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Understanding Biogeochemical And Physical Controls On Methane Air-Sea Exchange Fluxes In The Pacific Ocean, Sarah Raney 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Understanding Biogeochemical And Physical Controls On Methane Air-Sea Exchange Fluxes In The Pacific Ocean, Sarah Raney

Master's Theses

Methane and trace element samples were collected on GEOTRACES GP15 Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise conducted between the Aleutian Islands (57 °N) and Tahiti (20 °S) from September to November 2018. Uncertainty in methane air-sea exchange fluxes was determined using a propagation of errors approach. Fluxes ranged from -0.88 to 4.9 µmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Average CH4 flux along the Alaskan margin was 2.2 ± 2.9 µmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Methane fluxes decreased moving southward and increased to their open ocean maximum around 20 °N before declining in equatorial waters ...


Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark 2022 University of New Hampshire

Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark

Faculty Publications

Estuaries may be uniquely susceptible to the combined acidification pressures of atmospherically driven ocean acidification (OA), biologically driven CO2 inputs from the estuary itself, and terrestrially derived freshwater inputs. This study utilized continuous measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) from the mouth of Great Bay, a temperate northeastern U.S. estuary, to examine the potential influences of endmember mixing and biogeochemical transformation upon estuary buffering capacity (β–H). Observations were collected hourly over 28 months representing all seasons between May 2016 and December 2019. Results indicated that endmember mixing explained most of the ...


Honey As A Biomonitor For Air Pollutant Deposition In The Eastern United States Using Ion Chromatography And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cole Cochran 2022 William & Mary

Honey As A Biomonitor For Air Pollutant Deposition In The Eastern United States Using Ion Chromatography And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cole Cochran

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Anthropogenic activities generate metal, acid, and particulate air pollutants which negatively impact human and ecological health. In the United States, power plant, industrial, and vehicle emissions are leading causes of air pollution, however, the measurement of air pollution at high-resolution spatial regimes remains a challenge. Honey has emerged as a powerful biomonitoring tool to effectively quantify contaminants without the need for a large array of monitoring instruments. I hypothesized that honey could be used to effectively measure and map modern air pollutant spatiotemporal relationships over the Eastern U.S. Using ion chromatography with sulfate as an indicator for air pollution ...


Frayed Connections: How Long-Term Nitrogen Additions Disrupt Plant-Soil Interactions And The Carbon Cycle Of A Temperate Forest, Brooke A. Eastman 2022 West Virginia University

Frayed Connections: How Long-Term Nitrogen Additions Disrupt Plant-Soil Interactions And The Carbon Cycle Of A Temperate Forest, Brooke A. Eastman

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Forests are expected to mitigate some of the negative effects of climate change by sequestering anthropogenic carbon (C) from the atmosphere, but the degree to which they drawn down C will depend on the availability of key nutrients, such as nitrogen (N). There is a fair amount of uncertainty in the future of the forest C sink, mostly owing to the fate of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil heterotrophic respiration to future conditions. In N limited systems, plants allocate a significant amount of their photosynthate belowground for the acquisition of nutrients, but under conditions of chronic N deposition, plants ...


Spatial Geochemical Changes In Central And East Texas Soils Over Time Resulting From Human Decomposition, Isabela Marisol Overturf 2022 Claremont McKenna College

Spatial Geochemical Changes In Central And East Texas Soils Over Time Resulting From Human Decomposition, Isabela Marisol Overturf

CMC Senior Theses

Human decomposition is studied to aid forensic investigations and better understand the impact of cemeteries on urban resources like soil and groundwater. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in soil geochemistry at and around a human grave to search for lateral nutrient movement and possibly identify new patterns in elemental concentrations that could be used in estimating post-mortem intervals (PMIs). At the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State San Marcos, soil samples were collected from a shallow grave over the course of 54 days to conduct analysis for organic matter content, texture, pH, and bulk ...


Controls On Carbon Gas Fluxes From A Temperate Forest Soil, Natalie A. White, Ruth K. Varner, Clarice R. Perryman 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Controls On Carbon Gas Fluxes From A Temperate Forest Soil, Natalie A. White, Ruth K. Varner, Clarice R. Perryman

Honors Theses and Capstones

Forest soils consume atmospheric methane (CH4), serving as a major global CH4 sink that uptake an estimated 22 ± 12 Tg of CH4 per year. Temperature and soil moisture have been identified as key controls of the microbial consumption of CH4 in forest soils. Climate-driven warming and changing moisture regimes may impact forest soils’ role in the carbon cycle, and recent works suggests that forests could become weaker CH₄ sinks. Long-term monitoring sites can capture these changes, leading to better predictions of CH4 exchange between the atmosphere and soils under climate change. This study utilizes a ...


