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Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution ...


Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi 2021 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi

Earth Systems Research Center

Shape is an important indicator of the physical and chemical behavior of natural and engineered particulate materials (e.g., sediment, sand, rock, volcanic ash). It directly or indirectly affects numerous microscopic and macroscopic geologic, environmental and engineering processes. Due to the complex, highly irregular shapes found in particulate materials, there is a perennial need for quantitative shape descriptions. We developed a new characterization method (shape curve analysis) and a new quantitative measure (compactness, not the topological mathematical definition) by applying a fundamental principle that the geometric anisotropy of an object is a unique signature of its internal spatial distribution ...


Evolution Of The Magma System Of Pantelleria (Italy) From 190 Ka To Present., Nina J. Jordan, John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Silvio G. Rotolo 2021 University of Leicester

Evolution Of The Magma System Of Pantelleria (Italy) From 190 Ka To Present., Nina J. Jordan, John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The eruptive history of Pantelleria has been marked by the eruption of nine peralkaline ignimbrites, with inter-ignimbrite episodes from small, local volcanic centres. New whole-rock geochemical data are presented for seven ignimbrites and used with published data for younger units to track compositional changes with time. From ∼190 ka, silicic magmatism was dominated by comenditic trachyte to comendite compositions, evolving along generally similar liquid lines of descent (LLOD). The final ignimbrite, the Green Tuff (∼46 ka), was tapped from a compositionally zoned pantelleritic upper reservoir to a trachytic mush zone. Younger (20–7 ka) silicic magmatism has been relatively small ...


Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan 2021 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Pantelleria volcano has a particularly intriguing evolutionary history intimately related to the peralkaline composition of its explosively erupted magmas. Due to the stratigraphic complexity, studies over the last two decades have explored either only the pre-Green Tuff ignimbrite volcanism or the post-Green Tuff activity. We here focus on the whole evolutionary history, detailing the achievements since the first pioneering studies, in order to illustrate how the adoption and integration of progressively more accurate methods (40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetism, petrography, and detailed field study) have provided many important independent answers to unresolved questions. We also discuss rheomorphism, a distinct feature at Pantelleria ...


Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley 2021 Boise State University

Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lavas that have erupted at near‐axis seamounts provide windows into mid‐ocean ridge mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics which are not easily observed on‐axis at fast‐spreading centers. Beneath ridges, most heterogeneity is obscured as magmas aggregate toward the ridge, where they efficiently mix and homogenize during transit and within shallow magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of near‐axis seamounts and volcanic ridges perpendicular to the East Pacific Rise. We assess the chemistry of near‐ridge mantle ...


The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham DM Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey 2020 West Virginia University

The Fold Illusion: The Origins And Implications Of Ogives On Silicic Lavas, Graham Dm Andrews, Stuart Kenderes, Alan Whittington, Shelby L. Isom, Sarah Brown, Holly Danielle Pettus, Brenna Cole, Kailee Gokey

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Folds on the surfaces of mafic lavas are among the most readily recognized geological structures and are used as first-order criteria for identifying ancient lavas on Earth and other planetary bodies. However, the presence of surface-folds on the surface of silicic lavas is contested in this study and we challenge the widely accepted interpretation that silicic lava surfaces contain folds using examples from the western United States and Sardinia, Italy. We interpret the ridges and troughs on their upper surfaces, typically referred to as ‘ogives’ or ‘pressure ridges’, as fracture-bound structures rather than folds. We report on the absence of ...


Changes In Crater Geometry Revealed By Inversion Of Harmonic Infrasound Observations: 24 December 2018 Eruption Of Mount Etna, Italy, Leighton M. Watson, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Mariangela Sciotto, Andrea Cannata 2020 Stanford University

Changes In Crater Geometry Revealed By Inversion Of Harmonic Infrasound Observations: 24 December 2018 Eruption Of Mount Etna, Italy, Leighton M. Watson, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Mariangela Sciotto, Andrea Cannata

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In December 2018, Mount Etna (Italy) experienced a period of increased eruptive activity that culminated in a fissure eruption on the southeast flank. After the onset of the flank eruption, the peak frequency of the summit infrasound signals decreased while resonance increased. We invert infrasound observations for crater geometry and show that crater depth and radius increased during the eruption, which suggests that the flank eruption drained magma from the summit and that eruptive activity led to erosion of the crater wall. By inverting the entire infrasound amplitude spectra rather than just the peak frequency, we are able to place ...


