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A Laser Ultrasound System To Non-Invasively Measure Compression Waves In Granular Ice Mixes, J. Chris McCaslin, T. Dylan Mikesell, Hans-Peter Marshall 2024 Boise State University

A Laser Ultrasound System To Non-Invasively Measure Compression Waves In Granular Ice Mixes, J. Chris Mccaslin, T. Dylan Mikesell, Hans-Peter Marshall

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Accurate knowledge of snow mechanical properties, including Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and density, is critical to many areas of snow science and to snow-related engineering problems. To facilitate the assessment of these properties, an innovative non-contacting laser ultrasound system (LUS) has been developed. This system acquires ultrasound waveform data at frequencies ranging from tens to hundreds of kHz in a controlled cold-lab environment. Two different LUS devices were compared in this study to determine which recorded more robust ultrasound in granular ice mix samples. We validated the ultrasound observations with poro-elastic traveltime modeling based on physical and empirical …


Influence Of Subsurface Critical Zone Structure On Hydrological Partitioning In Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Hang Chen, Qifei Niu, James P. McNamara, Alejandro N. Flores 2024 Boise State University

Influence Of Subsurface Critical Zone Structure On Hydrological Partitioning In Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Hang Chen, Qifei Niu, James P. Mcnamara, Alejandro N. Flores

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Headwater catchments play a vital role in regional water supply and ecohydrology, and a quantitative understanding of the hydrological partitioning in these catchments is critically needed, particularly under a changing climate. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of subsurface critical zone (CZ) structure in modulating the partitioning of precipitation in mountainous catchments; however, few existing studies have explicitly taken into account the 3D subsurface CZ structure. In this study, we designed realistic synthetic catchment models based on seismic velocity-estimated 3D subsurface CZ structures. Integrated hydrologic modeling is then used to study the effects of the shape of the weathered bedrock …


Investigation Of Gas Dynamics In Water And Oil-Based Muds Using Das, Dts, And Dss Measurements, Temitayo S. Adeyemi 2024 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Investigation Of Gas Dynamics In Water And Oil-Based Muds Using Das, Dts, And Dss Measurements, Temitayo S. Adeyemi

LSU Master's Theses

Reliable prediction of gas migration velocity, void fraction, and length of gas-affected region in water and oil-based muds is essential for effective planning, control, and optimization of drilling operations. However, there is a gap in our understanding of gas behavior and dynamics in water and oil-based muds. This is a consequence of the use of experimental systems that are not representative of field-scale conditions. This study seeks to bridge the gap via the well-scale deployment of distributed fiber-optic sensors for real-time monitoring of gas behavior and dynamics in water and oil-based mud. The aforementioned parameters were estimated in real-time using …


Enhancing Landslide Susceptibility Modelling Through A Novel Non-Landslide Sampling Method And Ensemble Learning Technique, Chao Zhou, Yue Wang, Ying Cao, Ramesh P. Singh, Bayes Ahmed, Mahdi Motagh, Yang Wang, Ling Chen, Guangchao Tan, Shanshan Li 2024 China University of Geosciences Wuhan

Enhancing Landslide Susceptibility Modelling Through A Novel Non-Landslide Sampling Method And Ensemble Learning Technique, Chao Zhou, Yue Wang, Ying Cao, Ramesh P. Singh, Bayes Ahmed, Mahdi Motagh, Yang Wang, Ling Chen, Guangchao Tan, Shanshan Li

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In recent years, several catastrophic landslide events have been observed throughout the globe, threatening to lives and infrastructures. To minimize the impact of landslides, the need of landslide susceptibility map is important. The study aims to extract high-quality non-landslide samples and improve the accuracy of landslide susceptibility modelling (LSM) outcomes by applying a coupled method of ensemble learning and Machine Learning (ML). The Zigui-Badong section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA) in China was considered in the present study. Twelve influencing factors were selected as inputs for LSM, and the relationship between each causal factor and landslide spatial development …


High-Precision U-Pb Geochronology Links Magmatism In The Southwestern Laurentia Large Igneous Province And Midcontinent Rift, M. T. Mohr, M. D. Schmitz, N. L. Swanson-Hysell, K. E. Karlstrom, F. A. Macdonald, M. E. Holland, Y. Zhang, N. S. Anderson 2024 Boise State University

