Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Geophysics and Seismology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,199 Full-Text Articles 3,609 Authors 634,093 Downloads 100 Institutions

All Articles in Geophysics and Seismology

Faceted Search

2,199 full-text articles. Page 1 of 68.

Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Rockfalls and unstable slopes pose a serious threat to people and property along roads/highways in the southwestern mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia. In this study, the application of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology was applied aiming to propose a strategy to analyze and accurately depict the detection of rockfall changes, calculation of rockfall volume, and evaluate rockfall hazards along the Habs Road, Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A series of temporal LiDAR scans were acquired at three selected sites. Our results show that these three sites have different degrees of hazard due to their geological differences. The mean ...


Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour 2022 Portland State University

Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour

University Honors Theses

Methane (CH4) is the second most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas within the atmosphere, comprising ~16% of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas composition on Earth. It has an ~12-year lifetime relative to its eventual oxidation via reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH), and has a 100-year indirect global warming potential (GWP) approximately ranging between 28-36 [Environmental Protection Agency, 2021]. In recent years, the observed average global concentration of atmospheric CH4 has increased by ~11.0% from 2020 (~15.3 ppb) to 2021 (~17.0 ppb) [Dlugokencky et al., 1994; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2022]. With the specter of ...


Pronounced Changes In Thermal Signals Associated With The Madoi (China) M 7.3 Earthquake From Passive Microwave And Infrared Satellite Data, Feng Jing, Lu Zhang, Ramesh P. Singh 2022 China Earthquake Administration

Pronounced Changes In Thermal Signals Associated With The Madoi (China) M 7.3 Earthquake From Passive Microwave And Infrared Satellite Data, Feng Jing, Lu Zhang, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Thermal variations in surface and atmosphere observed from multiple satellites prior to strong earthquakes have been widely reported ever since seismic thermal anomalies were discovered three decades ago. These thermal changes are related to stress accumulation caused by the tectonic activities in the final stage of earthquake preparation. In the present paper, we focused on the thermal changes associated with the 2021 Madoi M 7.3 earthquake in China and analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution of the Index of Microwave Radiation Anomaly (IMRA) and the Index of Longwave Radiation Anomaly (ILRA) based on 8-year microwave brightness temperature (MWBT) and ...


Murphy Scale: A Locational Equivalent Intensity Scale For Hazard Events, Yi Victor Wang, Antonia Sebastian 2022 Chapman University

Murphy Scale: A Locational Equivalent Intensity Scale For Hazard Events, Yi Victor Wang, Antonia Sebastian

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

Empirical cross-hazard analysis and prediction of disaster vulnerability, resilience, and risk requires a common metric of hazard strengths across hazard types. In this paper, the authors propose an equivalent intensity scale for cross-hazard evaluation of hazard strengths of events for entire durations at locations. The proposed scale is called the Murphy Scale, after Professor Colleen Murphy. A systematic review and typology of hazard strength metrics is presented to facilitate the delineation of the defining dimensions of the proposed scale. An empirical methodology is introduced to derive equivalent intensities of hazard events on a Murphy Scale. Using historical data on impacts ...


Characterization Of Quaternary Stratigraphy In The Mississippi Sound To Evaluate The Influence Of Geologic Heterogeneity On Submarine Groundwater Transport And Discharge, Zachary Peoples 2022 Mississippi State University

Characterization Of Quaternary Stratigraphy In The Mississippi Sound To Evaluate The Influence Of Geologic Heterogeneity On Submarine Groundwater Transport And Discharge, Zachary Peoples

Theses and Dissertations

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) through seafloor sediments is gaining recognition as an important component of coastal water quality. Stratigraphic features creating geologic heterogeneity, such as incised paleochannels, may influence preferential pathways for SGD. The central Mississippi Sound is underlain by paleochannels that were incised into Pleistocene sediments while the area was subaerially exposed during the last glacial maximum and are now buried by transgressive Holocene deposits. In this thesis, newly collected chirp, previously published seismic reflection, and sediment core data are used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of the Holocene-Pleistocene contact. Results indicate that Pleistocene paleochannels cross-cut the study area ...


Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis 2022 Eastern Washington University

Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis

2022 Symposium

Geology and geologic processes have featured in many pieces of classical music such as Alan Hovhaness’ symphonic works after Mt. St. Helens and Glacier Peak but these pieces are impressionistic and only take general inspiration from the geology of their subjects. This paper describes the creation of Tectonics (2021) a piece which incorporates and describes many geologic principles and processes, such as mantle convection, through the musical form of cannon, the formation of fold and thrust belts whose cross sections are directly visually recreated in the score, and the physical dynamics of earthquake waves demonstrated through variations of pitch and ...


Feasibility Assessment On Use Of Proximal Geophysical Sensors To Support Precision Management, Sophia M. Becker 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Feasibility Assessment On Use Of Proximal Geophysical Sensors To Support Precision Management, Sophia M. Becker

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Soil property maps provide information for field management activities such as irrigation, fertilization, and seeding. Many on-the-go proximal geophysical sensors have been developed in recent decades that can help map agricultural fields without dense soil sampling. To utilize these technologies most profitably in precision management, scientists and precision agriculture dealers must better understand sensors’ performances in given field conditions and the economic value of different proximal soil sensing methods. Chapter two reports the study that was conducted at three sites in North Dakota, United States to strengthen understanding of the usefulness of different proximal geophysical data types in agricultural contexts ...


Characterization And Evolution Of The Professor Valley Pennsylvanian Salt Body (Paradox Basin, Ut) Using Gravity And Magnetotellurics, Derek Scott 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Characterization And Evolution Of The Professor Valley Pennsylvanian Salt Body (Paradox Basin, Ut) Using Gravity And Magnetotellurics, Derek Scott

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Syndepositional halokinetic movement of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, UT & CO behaved as a control over the development of depositional systems during the Late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic periods (Trudgill, 2011). Understanding the controls on halokinetic evolution in the area serves as an invaluable outcrop analogue for similar subsurface salt bodies in petroleum-bearing basins and provides key insights for hydrocarbon exploration in salt basins world wide. Professor Valley, located 15 miles Northeast of Moab, UT is situated between the Fisher Valley (Onion Creek) and Cache/Salt Valley salt walls. It includes an anomalous, isolated 0.5 km² ...


Comparing Satellite Vs Marine Potential Fields Data Over The Bathymetrists Seamounts, Alexa Fernandez, Irina Filina 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Comparing Satellite Vs Marine Potential Fields Data Over The Bathymetrists Seamounts, Alexa Fernandez, Irina Filina

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Graduate

The Bathymetrists Seamounts (BSM) are located north of the Sierra Leone Rise (SLR) in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. The seamounts reside on oceanic crust that is 105 to 45 million years old. However, dredging over the Bathymetrists Seamounts dated rocks at ~40 Myr. The general trend of the seamounts contradicts the eastward motion of the African tectonic plate. The origin and tectonic history of the Bathymetrists Seamounts remains debated in literature. Potential fields (gravity and magnetic) data can provide important insight into the formation and evolution of the seamounts. The purpose of this study is to compare available gravity and magnetic ...


Processing Seismic, Gravity And Magnetic Data Over Diebold Knoll On Juan De Fuca Plate, Md Ariful Islam, Irina Filina 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Processing Seismic, Gravity And Magnetic Data Over Diebold Knoll On Juan De Fuca Plate, Md Ariful Islam, Irina Filina

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Graduate

The Juan de Fuca plate is subducting beneath the North American plate along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The CSZ is associated with multiple earthquakes, although compared to other subduction zones, it is less active. Many studies suggest that subduction will cause major mega thrust earthquake in near future, while others oppose this view. This project is focused on the Diebold Knoll on the JdF plate Various geophysical methods will be integrated to determine its origin and tectonic history.


Systematic Integration Of Applications Into The Surface Biology And Geology (Sbg) Earth Mission Architecture Study, Christine M. Lee, Nancy F. Glenn, E. Natasha Stavros, Jeff Luvall, Karen Yuen, Stephanie Schollaert Uz 2022 California Institute of Technology

Systematic Integration Of Applications Into The Surface Biology And Geology (Sbg) Earth Mission Architecture Study, Christine M. Lee, Nancy F. Glenn, E. Natasha Stavros, Jeff Luvall, Karen Yuen, Stephanie Schollaert Uz

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) concept is the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth mission to develop and implement systematic integration of science application needs at the architecture study stage. Prior NASA mission concept and planning activities presumed that science measurement needs would encompasss application measurement needs and so did not explicitly evaluate and include applications at this stage. However, the effort presented here identified, documented and integrated application needs that would not have been included by considering research science needs only. First, a low latency of no greater than 24 hr was identified as the optimal ...