Drivers And Seasonal Variability Of Redox-Sensitive Metal Chemistry In A Shallow Subterranean Estuary, Alison E. O'Connor, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Aaron J. Beck 2022 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Drivers And Seasonal Variability Of Redox-Sensitive Metal Chemistry In A Shallow Subterranean Estuary, Alison E. O'Connor, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Aaron J. Beck

VIMS Articles

The subterranean estuary (STE) has been historically defined in terms of the mixing of saline and fresh water, in an analogy to surface estuaries. However, redox gradients are also a defining characteristic of the STE and influence its role as a source or sink for metals in the environment. Approaching the STE from a redox-focused biogeochemical perspective (e.g., considering the role of microbial respiration and availability of organic matter) provides the ability to quantify drivers of metal transport across spatial and temporal scales. This study measured the groundwater composition of a shallow STE over 2 years and used multiple ...


Stable Isotope Analysis Of A Platecarpus Tympaniticus (Squamata, Mosasauridae) With Actinocamax Sternbergi (Mollsuca, Belemnoidea) Reveals Possible Endothermic Thermoregulation, Mitchell Lukens 2022 Fort Hays State University

Stable Isotope Analysis Of A Platecarpus Tympaniticus (Squamata, Mosasauridae) With Actinocamax Sternbergi (Mollsuca, Belemnoidea) Reveals Possible Endothermic Thermoregulation, Mitchell Lukens

Master's Theses

Mosasaurs, ancient marine reptiles, dominated the late Cretaceous oceans. However, their ecological success is a contentious topic. Were they ectothermic, like their modern relatives the varanid lizards? Or endothermic like extant marine mammals? Stable isotopes can reveal temperature and physiological variances within skeletons, but do not differentiate between body temperature and ambient environmental temperature. A rare mosasaur specimen from the Smoky Hill Chalk of a partial, articulated Platecarpus tympaniticus with stomach contents of belemnites provides a possible direct temperature contrast between predator and prey. The belemnites, related to modern coleoids, are identified as Actinocamax sternbergi. These animals possessed body temperatures ...


Combined Effects Of Temperature And Heavy Metals On The Performance Of The Giant Salmonfly., James Frakes, Amanda Andreas, Benjamin P. Colman, Aurthur Woods 2022 University of Montana.edu

Combined Effects Of Temperature And Heavy Metals On The Performance Of The Giant Salmonfly., James Frakes, Amanda Andreas, Benjamin P. Colman, Aurthur Woods

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In many freshwater ecosystems, communities of aquatic insects are facing the combined stresses of warmer waters due to climate change and increased exposure to heavy metal toxicants. Although each stressor may threaten aquatic insects independently, they also likely interact in important ways to affect insect physiology and performance. Here we investigate this potential interaction using two populations of aquatic nymphs of the giant salmonfly, Pteronarcys californica, collected from adjacent rivers in Montana: naïve individuals from Rock Creek, a relatively pristine stream, and individuals from the Upper Clark Fork River, which has a history of heavy metal pollution and higher temperatures ...


Identifying Biogeochemical Factors Responsible For The Cyclical Precipitation Of Sphalerite And Galena In Low Temperature Mississippi Valley Type Ore Deposits, Daniel John Makowsky 2021 Mississippi State University

Identifying Biogeochemical Factors Responsible For The Cyclical Precipitation Of Sphalerite And Galena In Low Temperature Mississippi Valley Type Ore Deposits, Daniel John Makowsky

Theses and Dissertations

Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) lead and zinc deposits provide a significant source of sedimentary galena and sphalerite. However, geochemical characteristics and genesis including the source and production of hydrogen sulfide required for galena and sphalerite ore formation and the reasoning for quick, episodic mineralization is not fully understood. By simulating regional MVT brines, the input and effect of biological by-products during the development of these ores as well as the cause of cyclicity within MVT deposits have been observed. Experiments using compositions from MVT fluid inclusions were conducted over two-week periods. Variables during the experiments included temperature, CO2, hydrogen sulfide ...


