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Quantifying Heterogeneity Along A Hillslope Using Seismic Refraction, Structure From Motion, And X-Ray Fluorescence In The Piedmont, South Carolina, Leah Topping 2023 Clemson University

Quantifying Heterogeneity Along A Hillslope Using Seismic Refraction, Structure From Motion, And X-Ray Fluorescence In The Piedmont, South Carolina, Leah Topping

All Theses

The critical zone (CZ) is the life sustaining outer layer of the earth that spans from the top of unweathered bedrock to the tops of the trees. This dynamic zone is always evolving because a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes transform bedrock into regolith, creating a spatially heterogeneous CZ architecture. This study aims to investigate the relationships between regolith thickness, seismic velocities, and chemical profiles as a function of slope position and it is hypothesized bedrock composition, fracture density, and foliation are the key factors controlling the physical heterogeneity in the top 1-2 meters of the CZ. To …


Geochemical Analysis And Numerical Modeling Of Central And East Tennessee Mississippi Valley-Type Ore Districts: Constraints On Ore Genesis, Jackson Price Copeland 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Geochemical Analysis And Numerical Modeling Of Central And East Tennessee Mississippi Valley-Type Ore Districts: Constraints On Ore Genesis, Jackson Price Copeland

Geosciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

A simple two-way stochastic mixing model is presented for analysis of the lead (Pb) isotope compositions of the North American Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) districts of East Tennessee, Central Tennessee, and Central Kentucky. Four distinct mixing scenarios were run to critically evaluate the stochastic model and examine different hypotheses regarding the genesis of Central Tennessee and Central Kentucky MVT deposits. Additionally, Pb isotope analysis was conducted on sphalerite samples from the Central and East Tennessee MVT districts. Model and sampling results suggest that Central Tennessee and Central Kentucky ores likely formed by mixing of three fluids. In contrast to conclusions from …


Impacts Of Preferential Flow On Tc-99and Np-237 Vadose Transport In Soils At The Savannah River Site, Josh Parris 2023 Clemson University

Impacts Of Preferential Flow On Tc-99and Np-237 Vadose Transport In Soils At The Savannah River Site, Josh Parris

All Theses

Since the 1950s, the United States has produced approximately 90,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (Office of Nuclear Energy, 2022); however, no long-term storage solutions are available. Technecium-99 and neptunium-237, two fission products found in SNF, readily form highly mobile species in oxidizing conditions (Hu, 2008; Bondietti, 1979) and have respective half-lives of 2.13 x 105 and 2.14 x106 years (Hu, 2010). Considering these characteristics, 99Tc and 237Np are two risk-driving isotopes found in SNF storage. The process of macropore-facilitated preferential flow, transport through cracks within a soil matrix, has been recognized to increase …


Evaluating Bulk Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Compositions Of Acidic Hydrothermal Sediments On Earth– Implications For Mars Astrobiology, Chance Sturrup 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating Bulk Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Compositions Of Acidic Hydrothermal Sediments On Earth– Implications For Mars Astrobiology, Chance Sturrup

Masters Theses

Carbon isotopes have been widely used as unique biosignatures because biologic processes commonly result in distinctive negative delta 13C values (-35 to -10 ‰) within organic material on Earth. However, the bulk delta 13C analysis in Gale crater sediments on Mars revealed a wider range of values, from -25 to +56 ‰ (Franz et al., 2020), which suggests a more complex origin. To determine if bulk isotope analysis can be successfully used to detect a microbial signature in a martian analog environment, we analyzed concentrations and isotope compositions of C within hydrothermal sediments in Iceland (Námafjall, Krýsuvík, Hveragerdi) …


Comparing Igneous Geochemical Data From Hawaii And Southern California Via Machine Learning, Miro Manestar 2023 Southern Adventist University

Comparing Igneous Geochemical Data From Hawaii And Southern California Via Machine Learning, Miro Manestar

MS in Computer Science Project Reports

Bi-plots are commonly used in geochemical analyses. However, their use can become cumbersome in the case of multi-variate analyses. Therefore, this thesis explores the application of unsupervised machine learning techniques, specifically PCA and K-Means, to analyze large geochemical data sets from two distinct regions, Hawaii and the \acrfull{prb} in Southern California. The IBM Foundational Methodology for Data Science was utilized to ensure proper data preparation and analysis. PCA provided dimensionality reduction, revealing which features correlated most strongly with variances within the data. K-Means clustering allowed for deeper interpretation of the data. The analysis yielded valuable insights into the composition and …