Testing Aftershock Forecasts Using Bayesian Methods, Elisa Dong 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Testing Aftershock Forecasts Using Bayesian Methods, Elisa Dong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of strong aftershocks can increase the seismic hazard following a large earthquake and should be considered for operational earthquake forecasting and risk management. Aftershock forecasts are generated from seismicity models during the evolution of the aftershock sequence. This work compares quantitative test results of the forecasting abilities for three competing aftershock rate models - the modified Omori law, the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model, and the compound Omori law - to identify the best performing model for forecasting the largest aftershock during the early aftershock sequence. Forecasts of large aftershock probabilities are generated by either the Extreme Value distribution or ...


Observations On The Stress Related Variations Of Soil Radon Concentration In The Gulf Of Corinth, Greece, Vassilios K. Karastathis, George Eleftheriou, Menas Kafatos, Kanaris Tsinganos, G-Akis Tselentis, Evangelos Mouzakiotis, Dimitar Ouzounov 2022 National Observatory of Athens

Observations On The Stress Related Variations Of Soil Radon Concentration In The Gulf Of Corinth, Greece, Vassilios K. Karastathis, George Eleftheriou, Menas Kafatos, Kanaris Tsinganos, G-Akis Tselentis, Evangelos Mouzakiotis, Dimitar Ouzounov

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Our observations indicate a characteristic pattern in the long-term variation of soil radon concentrations, which seems to be consistent with the expected variation of regional stress in relation to seismicity. However, it seems that the major changes in radon level begin before the rock rapture, i.e. before the earthquake occurs. These conclusions have emerged after long-term observations with continuous and thorough real-time gamma-radiation monitoring in the seismically active area of the Gulf of Corinth, Greece. The recordings acquired close to a hot spring were of very high quality, implying that the deep hydraulic flow can possibly play a key ...


Toward The Understanding Of The 2018 Arnold, Ne Earthquake Cluster: Relocation Of Hypocenters And Establishment Of New Gravity Base Stations, Kris Guthrie 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Toward The Understanding Of The 2018 Arnold, Ne Earthquake Cluster: Relocation Of Hypocenters And Establishment Of New Gravity Base Stations, Kris Guthrie

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

In 2018, 27 unexpected earthquakes occurred in central Nebraska near Arnold. These earthquakes have no readily apparent cause and no evidence of the responsible fault system is seen at the surface. A joint analysis of vintage, regional gravity and magnetic datasets before the first earthquake revealed a lineament that could represent a pre-existing fault system. New high resolution potential fields data are needed to confidently map the subsurface features around the cluster. To design a survey and collect the data, the following tasks need to be addressed: [1] The earthquakes’ hypocenters need to be improved (relocated) to increase the efficiency ...


Prediction Of Soil Water Content And Electrical Conductivity Using Random Forest Methods With Uav Multispectral And Ground-Coupled Geophysical Data, Yunyi Guan, Katherine R. Grote, Joel Schott, Kelsi Leverett 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Prediction Of Soil Water Content And Electrical Conductivity Using Random Forest Methods With Uav Multispectral And Ground-Coupled Geophysical Data, Yunyi Guan, Katherine R. Grote, Joel Schott, Kelsi Leverett

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The volumetric water content (VWC) of soil is a critical parameter in agriculture, as VWC strongly influences crop yield, provides nutrients to plants, and maintains the microbes that are needed for the biological health of the soil. Measuring VWC is difficult, as it is spatially and tempo-rally heterogeneous, and most agricultural producers use point measurements that cannot fully capture this parameter. Electrical conductivity (EC) is another soil parameter that is useful in agricul-ture, since it can be used to indicate soil salinity, soil texture, and plant nutrient availability. Soil EC is also very heterogeneous; measuring EC using conventional soil sampling ...