Kudzu Invasion And Control In Southern Upland Forests Of Mississippi, Gina M. Profetto 2021 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

Kudzu Invasion And Control In Southern Upland Forests Of Mississippi, Gina M. Profetto

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.), is a common invasive species throughout the American South. In southern upland mixed oak-pine forests of Mississippi, kudzu invasion generally and indiscriminately suppressed the pre-invasion plant community. Three different control methods reduced kudzu density but differed in the level of reduction achieved and in their effects on the pre-existing plant community. A combination of burning and herbicides produced the most desirable outcome in terms of restoring the pre-invasion community. Kudzu invasion significantly increased nitrate pools compared to control sites, but had no effect on ammonium or nitrite, or on the microbial processes of mineralization ...


Iron Geochemistry Across An Estuary-To-Coastal Gradient, Lissett G. Diaz 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Iron Geochemistry Across An Estuary-To-Coastal Gradient, Lissett G. Diaz

Honors Theses

Iron is a ubiquitous earth element that participates in biogeochemical processes that occur in marine sediments. Microorganisms utilize iron for many purposes, including cell growth, conserving energy, and for maintaining metabolic activity. In coastal sedimentary settings, understanding the redox reactions involving ferric iron, Fe3+, and ferrous iron, Fe2+, in its solid phase and pore-water phases, respectively, enable an appreciation of biogeochemical transformations occurring in the coastal zone. In this study, iron concentrations in sediment of ranging permeability were determined at four stations marking an estuary-coast transition zone in Singleton Swash in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The findings of ...


Soil Accretion And Mass Accumulation In A Scrub And Fringe Mangrove Forest In Biscayne Bay, Florida, Jessica A. Jacobs 2021 University of South Florida

Soil Accretion And Mass Accumulation In A Scrub And Fringe Mangrove Forest In Biscayne Bay, Florida, Jessica A. Jacobs

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study estimated soil accretion and mass (organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total soil) accumulation in a scrub and fringe mangrove forest in Biscayne Bay, FL, to assess how forests of different morphologies (scrub vs. fringe) have kept pace with recently accelerating rates of sea-level rise. Accretion rates (AR) were estimated using the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) model of lead-210 deposition and it was determined that the scrub forest has accreted at 1.3 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 over 75 years and the fringe forest at 2.8 ± 0.4 mm yr-1 over 92 years. The fringe forest ...


Nutrient Cycling In Tropical And Temperate Coastal Waters: Is Latitude Making A Difference?, Christian Lønborg, Moritz Müller, Edward C. V. Butler, Shan Jiang, Seng Keat Ooi, Dieu Huong Trinh, Pui Yee Wong, Suryati M. Ali, Chun Cui, Wee Boon Siong, Erik S. Yando, Daniel A. Friess, Judith A. Rosentreter, Bradley D. Eyre, Patrick Martin 2021 Old Dominion University

Nutrient Cycling In Tropical And Temperate Coastal Waters: Is Latitude Making A Difference?, Christian Lønborg, Moritz Müller, Edward C. V. Butler, Shan Jiang, Seng Keat Ooi, Dieu Huong Trinh, Pui Yee Wong, Suryati M. Ali, Chun Cui, Wee Boon Siong, Erik S. Yando, Daniel A. Friess, Judith A. Rosentreter, Bradley D. Eyre, Patrick Martin

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Tropical coastal waters are highly dynamic and amongst the most biogeochemically active zones in the ocean. This review compares nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in temperate and tropical coastal waters. We review the literature to identify major similarities and differences between these two regions, specifically with regards to the impact of environmental factors (temperature, sunlight), riverine inputs, groundwater, lateral fluxes, atmospheric deposition, nitrogen fixation, organic nutrient cycling, primary production, respiration, sedimentary burial, denitrification and anammox. Overall, there are some similarities but also key differences in nutrient cycling, with differences relating mainly to temperature, sunlight, and precipitation amounts and patterns ...