The Phosphorus Puzzle: Why Metal Phosphites Could Be The Missing Piece, Eleanor Boyle, Thomas J. Leyden III 2023 Kennesaw State University

The Phosphorus Puzzle: Why Metal Phosphites Could Be The Missing Piece, Eleanor Boyle, Thomas J. Leyden Iii

Symposium of Student Scholars

It is well understood that phosphorylation of organic molecules is a keystone mechanism toward developing early cell function. However, the source of phosphorous in prebiotic chemistry is under debate. Phosphate minerals were abundant on the early Earth, but they are highly insoluble. In comparison, metal phosphites are significantly more soluble. While they may not have been preserved in the geological record, there are several plausible pathways for their formation under prebiotic conditions. We hypothesize that metal phosphites were a major source of phosphorus. To test our hypothesis, we synthesized and characterized metal phosphites, containing the most abundant cations on the …


Concept Validation: Collecting Composite Samples To Understand The Presence Of Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In Michigan Forested Areas, Nicole Renee Sanabria 2023 Western Michigan University

Concept Validation: Collecting Composite Samples To Understand The Presence Of Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In Michigan Forested Areas, Nicole Renee Sanabria

Masters Theses

This research discusses the results of a state-wide study conducted by The Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy to assess the presence of PFAS in shallow soils of state-owned forested areas in Michigan utilizing a composite sampling method. One sample collected from each of Michigan’s 83 counties reveals the presence of PFAS in all but one sample, with total PFAS concentrations ranging from non-detect to 2.016 μg/kg (dry weight). PFOS is generally detected at the highest concentrations, ranging from non-detect to 0.88 μg/kg, followed by PFBA, with concentrations ranging from non-detect to 0.69 μg/kg, and PFOA, with concentrations …


Lithium And Lithium Isotope Behavior During High Temperature Solid/Fluid Exchanges: Examples From Iceland And The Izu-Bonin Forearc, Alex Maruszczak 2023 University of South Florida

Lithium And Lithium Isotope Behavior During High Temperature Solid/Fluid Exchanges: Examples From Iceland And The Izu-Bonin Forearc, Alex Maruszczak

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of a method for lithium isotopic measurement was developed using a quadrupole, single-collector ICP-MS. Measured precision was ±1.00‰ 2σ over a 15-month period based on measurements of international rock standards. A 1-hour leach using cold, HCl was sufficient to remove alteration-related Li in minimally to moderately altered seafloor basalts. Measurements on the Holocene ages lavas from the neovolcanic zones of Iceland suggest no systematic Li isotopic variability among the differing Icelandic sources. Felsic samples from Hekla and Pumice contain elevated Li contents of >18ug/g while the tholeiitic and alkaline basalts are <8ug/g Li. Most of the island lies around MORB values of ~+3 to +5‰ with the exception of Western Volcanic Zone samples that show evidence for seawater inputs. The RN-17 drillcore, which penetrates >3000m through a hydrothermal system in the …


The Fate Of Carbonate Rocks During Hypervelocity Impacts: Case Studies From Three Impact Structures On Earth, Nicolas D. Garroni 2023 The University of Western Ontario

The Fate Of Carbonate Rocks During Hypervelocity Impacts: Case Studies From Three Impact Structures On Earth, Nicolas D. Garroni

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Approximately 28% of all hypervelocity impact structures discovered on Earth exist in a carbonate-dominated target sequence. Despite decades of research, how carbonate rocks and minerals react to shock metamorphism is still poorly understood. In this contribution, three impact structures on Earth were studied to determine the effects of shock metamorphism on carbonate minerals: Chicxulub, Crooked Creek and Jebel Waqf as Suwwan.

At Chicxulub, carbonates from the impact-melt bearing breccia of drill core, M0077A were characterized petrographically and geochemically. Calcite was the only carbonate mineral present and is abundant throughout the impact breccia in five distinct varieties: limestone clasts …


Extreme Differentiation Along Multiple Liquid Lines Of Descent In Strongly Peralkaline Magma Series At Pantelleria (Italy), John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Bogusław Bagiński, Katarzyna M. Liszewska 2023 Eastern Kentucky University

Extreme Differentiation Along Multiple Liquid Lines Of Descent In Strongly Peralkaline Magma Series At Pantelleria (Italy), John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Bogusław Bagiński, Katarzyna M. Liszewska