Snow Cover Variability And Trend Over The Hindu Kush Himalayan Region Using Modis And Srtm Data, Nirasindhu Desinayak, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham el-Askary, Menas Kafatos, Ghassem R. Asrar 2022 Indian Institute of Technology

Snow Cover Variability And Trend Over The Hindu Kush Himalayan Region Using Modis And Srtm Data, Nirasindhu Desinayak, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham El-Askary, Menas Kafatos, Ghassem R. Asrar

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Snow cover changes have a direct bearing on the regional and global energy and water cycles and the change in the Earth's climate conditions. We studied the relatively long-term (2000–2017) altitudinal spatiotemporal changes in the coverage of snow and glaciers in one of the world's largest mountainous regions, the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region, including Tibet, using remote sensing data (5 km grid resolution) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra satellite. This dataset provided a unique opportunity to study zonal and hypsographic changes in the intra-annual (accumulating season and melting season) and ...


Application Of Gravity Data For Hydrocarbon Exploration Using Machine Learning Assisted Workflow, Oluwafemi Temidayo Alaofin 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Application Of Gravity Data For Hydrocarbon Exploration Using Machine Learning Assisted Workflow, Oluwafemi Temidayo Alaofin

LSU Master's Theses

Gravity survey has played an essential role in many geoscience fields ever since it was conducted, especially as an early screening tool for subsurface hydrocarbon exploration. With continued improvement in data processing techniques and gravity survey accuracy, in-depth gravity anomaly studies, such as characterization of Bouguer and isostatic residual anomalies, have the potential to delineate prolific regional structures and hydrocarbon basins. In this study, we focus on developing a cost-effective, quick, and computationally efficient screening tool for hydrocarbon exploration using gravity data employing machine learning techniques. Since land-based gravity surveys are often expensive and difficult to obtain in remote places ...


Sentinel-1 Snow Depth Retrieval At Sub-Kilometer Resolution Over The European Alps, Hans Lievens, Isis Brangers, Hans-Peter Marshall, Tobias Jonas, Marc Olefs, Gabriëlle De Lannoy 2022 KU Leuven

Sentinel-1 Snow Depth Retrieval At Sub-Kilometer Resolution Over The European Alps, Hans Lievens, Isis Brangers, Hans-Peter Marshall, Tobias Jonas, Marc Olefs, Gabriëlle De Lannoy

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Seasonal snow is an essential water resource in many mountain regions. However, the spatio-temporal variability in mountain snow depth or snow water equivalent (SWE) at regional to global scales is not well understood due to the lack of high-resolution satellite observations and robust retrieval algorithms. We investigate the ability of the Sentinel-1 mission to monitor snow depth at sub-kilometer (100 m, 500 m, and 1 km) resolutions over the European Alps for 2017–2019. The Sentinel-1 backscatter observations, especially in cross-polarization, show a high correlation with regional model simulations of snow depth over Austria and Switzerland. The observed changes in ...


A Comparison Of Predicted And Observed Ocean Tidal Loading Displacements Around The Puget Sound, Tanessa Caitlyn Morris 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

A Comparison Of Predicted And Observed Ocean Tidal Loading Displacements Around The Puget Sound, Tanessa Caitlyn Morris

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Around coastlines and in shallow oceans, models of ocean tidal loading (OTL) are not highly accurate and can create sources of error in OTL analysis. OTL is tides moving ocean water that cause the surface of Earth to deform. In this study, forward-modelled predictions of OTL are compared to observations from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data to explore the elastic deformation response of Earth to OTL around the Puget Sound. Data from 75 stations were processed to yield position estimates at intervals of 5 minutes for a year. The OTL model used for comparison was the FES2014b ocean-tide model ...


Mapping Of Microseismic Aftershock Sequences Following The 2017 Lincoln, Montana M 5.8 Earthquake, Reyer M. Fenoff 2022 University of Montana

Mapping Of Microseismic Aftershock Sequences Following The 2017 Lincoln, Montana M 5.8 Earthquake, Reyer M. Fenoff

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The Rocky Mountains of western Montana have long been experiencing tectonic compression and extension that has shaped much of western North America. This activity consistently produces seismic events, like the 6 July 2017 M 5.8 earthquake 11 km southeast of Lincoln, MT, which can be used to advance understanding of crust and mantle dynamics and structure. Seismic mapping is vital to understanding structure and tectonic activity in western Montana as well as in analogous locations across the world. Recently deployed seismometers from the University of Montana as well as the Montana Regional Seismic Network (MRSN) from the Montana Bureau ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress