). From December 2018 to December 2020, ~5000 earthquakes with magnitudes from M1.2 to M3.8 occurred in a small region of 20 × 10 km2. These earthquakes were probably triggered by fluid migration during seasonal rainfall. In this study, we have used multi-temporal Landsat satellite data of the year 2000, 2015, 2018, 2019, and 2020, extracted lineaments, and studied the ...


Spatial Variations Of Stochastic Noise Properties In Gps Time Series, Xiaoxing He, Michael Simon Bos, Jean-Philippe Montillet, Rui Fernandes, Timothy I. Melbourne, Weiping Jiang, Wudong Li 2021 Jiangxi University of Science and Technology

Spatial Variations Of Stochastic Noise Properties In Gps Time Series, Xiaoxing He, Michael Simon Bos, Jean-Philippe Montillet, Rui Fernandes, Timothy I. Melbourne, Weiping Jiang, Wudong Li

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

The noise in position time series of 568 GPS (Global Position System) stations across North America with an observation span of ten years has been investigated using solutions from two processing centers, namely, the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) and New Mexico Tech (NMT). It is well known that in the frequency domain, the noise exhibits a power-law behavior with a spectral index of around −1. By fitting various noise models to the observations and selecting the most likely one, we demonstrate that the spectral index in some regions flattens to zero at long periods while in other regions it ...


Tectonic And Geotechnical Review Of Bengal Basin For Seismic Risk Assessment In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Jnana Ranjan Kayal, Daya Shanker, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Arif M. Sikder, M Zillur Rahman, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan 2021 John Turner Consulting, Inc.

Tectonic And Geotechnical Review Of Bengal Basin For Seismic Risk Assessment In Bangladesh, Mir Fazlul Karim, Jnana Ranjan Kayal, Daya Shanker, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Arif M. Sikder, M Zillur Rahman, Muhammad Qumrul Hassan

Publications and Research

Four major geotectonic provinces of the basin are recognized: 1) the continental slope to the west of the Hinge Zone, 2) the stable shelf, 3) the deep central trough (Sylhet-Hatiya) and 4) the Chittagong-Tripura fold belt to the east. The ~300 km long Dauki Fault demarcates the elevated Shillong Plateau, part of the Indian Shield to the north and the deep basin to the south. The basin experienced three strong to major intraplate earthquakes: a) 1885 Bengal earthquake (rev. Mw 6.8) close to the Hinge Zone, b) 1918 Srimangal earthquake (rev. Mw 7.1) on the Sylhet (trough) fault ...


Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti 2021 Foundation “G. Giuliani ONLUS”

Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This contribution is addressed to an introductive university course on the correlation existing between radon emission and earthquakes processes held following a flipped-class approach where students receive didactic materials prior to face-to-face lessons. This research was initially started to investigate the real correlation between Radon emission from the Earth and the occurrence of strong earthquakes by using measurements of hourly Radon flow variation. During quiet seismogenic conditions, we observe an unvarying level of Radon emission in the air. Before a strong earthquake, substantial variations of Radon (222Rn) concentration have been observed in the air, probably because of the increase ...


Stratigraphic Evidence Of Two Historical Tsunamis On The Semi-Arid Coast Of North-Central Chile, Jessica M. DePaolis, Tina Dura, Breanyn MacInnes, Lisa L. Ely, Marco Cisternas, Matías Carvajal, Hui Tang, Hermann M. Fritz, Cyntia Mizobe, Robert L. Wesson, Gino Figueroa, Nicole Brennan, Benjamin P. Horton, Jessica E. Pilarczyk, D. Reide Corbett, Benjamin C. Gill, Robert Weiss 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Stratigraphic Evidence Of Two Historical Tsunamis On The Semi-Arid Coast Of North-Central Chile, Jessica M. Depaolis, Tina Dura, Breanyn Macinnes, Lisa L. Ely, Marco Cisternas, Matías Carvajal, Hui Tang, Hermann M. Fritz, Cyntia Mizobe, Robert L. Wesson, Gino Figueroa, Nicole Brennan, Benjamin P. Horton, Jessica E. Pilarczyk, D. Reide Corbett, Benjamin C. Gill, Robert Weiss

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

On September 16, 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake struck the north-central Chile coast, triggering a tsunami observed along 500 km of coastline, between Huasco (28.5°S) and San Antonio (33.5°S). This tsunami provided a unique opportunity to examine the nature of tsunami deposits in a semi-arid, siliciclastic environment where stratigraphic and sedimentological records of past tsunamis are difficult to distinguish. To improve our ability to identify such evidence, we targeted one of the few low-energy, organic-rich depositional environments in north-central Chile: Pachingo marsh in Tongoy Bay (30.3°S).

We found sedimentary evidence of the ...


Assessing The Prevalance Of Joint-Controlled Mass Wasting In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., Madeline Konopinski 2021 Missouri State University

Assessing The Prevalance Of Joint-Controlled Mass Wasting In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., Madeline Konopinski

MSU Graduate Theses

Landslides are common hazards that produce devastating effects worldwide. Within the United States, the Appalachian Mountains are identified as an area of moderate to high susceptibility and incidence for landslides (Mirus et al., 2020; Wieczorek and Morgan, 2008). Given the presence of active seismic zones (eastern Tennessee and Giles County seismic zones) and variable rainfall due to seasonal storms (hurricanes) throughout the Appalachians, ancient earthquake activity or intense rainfall may trigger mass wasting events. Regional bedrock joints may further control the susceptibility of landslides to develop in specific locations during trigger events by providing a pre-existing weakness in the substrate ...


Geology Of The Clairmont Springs 7.5-Minute Quadrangle And Geochronology Of The Alabama Blue Ridge, Adelie Ionescu 2021 Missouri State University

Geology Of The Clairmont Springs 7.5-Minute Quadrangle And Geochronology Of The Alabama Blue Ridge, Adelie Ionescu

MSU Graduate Theses

The Alabama Blue Ridge (USA) of the southern Appalachians contains metamorphic rocks and structures associated with island arc accretion and continent-continent collision that record the Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. The western Blue Ridge is underlain by Cambrian to Mississippian, clastic and carbonate, low-grade, greenschist facies metamorphic Talladega belt that formed outboard from the Alabama promontory or along the Laurentian margin. The eastern Blue Ridge contains the Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic, lithologically diverse, high grade, middle to upper amphibolite facies Ashland Supergroup. Geologic mapping of the Clairmont Springs 7.5- minute quadrangle unveils tectonic relationships between the eastern and western Blue Ridge ...


Geologist Syed Humayun Akhter Is Leading The Bangladesh Open University, Nazrul I. Khandaker 2021 CUNY York College

Geologist Syed Humayun Akhter Is Leading The Bangladesh Open University, Nazrul I. Khandaker

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


A Consistent Model Of Terrestrial Planet Magnetospheres And Rotations In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu 2021 CUNY Queens College

A Consistent Model Of Terrestrial Planet Magnetospheres And Rotations In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu

Publications and Research

The Sun comprises 99.9% of the solar system mass so it is expected that Sun terrestrial planet interactions can influence the motion as well as the rotation of the terrestrial planets.Gravity affects the planet orbital motions while the changing magnetic fields of the Sun can influence the planet rotations. Planets that manifest a magnetic field dominate any weaker magnetic fields from the Sun, but the rotation of terrestrial planets without a magnetic field interacts with the changing Sun’s field dependent on the electrical conductivity of the core region. It is determined that the average planet density becomes ...


Digital Appendix Of Masters Thesis "Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California, James P. Evans, Caroline Studnicky 2021 Utah State University

Digital Appendix Of Masters Thesis "Constraining Deformation Mechanisms Of Damage Zones: A Case Study Of The Shallow San Andreas Fault At Elizabeth Lake, Southern California, James P. Evans, Caroline Studnicky

Browse all Datasets

We performed macroscopic, optical petrographic, scanning electron microscopy, and geochemical analyses on rock core acquired across the San Andreas Fault at Elizabeth Lake, California, in order to understand the distribution and accommodation of fault-related slip and energy within the shallow damage zone of this continental scale strike-slip fault. We characterized the deformation structures, alteration textures, and elemental variabilities to constrain the properties of the uppermost ~2 km fault-related damage zone at this site. We identified evidence for coseismic slip in the form of pulverized rocks, injection veins, clay-clast aggregates, and pseudotachylyte, and aseismic slip through calcite twins, dilatant vein fills ...


Determining Biostratigraphy And Correlation Using Color Alteration Index And Lithofacies Of Conodonts In The Edinburg Formation, Central Virginia, Lauren Showalter 2021 James Madison University

Determining Biostratigraphy And Correlation Using Color Alteration Index And Lithofacies Of Conodonts In The Edinburg Formation, Central Virginia, Lauren Showalter

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Conodont species, CAI and lithofacies analysis are used as methods of correlation to determine the relative age, depositional environment, and post depositional burial history of the Edinburg Formation in central Virginia. Samples collected for conodont microfossils yielded faunas of Baltoniodus sp. or Amorphognathus sp., Periodon grandis and Protopanderodus liripipus from a site near Luray and Drepanoistodus suberectus, Plectodina sp., Protopanderodus liripipus, Oistodus sp., Phragmodus undatus, Erismodus radicans and Panderodus gracilis from a site in Harrisonburg. The species supports a Late Ordovician (Late Sandbian age). Conodonts from both sites have a CAI of 4-5, indicating post-depositional heating of over 300 degrees ...


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


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