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The liquid line of descent from trachyte to pantellerite is controlled primarily by fractional crystallization of alkali feldspar, with whole rock compositions following a fractionation path along the ‘thermal valley’ in the peralkaline haplogranite system Qz-Ab-Or-Ac-Ns and terminating at a minimum on the feldspar-quartz cotectic. Although whole-rock compositions for different pantelleritic suites follow nearly identical paths in a Qz-Ab-Or projection that terminate near the experimental minimum (Qz40.5Or34.5Ab25 at 100 MPa, projected from Ac-Ns), matrix glass from samples with near-minimum compositions record extreme differentiation and form a ‘cotectic delta’ beyond the terminus of the ‘thermal valley’. Although each glass trend shows …


Assessing Ecosystem Health Through Contaminants In The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, Nancy Torres 2023 University of San Diego

Assessing Ecosystem Health Through Contaminants In The Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, Nancy Torres

Theses

Although the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) remains the largest, most-intact coastal wetland in Southern California, it has a history of major changes, much of this related to its location immediately north of the US / Mexico Border. One of the primary challenges is cross-border flows from the rapidly growing city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, and the delivery of wastewater, debris, and sediment to sensitive coastal wetland ecosystems. There is a need to more fully investigate these environmental changes to assess the ecosystem health of the Tijuana River Estuary over time, especially related to pollution impacts. This can inform an …


Cementation And Groundwater Chemistry In Pleistocene Paleodune Deposits Of The Central Oregon Coast, Adrienne Lynn Stephens 2023 Portland State University

Cementation And Groundwater Chemistry In Pleistocene Paleodune Deposits Of The Central Oregon Coast, Adrienne Lynn Stephens

Dissertations and Theses

Pleistocene paleodune deposits occur along the Oregon coast, underlying coastal towns, roadways, and associated power and water infrastructure(s). Secondary cementation within these deposits provides some stability, allowing for near-vertical sea cliffs and roadcut outcrops. Yet, slope instability is a prevalent hazard observed within the paleodune deposits. Weakening of cementing agents via changes to groundwater conditions due to altered vegetation, climate change, or contamination, for example, could promote slope instability, threatening lives and infrastructure. This study aims to investigate the variability in the type and degree of cementation and to determine how they are affected by changes in groundwater conditions.

To …


Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom 2023 University of South Florida, USA

Cryogenic Ridges: A New Speleothem Type, Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Cryogenic cave carbonates have been described from several formerly or presently glaciated karst caves. In most of these occurrences, they precipitated as loose grains or aggregates with various morphologies and sizes. Here, we report on a new speleothem type (cryogenic ridges) identified in Sohodoalele Mici Cave (SW Romania) within a large chamber near the entrance shaft. This study was motivated by the presence of a network of calcite ridges over the stalactites’ surface and by the observation that during winter, these speleothems are covered by a thin ice layer. The higher δ18O (−3.5 to –1‰) and …


A Source-To-Sink Analysis Of The Pantanal Basin (Brazil): Implications For Weathering, Erosion, And Landscape Evolution In The World's Largest Wetland, Edward L. Lo 2023 University of Kentucky

A Source-To-Sink Analysis Of The Pantanal Basin (Brazil): Implications For Weathering, Erosion, And Landscape Evolution In The World's Largest Wetland, Edward L. Lo

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

Large back-bulge retro-arc basins have limited information about the sediment composition, yet they comprise important parts of the stratigraphic rock record. The exorheic Pantanal Basin is the world's largest continental wetland that regulates many valuable ecosystem services (water storage, nutrient cycling, agriculture, ranching, tourism, and transportation). This dissertation is composed of three studies that utilize a suite of tools to examine the most fundamental basin-wide source-to-sink sediment processes and controls that affect the characteristics and distribution of modern sediments.

