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Pre-Eruptive Magma Configurations And Petrogenetic Relationships Of The Rattlesnake Tuff, Oregon–Insights From Spectacularly Banded High-Silica Rhyolite Pumices, Vanessa M. Swenton, Martin J. Streck 2022 Portland State University

Pre-Eruptive Magma Configurations And Petrogenetic Relationships Of The Rattlesnake Tuff, Oregon–Insights From Spectacularly Banded High-Silica Rhyolite Pumices, Vanessa M. Swenton, Martin J. Streck

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The 7.1Ma Rattlesnake Tuff (RST) of eastern Oregon is a widespread and voluminous (>300 km3) ignimbrite composed of 99% crystal poor (≤1%) high-silica rhyolite (HSR) and


Understanding Hydrogen Variations In Silicate Glasses As A Result Of Degassing: Fire-Fountaining On The Moon And Earth, Erin M. Recchuiti 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Understanding Hydrogen Variations In Silicate Glasses As A Result Of Degassing: Fire-Fountaining On The Moon And Earth, Erin M. Recchuiti

Masters Theses

Volatiles, particularly hydrogen, play a key role in volcanic eruptions, especially explosive eruptions like fire-fountaining [e.g., Saal et al. 2002; Dixon 1997; Arndt & von Engelhardt 1987; Yoder 1976]. Discerning volatile abundance and behavior during ascent and eruption can aid in understanding the source melt and primary volatile content of planetary interiors. Volcanic glasses are samples closest to the primary melt, as they quench quickly enough to limit fractionation or crystallization. This is paramount for volatile studies, especially pertaining to water as its constituents are oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen is the most volatile element and one of the first to vacate the system ...


Environmental And Societal Impacts In New England Following A Potential Yellowstone Eruption, Serena L. Butler 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Environmental And Societal Impacts In New England Following A Potential Yellowstone Eruption, Serena L. Butler

Honors Theses and Capstones

Yellowstone National Park is famously known for its history of “super-volcano” eruptions. From the evidence of volcanic deposits, scientists know that the ash cloud that erupted from Yellowstone covered most of the western U.S. states, but until recently, models have not shown the ash could also have reached eastern states. The scope of this investigation is to determine what would happen to New England if Yellowstone were to erupt today in terms of health, agriculture, transportation, relocation, economy, and climate. In order to do so, three significant eruptions during human history are considered as case studies in order to ...


Structural And Petrologic Insights Into The Emplacement Of Effusive Silicic Lavas: Inyo Domes, California, Shelby L. Isom 2022 West Virginia University

Structural And Petrologic Insights Into The Emplacement Of Effusive Silicic Lavas: Inyo Domes, California, Shelby L. Isom

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The Long Valley volcanic region, eastern California, USA is most famous for the caldera-forming eruption which produced the Bishop Tuff ~760,000 years ago. Over the last 3,000 years volcanism has been focused in the western margin of the region through punctuated eruptions of silicic lavas and domes. Three simultaneous effusive silicic eruptions, ~600 years ago, generated three lava domes: Obsidian Dome; Glass Creek Dome; and Deadman Dome which erupted onto vastly different topographies. These domes are exceptionally unique as they erupted variable amounts of two textural and chemical endmember lavas (crystal-rich and crystal-poor) that intimately mixed. The overarching ...


Thermomechanical Evolution Of A Magmatic System During A Caldera Cycle: Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand, Jacob Bonessi 2022 Michigan Technological University

Thermomechanical Evolution Of A Magmatic System During A Caldera Cycle: Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand, Jacob Bonessi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Caldera forming eruptions represent some of the largest simultaneous releases of mass and energy on the planet and pose a looming risk on a global scale. The study of the underlying magmatic systems is integral in understanding what leads to these large eruptions. This approach pairs a suite of major and trace element profiles from plagioclase with a grain texture classification and statistical analysis using Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) as proxies to explore potential changes in the thermomechanical state of the magmatic system at Okataina Volcanic Complex (OVC), New Zealand through its most recent caldera cycle. Results indicate systematic changes ...