High-Precision U-Pb Geochronology Links Magmatism In The Southwestern Laurentia Large Igneous Province And Midcontinent Rift, M. T. Mohr, M. D. Schmitz, N. L. Swanson-Hysell, K. E. Karlstrom, F. A. Macdonald, M. E. Holland, Y. Zhang, N. S. Anderson

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Southwestern Laurentia large igneous province (SWLLIP) comprises voluminous, widespread ca 1.1 Ga magmatism in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The timing and tempo of SWLLIP magmatism and its relationship to other late Mesoproterozoic igneous provinces have been unclear due to difficulties in dating mafic rocks at high precision. New precise U-Pb zircon dates for comagmatic felsic segregations within mafic rocks reveal distinct magmatic episodes at ca. 1098 Ma (represented by massive sills in Death Valley, California, the Grand Canyon, and central Arizona) and ca. 1083 Ma (represented by the Cardenas Basalts in the Grand Canyon and a …


Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval Over Idaho – Part 1: Using Sentinel-1 Repeat-Pass Interferometry, Shadi Oveisgharan, Robert Zinke, Zachary Hoppinen, Hans Peter Marshall 2024 California Institute of Technology

Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval Over Idaho – Part 1: Using Sentinel-1 Repeat-Pass Interferometry, Shadi Oveisgharan, Robert Zinke, Zachary Hoppinen, Hans Peter Marshall

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Snow water equivalent (SWE) is identified as the key element of the snowpack that impacts rivers' streamflow and water cycle. Both active and passive microwave remote sensing methods have been used to retrieve SWE, but there does not currently exist a SWE product that provides useful estimates in mountainous terrain. Active sensors provide higher-resolution observations, but the suitable radar frequencies and temporal repeat intervals have not been available until recently. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been shown to have the potential to estimate SWE change. In this study, we apply this technique to a long time series of 6 …


Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval Over Idaho – Part 2: Using L-Band Uavsar Repeat-Pass Interferometry, Zachary Hoppinen, Shadi Oveisgharan, Hans-Peter Marshall, Ross Mower, Kelly Elder, Carrie Vuyovich 2024 Boise State University

Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval Over Idaho – Part 2: Using L-Band Uavsar Repeat-Pass Interferometry, Zachary Hoppinen, Shadi Oveisgharan, Hans-Peter Marshall, Ross Mower, Kelly Elder, Carrie Vuyovich

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study evaluates using interferometry on low-frequency synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to monitor snow water equivalent (SWE) over seasonal and synoptic scales. We retrieved SWE changes from nine pairs of SAR images, mean 8 d temporal baseline, captured by an L-band aerial platform, NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), over central Idaho as part of the NASA SnowEx 2020 and 2021 campaigns. The retrieved SWE changes were compared against coincident in situ measurements (SNOTEL and snow pits from the SnowEx field campaign) and to 100 m gridded SnowModel modeled SWE changes. The comparison of in situ to …


Deep Structure Of Siletzia In The Puget Lowland: Imaging An Obducted Plateau And Accretionary Thrust Belt With Potential Fields, Megan L. Anderson, Richard J. Blakely, Ray E. Wells, Joe D. Dragovich 2024 Washington Geological Survey

Deep Structure Of Siletzia In The Puget Lowland: Imaging An Obducted Plateau And Accretionary Thrust Belt With Potential Fields, Megan L. Anderson, Richard J. Blakely, Ray E. Wells, Joe D. Dragovich

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Detailed understanding of crustal components and tectonic history of forearcs is important due to their geological complexity and high seismic hazard. The principal component of the Cascadia forearc is Siletzia, a composite basaltic terrane of oceanic origin. Much is known about the lithology and age of the province. However, glacial sediments blanketing the Puget Lowland obscure its lateral extent and internal structure, hindering our ability to fully understand its tectonic history and its influence on modern deformation. In this study, we apply map-view interpretation and two-dimensional modeling of aeromagnetic and gravity data to the magnetically stratified Siletzia terrane revealing its …


Geotechnical Characterisation Of Coal Spoil Piles Using High-Resolution Optical And Multispectral Data: A Machine Learning Approach, Sureka Thiruchittampalam, Bikram Pratap Banerjee, Nancy F. Glenn, Simit Raval 2024 University of New South Wales

Geotechnical Characterisation Of Coal Spoil Piles Using High-Resolution Optical And Multispectral Data: A Machine Learning Approach, Sureka Thiruchittampalam, Bikram Pratap Banerjee, Nancy F. Glenn, Simit Raval