Experimental And Thermodynamic Constraints On Mineral Equilibrium In Pantelleritic Magmas., Pierangelo Romano, Bruno Scaillet, John C. White, Joan Andujar, Ida Di Carlo, Silvio G. Rotolo 2020 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Experimental And Thermodynamic Constraints On Mineral Equilibrium In Pantelleritic Magmas., Pierangelo Romano, Bruno Scaillet, John C. White, Joan Andujar, Ida Di Carlo, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Crystallization experiments on two pantellerites from Pantelleria, Italy, provide new evidence for the relation-ships between mineral phases in pantelleritic rocks as well as the influence of temperature and redox conditionson mineral assemblages. Experiments were performed at 1 kbar with temperature ranging between 750–900°C,andfluid saturation conditions with XH2O (=H2O/H2O+CO2) between 0 and 1. Redox conditions werefixed at,or slightly below, the FMQ buffer. Results show that at temperature of 900 °C pantelleritic magmas are well abovethe liquidus regardless their water content; we also observed a decrease in liquidus temperature (800°C) withincreasingly reducing conditions. Mineral assemblages ...


Top–Down Control On Eruptive Style At Masaya Volcano Inferred From Melt Composition, Lisa Hlinka 2020 CUNY Queens College

Top–Down Control On Eruptive Style At Masaya Volcano Inferred From Melt Composition, Lisa Hlinka

Student Theses

Highly explosive, Plinian-type eruptions of basaltic magma are enigmatic because basaltic melts have lower viscosities than more silicic melts which have traditionally been considered essential for such explosive eruption style. Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is one of the few basaltic volcanoes to have generated a wide range of eruptive styles, from effusive lava lake activity to voluminous Plinian fall deposits. This volcano thus offers a unique case study to better constrain ideas on basaltic eruption style controls.

We analyze olivine-, plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions as well as matrix glasses from lava lake (LL) ejecta and two Plinian tephra deposits—the ...


Volcano Video Data Characterized And Classified Using Computer Vision And Machine Learning Algorithms, Alex J.C. Witsil, Jeffrey B. Johnson 2020 Boise State University

Volcano Video Data Characterized And Classified Using Computer Vision And Machine Learning Algorithms, Alex J.C. Witsil, Jeffrey B. Johnson

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Video cameras are common at volcano observatories, but their utility is often limited during periods of crisis due to the large data volume from continuous acquisition and time requirements for manual analysis. For cameras to serve as effective monitoring tools, video frames must be synthesized into relevant time series signals and further analyzed to classify and characterize observable activity. In this study, we use computer vision and machine learning algorithms to identify periods of volcanic activity and quantify plume rise velocities from video observations. Data were collected at Villarrica Volcano, Chile from two visible band cameras located ~17 km from ...


Sulfur And Trace Metal Cycling At Convergent Margins, Jesse B. Walters 2020 The University of Maine

Sulfur And Trace Metal Cycling At Convergent Margins, Jesse B. Walters

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Subduction zones are the site of long-term chemical exchange between Earth’s surface and interior geochemical reservoirs. Subducting slabs are progressively depleted in volatiles and other mobile elements through dehydration and melting reactions. These elements are then introduced to the mantle wedge and volcanic arc. One consequence of this cycle is that volcanic arcs produce the most oxidized magmas on Earth. Sulfur, which exhibits a range in valence states from S2- to S6+, is one of the few elements in the subducting slab capable of oxidizing the arc and mantle wedge. Sulfides in the slab may also act ...


