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Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt 2021 Georgia College

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan 2021 Utah State University

Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

An Apatosaurus sp. locality from Dinosaur National Monument designated DNM-15 was excavated in 1985, and associated with two Allosaurus teeth and one Ceratosaurus tooth that were near one of the caudal vertebrae. The Ceratosaurus tooth was buried between an overlying rib and that same caudal vertebra. The caudal vertebrae of the DNM-15 Apatosaurus were intact and articulated, but the anterior skeleton was mostly absent, with a row of articulated sacral vertebrae in close association with a femur. Two other Allosaurus teeth were reported near the preserved ilium of the Apatosaurus, but they could not be located in the collections.

Field ...


Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways

Zea E-Books

A survey of the archeological and paleontological literature allowed a compilation of Holocene records of mammals in Nebraska. This survey identified Holocene records from 338 sites in 62 of the 93 Nebraska counties. These counties were located throughout state, but there was a concentration of sites in southwestern Nebraska where there were 27 fossil sites in Frontier County and 22 in Harlan County. Fossils sites were underrepresented in the Sand Hills region. Records of fossil mammals covered the entire Holocene period from 13,000 years ago until AD 1850. A minimum of 57 species (with eight additional species potentially present ...


African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson 2020 American Museum of Natural History

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs ...


Faunal Remains From Archaeology Sites In Southwestern New Mexico, Karen Gust Schollmeyer, S. O. MacDonald 2020 Archaeology Southwest

Faunal Remains From Archaeology Sites In Southwestern New Mexico, Karen Gust Schollmeyer, S. O. Macdonald

Occasional Papers

This study attempts to create a comprehensive catalog of all known records of faunal remains recovered from 105 archaeological sites located across southwestern New Mexico. These sites range in age from 2000BC to AD 1450. Approximately 250 taxa of mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are represented in this compilation. Primary reference materials from published and unpublished sources are included, along with the repositories where relevant collections may be found for potential reexamination by researchers from a variety of fields of interest.


Late Quaternary Climate Variability And Change From Aotearoa New Zealand Speleothems: Progress In Age Modelling, Oxygen Isotope Master Record Construction And Proxy-Model Comparisons, Andrew M. Lorrey, Paul W. Williams, John-Mark Woolley, Nicolas C. Faushereau, Adam Hartland, Helen Bostock, Shaun Eaves, Matthew S. Lachniet, James A. Renwick, Vidya Varma 2020 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd.

Late Quaternary Climate Variability And Change From Aotearoa New Zealand Speleothems: Progress In Age Modelling, Oxygen Isotope Master Record Construction And Proxy-Model Comparisons, Andrew M. Lorrey, Paul W. Williams, John-Mark Woolley, Nicolas C. Faushereau, Adam Hartland, Helen Bostock, Shaun Eaves, Matthew S. Lachniet, James A. Renwick, Vidya Varma

Geoscience Faculty Publications

We re-evaluated speleothem isotope series from Aotearoa New Zealand that were recently contributed to the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and AnaLysis (SISAL) database. COnstructing Proxy Records from Age Models (COPRA) software was used to produce Bayesian age models for those speleothems. The new age modelling helped us examine Late Quaternary temporal coverage for the national speleothem network, and also supported our exploration of three different isotope master record generation techniques using Holocene δ18O data from Waitomo. We then applied the output from one of the isotope master record techniques to test an application case of how climate transfer functions can be ...


Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett 2020 East Tennessee State University

An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A century ago, two large American mastodon Mammut americanum specimens from coastal South Carolina were mounted for display at Amherst College. Their robust build, broad and pentalophodont third molars, and well-developed mandibular tusks were noted as unusual. Here, these specimens are redescribed; three additional mastodon mandibles from the same region of South Carolina are also described. Though collection information on these specimens is sparse, they appear to span >150 ka in the Middle to Late Pleistocene, and probably include the first report of Mammut from the earliest-Rancholabrean Ten Mile Hill Formation. Some “unusual” features — moderately to extremely broad third molars ...