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Geotechnical characterisation of spoil piles has traditionally relied on the expertise of field specialists, which can be both hazardous and time-consuming. Although unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) show promise as a remote sensing tool in various applications; accurately segmenting and classifying very high-resolution remote sensing images of heterogeneous terrains, such as mining spoil piles with irregular morphologies, presents significant challenges. The proposed method adopts a robust approach that combines morphology-based segmentation, as well as spectral, textural, structural, and statistical feature extraction techniques to overcome the difficulties associated with spoil pile characterisation. Additionally, it incorporates minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) based feature …


Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis, Part 2: Gis Methodology, Jacob DeAngelo, John W. Shervais, Jonathan M. Glen, Dennis Nielson, Sabodh Garg, Patrick F. Dobson, Erika Gasperikova, Eric Sonnenthal, Lee M. Liberty, Drew L. Siler, James P. Evans 2024 U.S. Geological Survey

Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis, Part 2: Gis Methodology, Jacob Deangelo, John W. Shervais, Jonathan M. Glen, Dennis Nielson, Sabodh Garg, Patrick F. Dobson, Erika Gasperikova, Eric Sonnenthal, Lee M. Liberty, Drew L. Siler, James P. Evans

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Play Fairway Analysis (PFA) in geothermal exploration originates from a systematic methodology developed within the petroleum industry and is based on a geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic framework of identified geothermal systems. We tailored this methodology to study the geothermal resource potential of the Snake River Plain and surrounding region, but it can be adapted to other geothermal resource settings. We adapted the PFA approach to geothermal resource exploration by cataloging the critical elements controlling exploitable hydrothermal systems, establishing risk matrices that evaluate these elements in terms of both probability of success and level of knowledge, and building a code-based ‘processing …


Chronostratigraphy Of Miocene Strata In The Berkeley Hills (California Coast Ranges, Usa) And The Arrival Of The San Andreas Transform Boundary, Stacey H. Gerasimov, Eben B. Hodgin, James L. Crowley, Nicholas L. Swanson-Hysell 2024 University of California

Chronostratigraphy Of Miocene Strata In The Berkeley Hills (California Coast Ranges, Usa) And The Arrival Of The San Andreas Transform Boundary, Stacey H. Gerasimov, Eben B. Hodgin, James L. Crowley, Nicholas L. Swanson-Hysell

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Miocene strata of the Claremont, Orinda, and Moraga formations of the Berkeley Hills (California Coast Ranges, USA) record sedimentation and volcanism during the passage of the Mendocino triple junction and early evolution of the San Andreas fault system. Detrital zircon laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) age spectra indicate a change in sedimentary provenance between the marine Claremont formation (Monterey Group) and the terrestrial Orinda and Moraga Formations associated with uplift of Franciscan Complex lithologies. A sandstone from the Claremont formation produced a detrital zircon chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) maximum depositional age of 13.298 ± 0.046 Ma, …


Zircon And The Role Of Magmatic Petrogenesis In The Formation Of Felsic-Hosted Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (Vms) Deposits: A Case Study From The Mid-Paleozoic Yukon-Tanana Terrane, Northern Canadian Cordillera, Matthew J. Manor, Stephen J. Piercey, Corey J. Wall 2024 Memorial University of Newfoundland

Zircon And The Role Of Magmatic Petrogenesis In The Formation Of Felsic-Hosted Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (Vms) Deposits: A Case Study From The Mid-Paleozoic Yukon-Tanana Terrane, Northern Canadian Cordillera, Matthew J. Manor, Stephen J. Piercey, Corey J. Wall

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Magmatism is a critical component in sustaining hydrothermal convection and metal transport during the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Previous studies of magmatic petrogenesis in VMS systems have demonstrated that ore-related volcanic rocks have distinct whole-rock geochemical and isotopic signatures (i.e., high HFSE, REE, Th, εHf-Nd, zircon saturation T) relative to barren volcanic rocks, which supports models of elevated crustal heat flow during periods of ore deposition; however, the petrologic characteristics and intrinsic parameters (e.g., T, fO2) related to these magmatic events in VMS districts remain poorly understood. Arc–back-arc assemblages from the mid-Paleozoic Yukon-Tanana terrane …


Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis, Part 1: Example From The Snake River Plain, Idaho, John W. Shervais, Jacob DeAngelo, Jonathan M. Glen, Dennis L. Nielson, Sabodh Garg, Patrick Dobson, Erika Gasperikova, Eric Sonnenthal, Lee M. Liberty, Dennis L. Newell, Drew Siler, James P. Evans 2024 Utah State University

Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis, Part 1: Example From The Snake River Plain, Idaho, John W. Shervais, Jacob Deangelo, Jonathan M. Glen, Dennis L. Nielson, Sabodh Garg, Patrick Dobson, Erika Gasperikova, Eric Sonnenthal, Lee M. Liberty, Dennis L. Newell, Drew Siler, James P. Evans

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Snake River Plain (SRP) volcanic province overlies the track of the Yellowstone hotspot, a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle. Most of the area is underlain by a basaltic volcanic province that overlies a mid-crustal intrusive complex, which in turn provides the long-term heat flux needed to sustain geothermal systems. Previous studies have identified several known geothermal resource areas within the SRP. For the geothermal study presented herein, our goals were to: (1) adapt the methodology of Play Fairway Analysis (PFA) for geothermal exploration to create a formal basis for its application to geothermal systems, (2) assemble …


Spatial Analyses On Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Anomalies And Magnetic Storms Observed By China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite In August 2018, Jann-Yeng Tiger Liu, Xuhui Shen, Fu-Yuan Chang, Yuh-Ing Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Chieh‑Hung Chen, Sergey Pulinets, Katsumi Hattori, Dimitar Ouzounov, Valerio Tramutoli, Michel Parrot, Wei-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Rui Yan, Qiao Wang 2024 National Central University, Taiwan

Spatial Analyses On Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Anomalies And Magnetic Storms Observed By China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite In August 2018, Jann-Yeng Tiger Liu, Xuhui Shen, Fu-Yuan Chang, Yuh-Ing Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Chieh‑Hung Chen, Sergey Pulinets, Katsumi Hattori, Dimitar Ouzounov, Valerio Tramutoli, Michel Parrot, Wei-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Rui Yan, Qiao Wang

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), with a sun-synchronous orbit at 507 km altitude, was launched on 2 February 2018 to investigate pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) and ionospheric space weather. The CSES probes manifest longitudinal features of four-peak plasma density and three plasma depletions in the equatorial/low-latitudes as well as mid-latitude troughs. CSES plasma and the total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) are used to study PEIAs associated with a destructive M7.0 earthquake and its followed M6.5 and M6.3/M6.9 earthquakes in Lombok, Indonesia, on 5, 17, and 19 August 2018, respectively, as well as to examine ionospheric …


Exploring Background Noise With A Large-N Infrasound Array: Waterfalls, Thunderstorms, And Earthquakes, L. T. Scamfer, J. F. Anderson 2023 Boise State University

Exploring Background Noise With A Large-N Infrasound Array: Waterfalls, Thunderstorms, And Earthquakes, L. T. Scamfer, J. F. Anderson

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ambient infrasound noise contains an abundance of information that is typically overlooked due to limitations of typical infrasound arrays. To evaluate the ability of large-N infrasound arrays to identify weak signals hidden in background noise, we examine data from a 22-element array in central Idaho, USA, spanning 58 days using a standard beamforming method. Our results include nearly continuous detections of diverse weak signals from infrasonic radiators, sometimes at surprising distances. We observe infrasound from both local (8 km) and distant (195 km) waterfalls. Thunderstorms and earthquakes are also notable sources, with distant thunderstorm infrasound observed from ∼800 to 900 …


Studying The Impact Of The Geospace Environment On Solar Lithosphere Coupling And Earthquake Activity, Dimitar Ouzounov, Galina Khachikyan 2023 Chapman University

Studying The Impact Of The Geospace Environment On Solar Lithosphere Coupling And Earthquake Activity, Dimitar Ouzounov, Galina Khachikyan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In solar–terrestrial physics, there is an open question: does a geomagnetic storm affect earthquakes? We expand research in this direction, analyzing the seismic situation after geomagnetic storms (GMs) accompanied by the precipitation of relativistic electrons from the outer radiation belt to form an additional radiation belt (RB) around lower geomagnetic lines. We consider four widely discussed cases in the literature for long-lived (weeks, months) RBs due to GMs and revealed that the 1/GMs 24 March 1991 with a new RB at L~2.6 was followed by an M7.0 earthquake in Alaska, 30 May 1991, near footprint L = 2.69; the 2/GMs …


Transport And Mixing Of Water Masses Across The Southeast Caribbean Ocean Imaged By Seismic Reflection Data, Joseph Renzaglia 2023 Southern Methodist University

Transport And Mixing Of Water Masses Across The Southeast Caribbean Ocean Imaged By Seismic Reflection Data, Joseph Renzaglia

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The Caribbean Sea serves as a major pathway for global thermohaline circulation (THC), which is a complex and vital component of the Earth’s climate system, influencing global heat distribution and oceanic circulation. Though relatively stratified, it is the boundary layer that distributes mass and temperature between the surface waters and the deep ocean where we observe various multiscale mixing processes from mesoscale to fine-scale. In regions where bathymetry is shallower and mechanical mixing forces, such as winds and tides, are more dominant, diapycnal diffusivity is typically stronger, driving vertical mixing. This type of mixing occurs at small scales, typically as …


Investigating Seismicity And Structure Of The Pecos, Texas Region Of The Delaware Basin Using A Temporary Nodal Network, Jenna Lynn Faith 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Investigating Seismicity And Structure Of The Pecos, Texas Region Of The Delaware Basin Using A Temporary Nodal Network, Jenna Lynn Faith

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

With increasing earthquakes in the Delaware Basin since 2009, earthquake studies, including accurate hypocenters, are critically needed in the Delaware Basin to identify the structures producing earthquakes, and to determine if they are related to unconventional petroleum development and production. In 2018, with funding from the Texas Seismological Network (TexNet), the University of Texas at El Paso deployed and maintained a nodal network of 25 Magseis Fairfield Z-Land Generation 2 5-Hz seismic nodes in the Pecos, Texas region of the Delaware Basin, known as The Pecos Array. The network was deployed from November 2018 until the beginning of January 2020, …


Using Shallow Electromagnetic And Magnetic Techniques To Map Soil Texture And Characterize Salinity And Water Dynamics Below Pecan Orchards, El Paso County, Texas, Kristina Sasser 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Using Shallow Electromagnetic And Magnetic Techniques To Map Soil Texture And Characterize Salinity And Water Dynamics Below Pecan Orchards, El Paso County, Texas, Kristina Sasser

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Non-invasive, near surface geophysical tools provide a time efficient and cost-effective approach to study the shallow subsurface. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) instruments are a category of these near surface methods that provide spatial and temporal information (2-D to 4-D) about shallow (<6 m) subsurface properties, from which soil salinity, clay content, and water content can be estimated. However, deconstructing soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) from EMI methods into its component parts remains a challenge. This research uses EMI and magnetic geophysical techniques to: (1) compare and contrast the distribution and behavior of ECa, both spatially and temporally, at two flood irrigated agricultural sites (pecan orchards) with different soil layers, properties, and controls on electrical conductivities that lie within the same floodplain in far west Texas; and (2) develop a one-dimensional inversion model using ECa and soil texture data at specified layers from established sites of known high and low ECa to determine soil layer resistivities at various dates during the irrigation season. Data are compared to soil sensor bulk EC and volumetric water content data at corresponding depths to validate results. Soils at both sites exhibit large ECa contributions from textural controls, and irrigation frequency. The combination of these two controls dictate where and how quickly secondary minerals precipitate, clog soil pores, reduce infiltration, and salinize the groundwater. Insight from this research aids in ongoing efforts to characterize vadose zone hydrology in dryland critical zones with high infiltration and serves as a guide for locations where future soil sampling will occur.


Geophysics-Informed Hydrologic Modeling Of A Mountain Headwater Catchment For Studying Hydrological Partitioning In The Critical Zone, Hang Chen, Qifei Niu, Aida Mendieta, John Bradford, James McNamara 2023 Boise State University

Geophysics-Informed Hydrologic Modeling Of A Mountain Headwater Catchment For Studying Hydrological Partitioning In The Critical Zone, Hang Chen, Qifei Niu, Aida Mendieta, John Bradford, James Mcnamara

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Hydrologic modeling has been a useful approach for analyzing water partitioning in catchment systems. It will play an essential role in studying the responses of watersheds under projected climate changes. Numerous studies have shown it is critical to include subsurface heterogeneity in the hydrologic modeling to correctly simulate various water fluxes and processes in the hydrologic system. In this study, we test the idea of incorporating geophysics-obtained subsurface critical zone (CZ) structures in the hydrologic modeling of a mountainous headwater catchment. The CZ structure is extracted from a three-dimensional seismic velocity model developed from a series of two-dimensional velocity sections …


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