Using Sedimentary Mercury Geochemistry To Evaluate The Niagara-Salina Transition, Silurian Michigan Basin, Usa, Sara Hayes 2021 Western Michigan University

Using Sedimentary Mercury Geochemistry To Evaluate The Niagara-Salina Transition, Silurian Michigan Basin, Usa, Sara Hayes

Masters Theses

The Niagara-Salina boundary in the Michigan Basin is marked by an abrupt transition from carbonates to evaporites. Though the cause is uncertain, previous work suggests the onset of Salina evaporites was driven by basin restriction, but the presence of several global carbon isotope excursions (CIE) suggest a global driver. This study builds on this discussion using two relatively new geochemical proxies - elemental mercury concentrations [Hg] and Hg isotopes.

Mercury concentrations [Hg] were measured in 88 samples from the State Kalkaska #2-15 core from 6604.03 ft to 6797.42 ft. [Hg] ranges from 0.11 to 0.62 mg/kg ...


Geochemical Investigation Of Monogenetic Volcanoes From The Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska, Clayton L. Reinier 2021 Missouri State University

Geochemical Investigation Of Monogenetic Volcanoes From The Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska, Clayton L. Reinier

MSU Graduate Theses

Small-volume basaltic magmas found at continental intraplate environments have not been as extensively studied compared to their polygenetic counterparts. Specifically, regions such as the Bering Sea basalt province, described as a diffuse igneous province, have commonly been overlooked. Assumptions that these systems are invoked by simple, single batches of magma has subsequently left a gap in understanding the processes responsible for primary magma generation away from plate boundaries with little tectonic influence. The following studies that constitute this thesis focus on an in-depth geochemical investigation at the crystal and sub-crystal scale to evaluate lithospheric mantle heterogeneities, processes that govern primary ...


Tracking Secondary Lahar Flow Paths And Characterizing Pulses And Surges Using Infrasound Array Networks At Volcán De Fuego, Guatemala, Ashley R. Bosa, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Silvio De Angelis, John J. Lyons, Amilcar Roca, Jacob F. Anderson, Amando Pineda 2021 Boise State University

Tracking Secondary Lahar Flow Paths And Characterizing Pulses And Surges Using Infrasound Array Networks At Volcán De Fuego, Guatemala, Ashley R. Bosa, Jeffrey B. Johnson, Silvio De Angelis, John J. Lyons, Amilcar Roca, Jacob F. Anderson, Amando Pineda

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lahars are one of the greatest hazards at many volcanoes, including Volcán de Fuego (Guatemala). On 1 December 2018 at 8:00 pm local Guatemala time (~2:06:00 UTC), an hour-long lahar event was detected at Volcán de Fuego by two permanent seismo-acoustic stations along the Las Lajas drainage on the southeast side. To establish the timing, duration, and speed of the lahar, infrasound array records were examined to identify both the source direction(s) and the correlated energy fluctuations at the two stations. Co-located seismic and acoustic signals were also examined, which indicated at least five distinct energy ...


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are ...


Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Experimental Alteration Of Venusian Surface Basalts In A Hybrid Co2-So2 Atmosphere, Robert B. Reid

Masters Theses

Venus’ surface and interior dynamics remain largely unconstrained, due in great part to the major obstacles imposed by its 470°C, 90 bars surface conditions and its thick, opaque atmosphere. Orbiter-based thermal emission data provide an opportunity to characterize the Venus surface. However, interpretations of such spectra critically depend on understanding interactions between the planet’s surface basaltic rocks and its caustic, SO2-bearing CO2 atmosphere. Several studies, using remote sensing, thermodynamic modeling, and laboratory experiments have placed constraints on alteration mineralogies and rates. Yet constraint with respect to SO2-mediated reactions with basalts of contrasting compositions ...


Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie McDermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews 2021 Southern Utah University

Using Gis To Create Hazard Maps And Assess Evacuation Routes Around “The Gate To Hell”; Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, Rebecca Hedges, Stevie Mcdermaid, Jason Kaiser, David Maxwell, Kathy Matthews

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Volcán Masaya in Nicaragua is made of a series of calderas and craters that lies 7 km from the city of Masaya with a population of over 100,000. Masaya is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) which contains hundreds of volcanoes. While many of the volcanoes of the arc produce small, quiescent eruptions, some are capable of large explosive events. The recent cycle of volcanism at Masaya began 7000 years ago. Initial eruptions were primarily lava, small ash flows, ashfalls, and degassing events which eventually gave way to climactic Vulcanian eruptions. The hazards presented from this system ...


Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson 2021 University of Helsinki

Serial Interaction Of Primitive Magmas With Felsic And Mafic Crust Recorded By Gabbroic Dikes From The Antarctic Extension Of The Karoo Large Igneous Province, Jussi S. Heinonen, Arto V. Luttinen, Frank J. Spera, Saku K. Vuori, Wendy A. Bohrson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Two subvertical gabbroic dikes with widths of ~ 350 m (East-Muren) and ≥ 500 m (West-Muren) crosscut continental flood basalts in the Antarctic extension of the ~ 180 Ma Karoo large igneous province (LIP) in Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land. The dikes exhibit unusual geochemical profiles; most significantly, initial (at 180 Ma) εNd values increase from the dike interiors towards the hornfelsed wallrock basalts (from − 15.3 to − 7.8 in East-Muren and more gradually from − 9.0 to − 5.5 in West-Muren). In this study, we utilize models of partial melting and energy-constrained assimilation‒fractional crystallization in deciphering the magmatic evolution ...


Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley 2021 Boise State University

Extreme Heterogeneity In Mid-Ocean Ridge Mantle Revealed In Lavas From The 8°20′N Near-Axis Seamount Chain, Molly Anderson, V. Dorsey Wanless, Michael Perfit, Ethan Conrad, Patricia Gregg, Daniel Fornari, W. Ian Ridley

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lavas that have erupted at near‐axis seamounts provide windows into mid‐ocean ridge mantle heterogeneity and melting systematics which are not easily observed on‐axis at fast‐spreading centers. Beneath ridges, most heterogeneity is obscured as magmas aggregate toward the ridge, where they efficiently mix and homogenize during transit and within shallow magma chambers prior to eruption. To understand the deeper magmatic processes contributing to oceanic crustal formation, we examine the compositions of lavas erupted along a chain of near‐axis seamounts and volcanic ridges perpendicular to the East Pacific Rise. We assess the chemistry of near‐ridge mantle ...


Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi 2021 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Quantifying Shape Of Star-Like Objects Using Shape Curves And A New Compactness Measure, Gopal K. Mulukutla, Emese Hadnagy, Matthew Fearon, Edward Garboczi

Earth Systems Research Center

Shape is an important indicator of the physical and chemical behavior of natural and engineered particulate materials (e.g., sediment, sand, rock, volcanic ash). It directly or indirectly affects numerous microscopic and macroscopic geologic, environmental and engineering processes. Due to the complex, highly irregular shapes found in particulate materials, there is a perennial need for quantitative shape descriptions. We developed a new characterization method (shape curve analysis) and a new quantitative measure (compactness, not the topological mathematical definition) by applying a fundamental principle that the geometric anisotropy of an object is a unique signature of its internal spatial distribution ...


Peralkaline Silicic Extrusive Rocks: Magma Genesis, Evolution, Plumbing Systems, And Eruption., Ray Macdonald, John C. White, Harvey E. Belkin 2021 University of Warsaw

Peralkaline Silicic Extrusive Rocks: Magma Genesis, Evolution, Plumbing Systems, And Eruption., Ray Macdonald, John C. White, Harvey E. Belkin

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Peralkaline silicic extrusive rocks are an important component of the volcanological record. Here we review several aspects of their formation and evolution, including the tectonic settings in which they occur, their main petrological and geochemical features, the magmatic lineages along which they evolve, and the parameters (T, P, fO2, melt water contents) that control the lineages. Particular attention is paid to the composition of the extraordinary melts formed at the lowest temperatures. Various lines of evidence are presented to explain the silica-gaps in some lineages. The partial melting of continental crust and the role of crustal contamination are ...


Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan 2021 Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Volcanological Evolution Of Pantelleria Island (Strait Of Sicily) Peralkaline Volcano: A Review, Silvio G. Rotolo, Stéphane Scaillet, Fabio Speranza, John C. White, Rebecca Williams, Nina J. Jordan

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Pantelleria volcano has a particularly intriguing evolutionary history intimately related to the peralkaline composition of its explosively erupted magmas. Due to the stratigraphic complexity, studies over the last two decades have explored either only the pre-Green Tuff ignimbrite volcanism or the post-Green Tuff activity. We here focus on the whole evolutionary history, detailing the achievements since the first pioneering studies, in order to illustrate how the adoption and integration of progressively more accurate methods (40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetism, petrography, and detailed field study) have provided many important independent answers to unresolved questions. We also discuss rheomorphism, a distinct feature at Pantelleria ...


Independent, Semi-Automated Classification Of Petrographic Features In Volcanic Rocks Using Fiji And Weka, Holly Danielle Pettus 2021 West Virginia University

Independent, Semi-Automated Classification Of Petrographic Features In Volcanic Rocks Using Fiji And Weka, Holly Danielle Pettus

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Traditional methods of collecting quantitative petrographic data from thin sections (modal mineralogy, size distribution, shapes, etc.) are time- and labor-intensive, and rarely have sample sizes adequate to statistically describe complex rocks (i.e. volcanic rocks). Although manual counting and measurements are now routinely supplemented by digital image analysis, the majority of quantitative petrographic studies still go through a manual digitization stage where object classes are traced before further analyses. This is a major rate-limiting step that reproduces the same problems of small n-values resulting from significant effort. We have valuated the potential and limitations of using the Trainable Weka Segmentation ...


Gas And Heat Fluxes During Multiple Effusive Eruptions Of Piton De La Fournaise (Réunion) And Their Implications For Magmatic Processes, Pauline Verdurme 2021 Michigan Technological University

Gas And Heat Fluxes During Multiple Effusive Eruptions Of Piton De La Fournaise (Réunion) And Their Implications For Magmatic Processes, Pauline Verdurme

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This study investigates five eruptions with different temporal trends of erupted mass and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion). We acquired the daily SO2 emissions from three ultraviolet (UV) satellite instruments (the Ozone Monitoring Instrument [OMI], the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite [OMPS] and the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument [TROPOMI]). The Time-Averaged-Lava-Discharge Rate (TADR) has been obtained from two automatic systems: MIROVA and MODVOLC. Assuming that the lava volumes measured in the field are the most accurate, MIROVA gives the best estimation among all the methods investigated. It has also been demonstrated that a petrological approach ...


Origin And Distribution Of Diffuse Soil Co2 Gas Emissions Across Turrialba And Irazú Volcanoes, Costa Rica, Katie Nelson 2021 Michigan Technological University

Origin And Distribution Of Diffuse Soil Co2 Gas Emissions Across Turrialba And Irazú Volcanoes, Costa Rica, Katie Nelson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

We characterized large-scale volatile emissions across the summit and flanks of the actively degassing Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, using soil gas flux measurements and 13C isotopes. The objectives of this study were the following: 1) to monitor changes in the magmatic activity and identify source contributions over Turrialba using measurements of CO2 soil gas emissions since the volcano last erupted in 2014-2015, and 2) to identify the location and extent of magma at depth, and the structures that allow gas transport to the surface. Degassing at the summit is concentrated along one normal fault lineament, the trace of ...


Seismotectonic Interpretation Of An Expansive Set Of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms From First Motions And Amplitude Ratios On The Yellowstone Plateau, Cristhian Salas Pazmiño 2021 Michigan Technological University

Seismotectonic Interpretation Of An Expansive Set Of Earthquake Focal Mechanisms From First Motions And Amplitude Ratios On The Yellowstone Plateau, Cristhian Salas Pazmiño

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

We present high-quality focal mechanisms and stress inversions based on a refined earthquake location catalog for the Yellowstone Plateau. The relocation process is based on non-linear search techniques that use three-dimensional velocity models. The original catalog contained 18,940 events between January 2010 and March 2021 and was obtained from the University of Utah Seismograph Stations. We successfully relocate 7735 earthquakes and use this information to calculate the focal mechanisms by using two approaches. First, we only consider the P-wave first motion polarities and use the HASH program. For the second approach, we include the S-wave/P-wave amplitude ratios and ...


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