Paleoecology Of Columbian And Pygmy Mammoths In Southern Nevada And California: How Terminal Pleistocene Ecosystems Shaped Mammoths At The Individual, Population, And Community Level, Lauren Elizabeth Parry 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Paleoecology Of Columbian And Pygmy Mammoths In Southern Nevada And California: How Terminal Pleistocene Ecosystems Shaped Mammoths At The Individual, Population, And Community Level, Lauren Elizabeth Parry

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this dissertation research is to examine the paleoecology of the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) and the pygmy mammoth (M. exilis) on the individual, population, and community level, emphasizing factors internal to their ecosystem that may have contributed to their extinction. I focus specifically on mammoths from Southern Nevada and Southern California to add regional data to the complex and evolving study of North American mammoth paleoecology.

Chapter 2 documents the permitted excavation of a partial mammoth (Mammuthus sp.) between 2016-2018 from late Pleistocene groundwater-discharge deposits near Fairbanks Spring in the Amargosa Valley, Nevada. A preliminary radiocarbon date ...


A Southeastern North America River Community Forty-Thousand Years Ago, Zack J. Quirk, Dennis B. Blanton 2020 University of Michigan Ann Arbor

A Southeastern North America River Community Forty-Thousand Years Ago, Zack J. Quirk, Dennis B. Blanton

Georgia Journal of Science

Understanding how past communities have been shaped by environmental alterations can provide insight into the impacts of future climate change. Local climate and river systems have changed significantly over the last glacial maximum, but little is known about the communities of the Georgian Coastal Plain earlier in the period. Plant fossils from Coffee Bluff, a Quaternary organic river deposit of the Ocmulgee River in southeastern Georgia, were used to determine past environmental and climatic conditions. The paleoflora were found imbedded in a mud matrix and were removed by a slaking method; they were later identified and separated to respective ecological ...


Lithological And Geochemical Responses To Abrupt Global And Regional Paleoenvironmental Changes During The Aptian In A Hemipelagic Setting Of The Eastern Iberian Peninsula: A Multi-Proxy Approach, Jander Socorro 2020 Florida International University

Lithological And Geochemical Responses To Abrupt Global And Regional Paleoenvironmental Changes During The Aptian In A Hemipelagic Setting Of The Eastern Iberian Peninsula: A Multi-Proxy Approach, Jander Socorro

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intense episodes of environmental perturbations and regionally to globally distributed, oxygen-deprived marine facies characterize the Cretaceous sedimentary record. The Organyà Basin in the Spanish Pyrenees chronicles this period in expanded stratigraphic sequences that enabled high-resolution sampling and detailed analysis of disturbances poorly recorded in more lithologically condensed sections. Here, I present an integrated multi-proxy study aimed at understanding the Basin’s response to changing paleoenvironmental conditions during the early Aptian stage of the Cretaceous.

Results from the El Pui section indicate that large-scale (> 1‰), negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) that show no corresponding shifts in local sources of organic matter ...


Exploring The Origins Of Secondary Growth – Two Lower Devonian (Emsian) Euphyllophytes From Gaspé, Canada, And Their Implications For The Evolution Of Secondary Growth, Kelly C. Pfeiler 2020 Humboldt State University

Exploring The Origins Of Secondary Growth – Two Lower Devonian (Emsian) Euphyllophytes From Gaspé, Canada, And Their Implications For The Evolution Of Secondary Growth, Kelly C. Pfeiler

HSU theses and projects

Secondary growth from a vascular cambium has a deep fossil record among euphyllophytes, with the earliest occurrence dated to 407 Ma. To date, Armoricaphyton and Franhueberia represent the only instances of secondary growth formally documented in the Early Devonian. Secondary growth diversified rapidly and was present in all major euphyllophyte lineages by the Middle Devonian. Here, I describe two new Early Devonian euphyllophytes exhibiting secondary growth, from the Emsian (c. 400-395 Ma) Battery Point Formation (Québec, Canada): Gmujij tetraxylopteroides gen. et sp. nov. and Perplexa praestigians gen et sp. nov. Both these plants possess mesarch actinosteles with Psilophyton-type ...


An Assessment Of Convergence In The Feeding Morphology Of Xiphactinus Audax And Megalops Atlanticus Using Landmark-Based Geometric Morphometrics, Edward Chase Shelburne 2020 Fort Hays State University

An Assessment Of Convergence In The Feeding Morphology Of Xiphactinus Audax And Megalops Atlanticus Using Landmark-Based Geometric Morphometrics, Edward Chase Shelburne

Master's Theses

Convergence is an evolutionary phenomenon wherein distantly related organisms independently develop features or functional adaptations to overcome similar environmental constraints. Historically, convergence among organisms has been speculated or asserted with little rigorous or quantitative investigation. More recent advancements in systematics has allowed for the detection and study of convergence in a phylogenetic context, but this does little to elucidate convergent anatomical features in extinct taxa with poorly understood evolutionary histories. The purpose of this study is to investigate one potentially convergent system—the feeding structure of Xiphactinus audax (Teleostei: Ichthyodectiformes) and Megalops atlanticus (Teleostei: Elopiformes)—using a comparative anatomical approach ...


Manus Descriptions Of An Undescribed Mastodon From The Latest Miocene-Earliest Pliocene Gray Fossil Site, With Comparisons To Other North American Proboscidean Taxa, Brenna Hart-Farrar 2019 East Tennessee State University

Manus Descriptions Of An Undescribed Mastodon From The Latest Miocene-Earliest Pliocene Gray Fossil Site, With Comparisons To Other North American Proboscidean Taxa, Brenna Hart-Farrar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A detailed morphological description of a proboscidean manus from the Gray Fossil Site (GFS), Gray, Tennessee is provided. Manus elements from an American mastodon (Mammut americanum), a Britt’s shovel-tusker (Amebelodon britti), an undescribed small gomphothere species, and a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) are used for comparisons. Linear measurements indicate proportional differences between the GFS mastodon and other proboscidean taxa ranging from the Hemphillian to Rancholabrean land mammal ages. Possible pathologies are also described. The purpose of this study is to determine how the GFS mastodon differs in manus morphology and locomotion from different proboscidean taxa, including size, environmental, evolutionary ...


Middle To Late Pleistocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions From Lake El'gygytgyn, Arctic Russia, Mary Helen Habicht 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Middle To Late Pleistocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions From Lake El'gygytgyn, Arctic Russia, Mary Helen Habicht

Doctoral Dissertations

Climate change is a major issue challenging the world today. Our global society faces rising temperatures, variable weather patterns, and rising sea level among other associated issues. Our action (or inaction) to address current changes will have serious ramifications for life on our planet in the coming centuries and millennia. In order to provide context for these present and future changes, we can utilize the paleo record to understand the natural variability of Earth’s climate system.

One region of the world is changing more rapidly than the global average. Over recent decades, the Arctic has experienced warmer temperatures, reduced ...


Environmental Influences On The Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition Of Devonian And Early Carboniferous Land Plants, Zhenzhu Wan, Thomas J. Algeo, Patricia G. Gensel, Stephen E. Scheckler, William E. Stein, Walter L. Cressler III, Christopher M. Berry, Honghe Xu, Harold D. Rowe, Peter E. Sauer 2019 University of Cincinnati

Environmental Influences On The Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition Of Devonian And Early Carboniferous Land Plants, Zhenzhu Wan, Thomas J. Algeo, Patricia G. Gensel, Stephen E. Scheckler, William E. Stein, Walter L. Cressler Iii, Christopher M. Berry, Honghe Xu, Harold D. Rowe, Peter E. Sauer

Earth & Space Sciences Faculty Publications

Systematic analysis of the stable carbon isotopic composition of fossil land plants (δ13Cp) has the potential to offer new insights regarding paleoclimate variation and plant-environment interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems. δ13Cp was measured for 190 fossil plant specimens belonging to 10 genera of Early to Late Devonian age (Archaeopteris, Drepanophycus, Haskinsia, Leclercqia, Pertica, Psilophyton, Rhacophyton, Sawdonia, Tetraxylopteris, and Wattieza) and 2 genera of Early Carboniferous age (Genselia and Rhodeopteridium) collected from sites located mainly in the Appalachian Basin (22–30°S paleolatitude). For the full carbon-isotopic dataset (n=309), δ13Cp ranges from −20.3‰ to −30.5‰ with a mean ...