The first paper consists of a metadata analysis of 76 shallow tropical floodplain lakes in the literature with bathymetric data and …


Vanadium Partitioning Between Magnetite, Hematite, And A Hydrothermal Fluid: Implications For Iocg And Ioa Deposits, Jeremy Raymond Nederbo 2023 Northern Illinois University

Vanadium Partitioning Between Magnetite, Hematite, And A Hydrothermal Fluid: Implications For Iocg And Ioa Deposits, Jeremy Raymond Nederbo

Graduate Research Theses & Dissertations

Iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are major sources of iron contained within magnetite and/or hematite as well as copper contained within copper-iron sulfides and gold as a native metal. Their formations have been attributed to magmatic, hydrothermal, or a mixture of magmatic-hydrothermal processes. Vanadium can readily substitute into magnetite via ion exchange due to similar atomic radii and charges as iron and has thus been hypothesized to be an effective tracer of hydrothermal or magmatic inputs. To evaluate the mobility of vanadium in a magnetite-hematite-fluid system, experiments on the partitioning of vanadium between magnetite, hematite and a …


Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations At Salar De Pajonales, Chile, MICHAEL A. A. MCINENLY 2023 The University Of Montana

Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations At Salar De Pajonales, Chile, Michael A. A. Mcinenly

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Remotely sensed microwave radars provide the spatial and temporal coverage needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between moisture content and salt pan mineralogy and, ultimately, climate variability. Moisture content in the surface and near-surface crusts found in salt pan environments, such as salt pan, has a significant impact on the backscatter values recorded by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. This is because moisture affects the dielectric constant and surface roughness of the saline surface, which in turn influences the amount of electromagnetic energy reflected back to the SAR sensor. Changes in backscatter values are attributed to seasonal and …


Carbon Capture, Utilization, And Storage, University of North Dakota. Energy and Environmental Research Center 2023 University of North Dakota

Carbon Capture, Utilization, And Storage, University Of North Dakota. Energy And Environmental Research Center

EERC Brochures and Fact Sheets

Fact sheet about carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) and the Energy & Environmental Research Center’s (EERC’s) CCUS capabilities. Includes information on the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership initiative, Brine Extraction and Storage Test (BEST), Carbon Storage Assurance Facility Enterprise (CarbonSAFE), Red Trail Energy Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), a feed study at Coal Creek Station, Bell Creek and Cedar Creek anticline projects, and Partnership for CO2 Capture (PCO2C).


Magmatic Evolution Of The Chasca Orkho Lava Series And Its Magmatic Enclaves, Volcán Ollagüe, Central Andes, Nathaniel W. Lenhard 2023 Missouri State University

Magmatic Evolution Of The Chasca Orkho Lava Series And Its Magmatic Enclaves, Volcán Ollagüe, Central Andes, Nathaniel W. Lenhard

MSU Graduate Theses

Magma mixing is a common factor in the creation of intermediate composition magmas and a potential instigator of a volcanic eruption. Magmatic enclaves, physical evidence of magma mixing within a volcanic system, are a phenomenon whose mechanisms remain unclear and debated. Common hypotheses explaining the occurrence of magmatic enclaves within a host lava range from the repeated injection of a new magma into a shallow reservoir to the disruption of equilibrium within a stratified magma chamber. Within the Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), the occurrence of magmatic enclaves yields similar geochemical compositions to their respective host rocks, bringing more difficulty …


Age And Chemistry Of Bell Creek Batholith, Elana G. Barth 2023 Michigan Technological University

Age And Chemistry Of Bell Creek Batholith, Elana G. Barth

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Southern Complex, located near Marquette, Michigan is in the southernmost portion of the Superior Province. This complex consists of granitoids and granitic gneiss that vary in composition. In twentieth century research, Hoffman (1987) and Tinkham (1997) concluded that the Southern Complex contained two units in which the granitoid was emplaced in the granitic gneiss. Recent research conducted by Petryk (2019) determined that the Southern Complex has a U-Pb zircon age of 2600 Ma. Dalle Fratte (2020) concluded that the granitic gneiss migmatite texture was the result of a felsic magma mixing with several generations of mafic intrusions that were …


Petrological And Geochemical Evaluation Of Rare-Earth Element Potential In The Sparta Granite Complex, Max J. Eshbaugh 2023 Georgia Southern University

Petrological And Geochemical Evaluation Of Rare-Earth Element Potential In The Sparta Granite Complex, Max J. Eshbaugh

Honors College Theses

Rare earth elements (REEs) are important resources with applications in the electronics, renewable energy, and automotive industries. REEs may be concentrated in the residual weathered portion of igneous parent rocks, typically granites. These residual deposits are mined in southeast Asia, but analogous climatic and geologic conditions suggest the existence of economically viable REE residual deposits in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The Sparta Granite Complex in east-central Georgia is a granitoid complex emplaced at the end of the Alleghanian orogeny, forming a suture between the Savannah River and Milledgeville terranes. Petrologic and geochemical assessments of the Sparta Granite and overlying …


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