Volcanic Record Of The Arc-To-Rift Transition Onshore Of The Guaymas Basin In The Santa Rosalía Area, Gulf Of California, Baja California, Graham DM Andrews 2020 West Virginia University

Volcanic Record Of The Arc-To-Rift Transition Onshore Of The Guaymas Basin In The Santa Rosalía Area, Gulf Of California, Baja California, Graham Dm Andrews

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

The Gulf of California is an archetype of continental rupture through transtensional rifting, and exploitation of a thermally weakened arc to produce a rift. Volcanic rocks of central Baja California record the transition from calcalkaline arc magmatism, due to subduction of the Farallon plate (ca. 24–12 Ma), to rift magmatism, related to the opening of the Gulf of California (<12 Ma). In addition, a suite of postsubduction rocks (<12 Ma), referred to as “bajaites,” are enriched in light rare-earth and other incompatible elements (e.g., Ba and Sr). These are further subdivided into high-magnesian andesite (with 50%–58% SiO2 and MgO >4%) and adakite (>56% SiO2 and MgO <3%). The bajaites correlate spatially with a fossil slab imaged under central Baja and are inferred to record postsubduction melting of the slab and subduction-modified mantle by asthenospheric upwelling associated with rifting or slab breakoff. We report on volcanic rocks of all three suites, which surround and underlie the Santa Rosalía sedimentary rift basin. This area represents the western margin of the Guaymas basin, the most magmatically robust segment of the Gulf of California rift, where seafloor spreading occurred in isolation for 3–4 m.y. (starting at 6 Ma) before transtensional pull-apart basins to the north and south ruptured the continental crust. Outcrops of the Santa Rosalía area thus offer the opportunity to understand the magmatic evolution of the Guaymas rift, which has been the focus of numerous oceanographic expeditions.

We describe 21 distinct volcanic and hypabyssal map units in the Santa Rosalía area, using field characteristics, petrographic data, and major- and trace-element geochemical data, as well as zircon isotopic data and ten ...


Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania 2020 German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ

Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Imaging growing lava domes has remained a great challenge in volcanology due to their inaccessibility and the severe hazard of collapse or explosion. Changes in surface movement, temperature, or lava viscosity are considered crucial data for hazard assessments at active lava domes and thus valuable study targets. Here, we present results from a series of repeated survey flights with both optical and thermal cameras at the Caliente lava dome, part of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala, using an Unoccupied Aircraft System (UAS) to create topography data and orthophotos of the lava dome. This enabled us to track ...


Pumice Compositions And Mineral Chemistry From Lascar Volcano, Chile, Madelaine M. Stearn 2020 Missouri State University

Pumice Compositions And Mineral Chemistry From Lascar Volcano, Chile, Madelaine M. Stearn

MSU Graduate Theses

Lascar volcano is one the most active volcano in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Cordillera, with 36 Holocene eruptions including a VEI 4 eruption in April 1993. Activity has not been consistent throughout time, and therefore, the processes behind it are poorly understood. Lascar volcano has cyclic behavior and has had four stages of activity, each of which had a unique eruptive style and product composition. Stage I (<43 >ka) had primarily mafic andesite lavas erupted effusively from a stratocone. Stage II initiated with dome building events ESE of the original vent and culminated in the 26.45 ka ...


Comments On ‘Area Changes Of Glaciers On Active Volcanoes In Latin America’ By Reinthaler And Others (2019), William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards 2020 Dickinson College

Comments On ‘Area Changes Of Glaciers On Active Volcanoes In Latin America’ By Reinthaler And Others (2019), William Hardy Kochtitzky, Benjamin R. Edwards

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Reinthaler and others (2019), hereafter Reinthaler 2019, characterize ice extent on 59 volcanoes in Latin America from 1986 to 2015 using Landsat and Sentinel-2 imagery to quantify the impact of climate and eruptions on glacier evolution. Here we compare the work of Reinthaler 2019 with Kochtitzky and others (2018), hereafter Kochtitzky 2018, on Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, and present some new analysis to highlight the challenges of seasonal snow coverage in the delineation of glaciers (Pfeffer and others, 2014; Paul and others, 2017). Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap has received significant attention (e.g. Racoviteanu and others, 2007; Silverio and Jaquet ...


Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Cryptotephra At Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada, Alex Newsom

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

Advanced Undergraduate Winner

Cryptotephra (small volcanic shards ranging 20-80 microns in size) were discovered within Unit X of the Las Vegas Formation at Whitney Mesa Nature Preserve, Henderson, Nevada. Cryptotephra are deposited soon after a volcanic eruption and can be used as a dating tool to create narrow time constraints for surrounding sediments. Cryptotephra have many applications but are mainly useful as a dating tool. Their study has important implications for the understanding of the timing of palaeoclimatological and paleoenvironmental events as well as for archaeological studies to date important events in human history.

The Whitney Mesa cryptotephra were correlated ...


Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly DeGrandpre 2020 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Magma Storage And Dynamics At Akutan, Semisopochnoi, And Okmok Volcanoes From Analytical And Numerical Models Of Geodetic, Seismic, And Petrologic Data, Kimberly Degrandpre

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Volcanic eruptions can cause significant socioeconomic loss, but a better understanding of the processes and dynamics influencing the evolution of volcanic plumbing systems will advance the development of eruption forecasting models that will ultimately mitigate hazards and risks associated with eruptive events. Geologic and geophysical data must be integrated in 3D, finite- element, multiphysical, numerical models to define the coupled evolution of magmatic and crustal stress regimes in volcanic environments, but in data limited regions this is not always an option. The remote nature of the Aleutian Island Arc restricts ground-based monitoring and sampling efforts, and due to sparse temporal ...


Climate Change Effects On Volcanoes In The Tropics: A Review Of The Deglaciation Of Antisana And Its Effects On Subsequent Water Streams And Rivers Over 20 Years, Callie C. Rominger 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Climate Change Effects On Volcanoes In The Tropics: A Review Of The Deglaciation Of Antisana And Its Effects On Subsequent Water Streams And Rivers Over 20 Years, Callie C. Rominger

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Located in the Northern end of Ecuador lies the stunning glacier of Antisana which attracts many tourists and whose runoff provides a significant amount of water supply for Quito. Climate change is posing threats to many ecosystems world wide but will have a more substantial impact on the volcanoes in the tropics because they do not have a seasonally altered climate. Small changes in the air temperature can have larger impacts on these areas that are adapted to constant temperatures with seasonal precipitation changes. Climate change, in recent years, had caused an increase in the glacial retreat of the Antisana ...


Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash 2020 China Earthquake Administration

Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Taal volcano erupted on 12 January 2020, the first time since 1977. About 35 mild earthquakes (magnitude greater than 4.0) were observed on 12 January 2020 induced from the eruption. In the present paper, we analyzed optical properties of volcanic aerosols, volcanic gas emission, ocean parameters using multi-satellite sensors, namely, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) and ground observations, namely, Argo, and AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) data. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in all the parameters, which mainly occurred in the western and south-western regions because ...


Volcanic History Of The Izu Bonin Mariana Arc Prior To The First Arc Rift From Volcaniclastic Sediments Of Dsdp Site 296 And Iodp Site 1438, Eshita Samajpati 2020 Florida International University

Volcanic History Of The Izu Bonin Mariana Arc Prior To The First Arc Rift From Volcaniclastic Sediments Of Dsdp Site 296 And Iodp Site 1438, Eshita Samajpati

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Izu-Bonin Mariana (IBM) island arc in the western Pacific basin is a volcanic chain formed by subduction of the Pacific lithospheric plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Worldwide, subduction causes high-magnitude earthquakes and explosive volcanic activity in addition to forming the Earth’s continental crust and major ore deposits, thus its understanding is important to human concerns. In the IBM, volcanic activity spans 50 million years to the present and the arc has undergone extension and periodic rifting, preserving remnants of its early history. The Kyushu Palau ridge (KPR), an inactive Oligocene remnant of the rifted IBM system, is ...


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