Radiocarbon Analyses Quantify Peat Carbon Losses With Increasing Temperature In A Whole Ecosystem Warming Experiment, Rachel M. Wilson, Natalie A. Griffiths, Ate Visser, Karis J. McFarlane, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Keith C. Oleheiser, Samantha Bosman, Anya M. Hopple, Malak M. Tfaily, Randall K. Kolka, Paul J. Hanson, Joel E. Kostka, Scott D. Bridgham, Jason K. Keller, Jeffrey P. Chanton 2021 Florida State University

Radiocarbon Analyses Quantify Peat Carbon Losses With Increasing Temperature In A Whole Ecosystem Warming Experiment, Rachel M. Wilson, Natalie A. Griffiths, Ate Visser, Karis J. Mcfarlane, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Keith C. Oleheiser, Samantha Bosman, Anya M. Hopple, Malak M. Tfaily, Randall K. Kolka, Paul J. Hanson, Joel E. Kostka, Scott D. Bridgham, Jason K. Keller, Jeffrey P. Chanton

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Climate warming is expected to accelerate peatland degradation and release rates of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Spruce and Peatlands Responses Under Changing Environments is an ecosystem-scale climate manipulation experiment, designed to examine peatland ecosystem response to climate forcings. We examined whether heating up to +9 °C to 3 m-deep in a peat bog over a 7-year period led to higher C turnover and CO2 and CH4 emissions, by measuring 14C of solid peat, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CH4, and dissolved CO2 (DIC). DOC, a major substrate for heterotrophic respiration, increased significantly with warming. There was no 7-year trend ...


Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti 2021 Foundation “G. Giuliani ONLUS”

Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This contribution is addressed to an introductive university course on the correlation existing between radon emission and earthquakes processes held following a flipped-class approach where students receive didactic materials prior to face-to-face lessons. This research was initially started to investigate the real correlation between Radon emission from the Earth and the occurrence of strong earthquakes by using measurements of hourly Radon flow variation. During quiet seismogenic conditions, we observe an unvarying level of Radon emission in the air. Before a strong earthquake, substantial variations of Radon (222Rn) concentration have been observed in the air, probably because of the increase ...


Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. McFarlane, Joyce Lundberg 2021 The Claremont Colleges, California, USA

Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg

International Journal of Speleology

Some recent publications on the paleo- and historical environmental interpretation of bat guano sequences have relied on 210Pb and 137Cs distribution to establish age-depth models, even when these are at odds with radiocarbon models in the lower parts of the sequence. Here, we present both field and laboratory evidence for the unpredictable mobility of lead and cesium in decomposing bat guano deposits. We suggest that 210Pb- and 137Cs-based chronologies of bat guano deposits should only be used when independently supported, for example, by a robust radiocarbon age-depth model.


Palynology And Paleoclimatology Of The Chicxulub Impact Crater In The Early Paleogene, Vann Smith 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Palynology And Paleoclimatology Of The Chicxulub Impact Crater In The Early Paleogene, Vann Smith

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

At the end of the Cretaceous Period, a large bolide impacted the Earth and formed the Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. In 2016, International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 364 Site M0077 drilled into the buried peak ring of the crater, recovering a marine Paleocene to early Eocene post-impact section deposited on top of the impact breccia. Palynological analysis of 195 samples from the post-impact section has yielded the first pre-Holocene vegetational record from inside the Chicxulub impact crater and the first palynological record of the recovery of life following the end-Cretaceous mass extinction from inside the ...


The Variability Of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry In Two Florida Urban Mangrove Ecosystems, Alexandrina R. Rangel 2021 Florida Department of Environmental Protection

The Variability Of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry In Two Florida Urban Mangrove Ecosystems, Alexandrina R. Rangel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere are yielding serious impacts across the world’s ocean, including ocean acidification, sea level rise, and increasing seawater temperature. However, these changes are not occurring uniformly across all marine ecosystems. Coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, already experience extreme and variable environmental conditions due to natural biogeochemical and physical processes. The goal of this study was to document small-scale variability in two urban mangrove ecosystems to gain insight into how ocean acidification will manifest within these systems. Using a stand-up paddleboard, a suite of sensors, and traditional bottle sampling techniques, we measured ...


Isotopic Analysis And Mobility Mapping Of Mammuthus Columbi From The Mammoth Site In South Dakota, Matthew Harrington 2021 East Tennessee State University

Isotopic Analysis And Mobility Mapping Of Mammuthus Columbi From The Mammoth Site In South Dakota, Matthew Harrington

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mammoth Site in Hot Springs, South Dakota preserves a unique death assemblage of sub-adult and adult male Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi). Extensive work on the site has led to a detailed understanding of the taphonomy of the assemblage; yet the life histories and ecology of these mammoths remain relatively unknown. Tooth enamel from four Mammoth Site mammoth individuals were bulk sampled with one of the individuals (MSL 742) also serially micro-sampled for 𝛿13C, 𝛿18O, and 87Sr/86Sr. Isotopic results indicate that MSL 742 remained within the southern and western Black Hills year-round with ...


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