Improving Thorium-230 Determination In Marine Sediment, Katherine Mateos 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Improving Thorium-230 Determination In Marine Sediment, Katherine Mateos

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Our oceans are intimately related to the climate of our planet. Paleoceanographic approaches aim to study oceans through geologic time to improve models of future climate. Radioisotopes provide us with chemical tracers that help us understand change through time. The uraniumseries decay chain contains thorium-230, a decay product of uranium-234. This isotope is useful to paleoceanographers in its disequilibrium to its parent isotope and in determining the flux of sediment falling to the ocean floor. In order to use 230Th to study oceans, we must be able to accurately measure the amount of thorium in sediment samples. Thorium is found ...


Reorganization Of Surviving Mammal Communities After The End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction, Anikó B. Tóth, S. Kathleen Lyons, W. Andrew Barr, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Jessica L. Blois, René Bobe, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith, Danielle Fraser, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Gary R. Graves, Advait M. Jukar, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Laura C. Soul, Amelia Villaseñor, John Alroy 2019 Macquarie University, Australia

Reorganization Of Surviving Mammal Communities After The End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction, Anikó B. Tóth, S. Kathleen Lyons, W. Andrew Barr, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Jessica L. Blois, René Bobe, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith, Danielle Fraser, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Gary R. Graves, Advait M. Jukar, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Laura C. Soul, Amelia Villaseñor, John Alroy

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Large mammals are at high risk of extinction globally. To understand the consequences of their demise for community assembly, we tracked community structure through the end- Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in North America.We decomposed the effects of biotic and abiotic factors by analyzing co-occurrence within the mutual ranges of species pairs. Although shifting climate drove an increase in niche overlap, co-occurrence decreased, signaling shifts in biotic interactions. Furthermore, the effect of abiotic factors on cooccurrence remained constant over time while the effect of biotic factors decreased. Biotic factors apparently played a key role in continental-scale community assembly before the extinctions ...


Assessing Diagenetic Conditions In The Late Triassic Chinle Formation Through Petrographic And Geochemical Analysis Of Phytosaur Teeth, John Fortner 2019 Southern Methodist University

Assessing Diagenetic Conditions In The Late Triassic Chinle Formation Through Petrographic And Geochemical Analysis Of Phytosaur Teeth, John Fortner

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The Upper Triassic (Norian; ~227-208 Ma) Chinle Formation of Petrified Forest (PeFo) National Park was deposited during a time of major tectonic breakup and profound changes in atmospheric circulation and faunal compositions. Little has been done however to assess whether surficial paleoenvironmental trends related to deterioration of the Late Triassic Megamonsoon resulted in similar trends in the early diagenetic environment. Here, we use phytosaur tooth dentin as a proxy for diagenetic conditions in the Chinle of PEFO, as its greater susceptibility to chemical alteration relative to enamel makes it an excellent substrate from which changing diagenetic conditions may be studied ...


Changes In Mammalian Abundance Through The Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition In The White River Group Of Nebraska, Usa, Robert Gillham 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Mammalian Abundance Through The Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition In The White River Group Of Nebraska, Usa, Robert Gillham

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Marine records show major cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition (EOCT). Most proxy studies in the White River Group suggest drying across the EOCT, and some suggest cooling. The lower resolution continental record has hindered a direct correlation of the marine climate record to Nebraska. I explore various correlation schemes and what they imply for faunal changes. This study compiles and analyzes data from 4,875 specimens in the University of Nebraska State Museum (UNSM) collection to test the hypothesis that climate change across the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary caused significant abundance changes in mammals. A series of binning schemes was ...


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