Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Soil Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

10,605 Full-Text Articles 19,503 Authors 1,204,613 Downloads 127 Institutions

All Articles in Soil Science

Faceted Search

10,605 full-text articles. Page 1 of 371.

Rice Biomass Response To Various Phosphorus Fertilizers In A Phosphorus-Deficient Soil Under Simulated Furrow-Irrigation, Jonathan B. Brye 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Rice Biomass Response To Various Phosphorus Fertilizers In A Phosphorus-Deficient Soil Under Simulated Furrow-Irrigation, Jonathan B. Brye

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Wastewater-recovered phosphorus (P), in the form of the mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4⋅6H2O), may provide a sustainable alternative to rapidly decreasing rock phosphate reserves. Struvite can be generated via chemical and/or electrochemical precipitation methods, potentially reducing the amount of P runoff to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this greenhouse tub study was to evaluate the effects of chemically- and electrochemically precipitated struvite (CPST and ECST, respectively) on above- and belowground plant response in a hybrid rice cultivar (Gemini 214, RiceTec) grown using furrow-irrigation compared to other common fertilizer-P sources [i.e., triple super phosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP)] in a P-deficient silt …


Germplasm Enhancement Of Annual Forage Legumes Suitable For Use In Cold Highland Environments, H K. Firincioglu, N Karagullu, S Unal, A M. Abd-El Moneim 2024 Central Research Institute for Field Crops, Turkey

Germplasm Enhancement Of Annual Forage Legumes Suitable For Use In Cold Highland Environments, H K. Firincioglu, N Karagullu, S Unal, A M. Abd-El Moneim

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The Central Highlands (CH) of Turkey are characterized by cold winters and dry summers. Under these extreme air temperatures, forage crops are still underexploited as a part of crop rotations. Half of the total vetch hectarage in Turkey is in the CH, and farmers still use the local cultivars that have good adaptability but low yield potential. Therefore, with the aim of identifying and improving the annual forage legume species for the cold and dry environment of the CH, research work was carried out during the 1993/94 and 1994/ 95 crop seasons. Initial results showed that Hungarian vetch (Vicia …


Use Of The Grazing Animal In Forage Breeding, J H. Bouton, C S. Hoveland, R N. Gates 2024 University of Georgia

Use Of The Grazing Animal In Forage Breeding, J H. Bouton, C S. Hoveland, R N. Gates

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The objective of these studies was to determine, in the context of a forage breeding program, the effect of cattle grazing on survival of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Different cultivars of each species were compared in grazed and ungrazed areas. Results consistently demonstrated that grazing reduced plant stands when compared to ungrazed conditions for each species tested. In alfalfa, however, cultivars developed for grazing tolerance showed much better grazing survival. Infection with the fungal endophyte, Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & Gams, likewise substantially increased grazing survival in …


Study Of Genotype X Environment Interaction In Alfalfa Forage Yield, S N. Acharya, G C. Kozub, H Najda, A Aasen 2024 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Study Of Genotype X Environment Interaction In Alfalfa Forage Yield, S N. Acharya, G C. Kozub, H Najda, A Aasen

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield to eight Alberta test sites was studied for the 1990 and 1991 production years. Cluster analysis was used to group locations and cultivars. Analyses of variances indicated genotype x environment (location) interaction for the first cut yield, the total yield and the difference between first and second cut yields. The Brooks, Bow Island (irrigation), Bow Island (dryland) and Provost locations always clustered together indicating that three of these four test sites may be eliminated without sacrificing reliability.


Selection For Self-Fertility And Self-Fertility In Alfalfa As A Tool For Breeding Strategy Assessment, D Rosellini, F Veronesi, F Lorenzetti 2024 University of Perugia

Selection For Self-Fertility And Self-Fertility In Alfalfa As A Tool For Breeding Strategy Assessment, D Rosellini, F Veronesi, F Lorenzetti

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Cultivar development in alfalfa relies on heterosis, that has been mainly exploited by intercrossing selected clones from diverse gemplasm sources; an alternative way was proposed, based on developing double cross cultivars obtained by crossing clones selected for self-sterility, propagated by somatic seed. A different breeding strategy was recently emphasized based on population improvement through inbreeding and recurrent selection; in this case, self-sterility would be selected against. If self-sterility is determined by genetic load, the second strategy should be preferred, and selecting for self-fertility may bring about positive correlated responses for forage yield. Divergent selection for self-fertility was applied in a …


Morphological And Rapd Variations And Regenerants Derived From Cell Suspension Culture Of Pangolagrass, C S. Chen, S M. Wang, Y K. Cheng 2024 Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Taiwan

Morphological And Rapd Variations And Regenerants Derived From Cell Suspension Culture Of Pangolagrass, C S. Chen, S M. Wang, Y K. Cheng

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Pangolagrass cv. A254, a sterile strain, is one of Taiwan's major forage sources but recently has faced serious disease problems. Tissue culture was expected to generate variations in the breeding program of pangolagrass. The purpose of this study is to examine the somaclonal variation of regenerated plants by means of phenotypic characters survey and RAPD analysis. After long-term suspension culture and EMS mutagenesis, many regenerated plants with morphological variations have been found. Among the regenerants, 10 clones with obviously different characteristics were selected for further studies. Nine of them showed significant differences in morphological trains as compared to A254. By …


Phylogenetics Of Apomictic Common Dallisgrass (Paspalum Dilatatum), B L. Burson, M A. Hussey 2024 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Phylogenetics Of Apomictic Common Dallisgrass (Paspalum Dilatatum), B L. Burson, M A. Hussey

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Common dallisgrass, Paspalum dilatatum Poir., an important warm season forage grass, is an obligate apomict with 50 chromosomes which associate as 20 bivalents and 10 univalents during meiosis. Because efforts to improve the grass have not been successful, a phylogenetic investigation was initiated to identify the progenitors of common dallisgrass in an effort to circumvent the apomictic barrier to improvement. The genomic composition has been determined for four dallisgrass biotypes: yellow-anthered (2n=4x=40) IIJJ; common (2n=5x=50) IIJJX; Uruguayan (2n=6x=60) IIJJXX; and Uruguaiana (2n=6x=60) IIJJXX. While the source of the X genome is unknown, the genes controlling apomixis are on at least …


Increased Longevity Of Red Clover Through Selection For Persistence And Disease Resistance, R R. Smith 2024 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Increased Longevity Of Red Clover Through Selection For Persistence And Disease Resistance, R R. Smith

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), an excellent perennial forage legume, has been considered for many years to be a short-lived, two to three years, forage. Selection for resistance to foliar and root rot diseases and for longevity of stand over the past four decades has improved the persistence of the currently available cultivars. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the progress from selection for longevity and disease resistance. Selection for stand longevity and improved disease resistance has reliably extended the production of red clover into the third and fourth year. Selection for healthy plants in 3- or …


Backcrosses Of Diploid Lolium-Festuca Hybrids To Festuca, W Nitzche 2024 Humboldt-University Berlin

Backcrosses Of Diploid Lolium-Festuca Hybrids To Festuca, W Nitzche

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Fertile diploid hybrids of Lolium x Festuca -backcrosses were produced by colchicine-treatment without chromosome doubling. The hybrids have new combinations of their characters, not known in the natural species.


Selection For Herbage Yield And Flowering In Ladino White Clover, J A. Garcia 2024 INIA La Estanzuela, Uruguay

Selection For Herbage Yield And Flowering In Ladino White Clover, J A. Garcia

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A geno-phenotypic recurrent selection program is being carried out on ladino white clover (Trifolium repens L.) aiming to combine good DM and seed yields. Selection criteria includes plant density, vigor, winter growth, flowering and diseases resistance. The performance of selections in terms of DM yields and seed production was evaluated in separate trials. Two cycles of selection increased flowering by 36% and seed yield by 59%. Preliminary data on herbage yields shows a very good performance of the selected material and suggests the feasibility of combining high DM and seed yields.


Selection For Field Survival Increases Freezing Tolerance In Festulolium, M D. Casler, P G. Pitts, P C. Bilkey, C A. Rose-Fricker 2024 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Selection For Field Survival Increases Freezing Tolerance In Festulolium, M D. Casler, P G. Pitts, P C. Bilkey, C A. Rose-Fricker

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Festulolium (Festulolium braunii K.A.) is marginally adapted to the north central and northeastern USA and southern Canada. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four festulolium populations selected for field survival under harsh winter conditions for their freezing tolerance in controlled environments. Progenies of all four populations showed some improvement in freezing tolerance compared to their parents. Improvements were dependent on the temperature at which measurements were made and varied among germplasms. Improvements were manifested in both decreased plant mortality and decreased injury to surviving plants. Genetic variation for freezing tolerance appears to be a viable mechanism …


Fitness Of Apomictic And Sexual Buffelgrass Germplasm, M A. Hussey, Yue-Wen Wang, B L. Burson 2024 The Texas A&M University

Fitness Of Apomictic And Sexual Buffelgrass Germplasm, M A. Hussey, Yue-Wen Wang, B L. Burson

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Breeding apomictic grasses is based on either the direct selection of apomictic landraces or the hybridization of sexual and apomictic types and selection of apomictic F1 hybrids. Little is known about the potential of sexual hybrids as cultivars in apomictic species. To determine if method of reproduction (MOR) was related to plant vigor, parental, S1, and F1 hybrids of buffelgrass differing in method of reproduction (apomictic or sexual) were established in a common garden in 1994 and 1995. In both years severe inbreeding depression was observed in the S1 progeny as they were shorter, produced less biomass, and had low …


Selection For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Perennial Ryegrass Using Hydroponics, E N. van Loo, A.J. P. van Wijk, O Dolstra, H.J. P. Marvin, C.H. A. Snijders 2024 DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research, The Netherlands

Selection For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Perennial Ryegrass Using Hydroponics, E N. Van Loo, A.J. P. Van Wijk, O Dolstra, H.J. P. Marvin, C.H. A. Snijders

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A selection method was tested for improving nitrogen use efficiency of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) using a hydroponics system that controls the plant nitrogen concentration. Divergent selection for plant production, leaf area increase and dry matter distribution in six segregating populations under limiting nitrogen supply resulted in differences between offspring of upward and downward selections larger than 20 % in most characteristics. Moderately high realized heritabilities were found for some characteristics (up to 0.88). It is concluded that early selection for nitrogen use efficiency is feasible using this hydroponics system.


Development Of A Multicross Cultivars Of Stylosanthes Spp., B Grof, C D. Fernandes, C B. Almeida, A V. dos Santos 2024 National Beef Cattle Research Center, Brazil

Development Of A Multicross Cultivars Of Stylosanthes Spp., B Grof, C D. Fernandes, C B. Almeida, A V. Dos Santos

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A synthetic population, referred to as multicross, has been developed from an interspecific mixture of Stylosanthes capitata and S.macrocephala germplasm. This basic population evolved in a farming situation subject to uncontrolled, continuous, heavy grazing. Natural selection and systematically programmed intercrossing among anthracnose-resistant Venezuelan and Brazilian genotypes of S.capitata have played major roles in the subsequent development of this heterogeneous population. Eight anthracnose-resistant Venezuelan and two Brazilian accessions of S.capitata were introgressed into the basic population. Genetic diversity was further increased by adding seed of four selected accessions of S. macrocephala to the synthetic which had already included …


Selection Of Stylosanthes Guianensis For The Cerrados Of Brazil, B Grof, C D. Fernandes, A V. dos Santos, C B. Almeida 2024 National Beef Cattle Research Center, Brazil

Selection Of Stylosanthes Guianensis For The Cerrados Of Brazil, B Grof, C D. Fernandes, A V. Dos Santos, C B. Almeida

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Progenies of intervarietal hybrid stylos (Stylosanthes guianensis var.vulgaris x S.guianensis var.pauciflora) with mid-season maturity date (early-and mid-June), high dry matter and seed yields have been identified at the National Beef Cattle Research Center (CNPGC), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Dry matter yields of the best selections were comparable to those of the late-flowering control, cv. Mineirão. Several mid-season hybrids produced 150 to 200 kg/ha of seed-inpod and a single plant selection yielded in excess of 300 kg/ha. The high degree of resistance to anthracnose observed in the advanced generations is attributed to the immense genetic diversity of these …


Development Of Red Clover With High Levels Of Resistance To Root-Knot Nematodes, K H. Quesenberry, R A. Dunn, D E. Moon 2024 University of Florida

Development Of Red Clover With High Levels Of Resistance To Root-Knot Nematodes, K H. Quesenberry, R A. Dunn, D E. Moon

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), is grown in many areas of the world, but production in subtropical regions may be limited by susceptibility to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN). Selection for early vigor in RKN infested soils resulted in moderate RKN tolerance in ‘Cherokee’. However, improved RKN resistance in red clover was needed. Seven additional cycles of greenhouse selection using Cherokee as a base population developed a population (FLMR7) with high RKN resistance. When FLMR7 was infested with M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, or M. javanica, numbers of galls and egg masses …


Evaluating White Clover For Resistance To Cylindrocladium Root Rot, D S. Wofford, A Amaya 2024 University of Florida

Evaluating White Clover For Resistance To Cylindrocladium Root Rot, D S. Wofford, A Amaya

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A rapid screening technique was developed for use in evaluating white clover (Trifolium repens L.) for resistance to Cylindrocladium root rot incited by Cylindrocladium crotalariae. Culture plates of the fungus were evaluated for number of infective propagules after four weeks of growth on potato dextrose agar, and no differences were detected among plates. Seedlings of ‘Osceola’ white clover were exposed in the greenhouse to four levels of inoculum over a six-week period, with resistance based on percent survival of uninoculated controls. It was shown that suspending 1 culture plate in 100ml of water and rating plants four weeks …


Characterization Of Chilling Sensitivity Of Tropical And Temperate Grasses, M Ebina, K Okumura, H Matsu-ura, Y Tsurumi 2024 National Grassland Research Institute, Japan

Characterization Of Chilling Sensitivity Of Tropical And Temperate Grasses, M Ebina, K Okumura, H Matsu-Ura, Y Tsurumi

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

C16-C18 fatty acid composition of some lipids in several species of temperate and tropical grasses were measured. The fatty acid composition of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride (SQDG) indicated significant differences between temperate and tropical grasses. Especially the differences of the fatty acid composition of PG were remarkable. The unsaturated fatty acid content of PG in tropical grasses was lower than the contents in temperate grasses. These differences constantly appeared through the year. These differences were caused by the low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, or the low contents of C18 fatty acids.


Characterization Of Somatic Hybrids Between Festuca Arundinacea And Lolium Multiflorum, M Fujimori, T Takamizo, K Suginobu 2024 National Grassland Research Institute, Japan

Characterization Of Somatic Hybrids Between Festuca Arundinacea And Lolium Multiflorum, M Fujimori, T Takamizo, K Suginobu

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Metabolically inactivated tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) protoplasts and X-ray irradiated Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) protoplasts were electrofused resulting in the regeneration of twenty-six plantlets. Southern blot analysis using three mitochondrial probes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed that the regenerants were intergeneric somatic hybrids. All regenerated plants were male sterile and some of them had stamens that exhibited the pistillode appearance.


Selecting Lucerne (Medicago Sativa Complex) For Traits Conferring Adaptation To Grazing, E Piano, L Pecetti, M Romani 2024 Instituto Sperimentale per le Colture Foraggere

Selecting Lucerne (Medicago Sativa Complex) For Traits Conferring Adaptation To Grazing, E Piano, L Pecetti, M Romani

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A germplasm collection of the Medicago sativa complex was evaluated to select genotypes possessing traits possibly conferring adaptation to grazing. Deep-crowned plants, either creeping-rooted or rhizomatous, were found with different frequencies, in all “taxonomic” groups examined. Although belonging to subsp. sativa, “mielga” wild populations from Spain were closer to subsp. falcata for morpho-physiological traits. Deep-crowned plants could be categorised into four top-growth models, to which corresponded a fairly distinct underground morphology: three were rhizomatous and one creeping-rooted. Cultivars selected for creeping-rootedness did not outyield rhizomatous populations of subsp. x varia which, in turn, had better spreading ability. In a …


Digital Commons powered by bepress