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A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Nanovaccine Against Paratuberculosis Infection, Akanksha Thukral, Kathleen Ross, Chungyi Hansen, Yashdeep Phanse, Balaji Narasimhan, Howard Steinberg, Adel M. Talaat 2020 University of Wisconsin, Madison

A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Nanovaccine Against Paratuberculosis Infection, Akanksha Thukral, Kathleen Ross, Chungyi Hansen, Yashdeep Phanse, Balaji Narasimhan, Howard Steinberg, Adel M. Talaat

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne’s disease in ruminants and is characterized by chronic gastroenteritis leading to heavy economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. The currently available vaccine (inactivated bacterin in oil base) is not effective in preventing pathogen shedding and is rarely used to control Johne’s disease in dairy herds. To develop a better vaccine that can prevent the spread of Johne’s disease, we utilized polyanhydride nanoparticles (PAN) to encapsulate mycobacterial antigens composed of whole cell lysate (PAN-Lysate) and culture filtrate (PAN-Cf) of M. paratuberculosis. These nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) were well ...


Preparation, Characterization And Biological Activity Of Novel Schiff Base Complexes Based On La, Er And Yb Metal Ions, Hoda Ahmed, Walaa H. Mahmoud, Islam M. Al-Akraa Dr, Gehad G. Mohamed 2020 Cairo University

Preparation, Characterization And Biological Activity Of Novel Schiff Base Complexes Based On La, Er And Yb Metal Ions, Hoda Ahmed, Walaa H. Mahmoud, Islam M. Al-Akraa Dr, Gehad G. Mohamed

Chemical Engineering

The tridentate [HL, (4-[(2-(2-quinolinoimino)-3, 5-dibromobenzyl) amino] cyclohexanol)]Schiff base ligand was prepared from the condensation reaction of 2-quinoline carbaldehyde with the drug ambroxol. The prepared HL ligand was further used in the preparation of some new complexes via the reaction with La(III), Er(III) and Yb(III) metal ions. The geometry of the prepared complexes was proposed from elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, thermal and magnetic susceptibility. 1H NMR showed that the three nitrogen atoms of the ligand were responsible for the complex formation. The thermal analysis technique provided a clear prospect about the decomposition steps ...


Multimodal Multiplexed Immunoimaging With Nanostars To Detect Multiple Immunomarkers And Monitor Response To Immunotherapies, Yu-Chuan Ou, Xiaona Wen, Christopher A. Johnson, Daniel Shae, Oscar D. Ayala, Joseph A. Webb, Eugene C. Lin, Rossane C. DeLapp, Kelli L. Boyd, Ann Richmond, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Marjan Rafat, John T. Wilson, Justin M. Balko, Mohammed N. Tantawy, Anna E. Vilgelm, Rizia Bardhan 2020 Vanderbilt University

Multimodal Multiplexed Immunoimaging With Nanostars To Detect Multiple Immunomarkers And Monitor Response To Immunotherapies, Yu-Chuan Ou, Xiaona Wen, Christopher A. Johnson, Daniel Shae, Oscar D. Ayala, Joseph A. Webb, Eugene C. Lin, Rossane C. Delapp, Kelli L. Boyd, Ann Richmond, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Marjan Rafat, John T. Wilson, Justin M. Balko, Mohammed N. Tantawy, Anna E. Vilgelm, Rizia Bardhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The overexpression of immunomarker programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and engagement of PD-1 to its ligand, PD-L1, are involved in the functional impairment of cluster of differentiation 8+ (CD8+) T cells, contributing to cancer progression. However, heterogeneities in PD-L1 expression and variabilities in biopsy-based assays render current approaches inaccurate in predicting PD-L1 status. Therefore, PD-L1 screening alone is not predictive of patient response to treatment, which motivates us to simultaneously detect multiple immunomarkers engaged in immune modulation. Here, we have developed multimodal probes, immunoactive gold nanostars (IGNs), that accurately detect PD-L1+ tumor cells and CD8+ T cells simultaneously in ...


Selection Of Optimal Conditions For The Cultivation Of Insect Cells For Use In Biotechnology, Khasanоv Shuhrat, Sasmakоv Sobir, Abdurakhmanоv Jaloliddin, Ashirоv Оybek 2020 Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Selection Of Optimal Conditions For The Cultivation Of Insect Cells For Use In Biotechnology, Khasanоv Shuhrat, Sasmakоv Sobir, Abdurakhmanоv Jaloliddin, Ashirоv Оybek

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The article discusses use of the insect cell cultures for biotechnological purposes. Optimal conditions for the cultiva-tion of Spodoptera exigua and Lymantria dispar cell lines were selected.


Development Of A Method Of Oriented Immobilization Of Lipases On A Solid Carrier, Ziyavitdinov Jamolitdin Fazlitdinovich, Inogamov Utkir Kudratillayevich, Berdiev Nodir Sharifovich, Ishimov Uchkun Jomuradovich 2020 Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Development Of A Method Of Oriented Immobilization Of Lipases On A Solid Carrier, Ziyavitdinov Jamolitdin Fazlitdinovich, Inogamov Utkir Kudratillayevich, Berdiev Nodir Sharifovich, Ishimov Uchkun Jomuradovich

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The methods of oriented immobilization of lipases on a solid carrier - Silochrome C-80 have been developed. The resulting sorbents were tested in the process of obtaining biodiesel from cotton oil. It was shown that immobilized lipase on Silochrome C-80 with NH2 group has the highest transetrification ability and stability, while in sorbents with the enzyme immobilized with -COOH and -SH groups this value was 87 and 53%, respectively. Biocatalysis using an affinity sorbent of immobilized lipase with the –NH2 group has a high operational stability, which, after 240 hours of operation, retains more than 50%, and after 480 hours, 17 ...


Obtaining Of The “Green Flourecent Protein - Gfp” In Yeast Of Pichia Pastoris As Repoter Of Heterological Protein Expression, ASHIRОV Оybek, SASMAKОV Sobirdjan, ABDURAKHMANОV Jaloliddin, HASANОV Shuhrat 2020 Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Obtaining Of The “Green Flourecent Protein - Gfp” In Yeast Of Pichia Pastoris As Repoter Of Heterological Protein Expression, Ashirоv Оybek, Sasmakоv Sobirdjan, Abdurakhmanоv Jaloliddin, Hasanоv Shuhrat

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Based on pPIC3.5 and pPIC9 yeast vectors the recombinant plasmid DNA pPIC3.5-GFP (8464 bp) and pPIC9-GFP (8718 bp) containing cDNA (719 bp) of Green fluorescent protein (GFP) were cloned. The obtained plasmids were transformed into yeast cells of the GS115 Pichia pastoris strain. Transformants are selected on histidine-deficient medium. Recombinant clones of pPIC3.5-GFP and pPIC9-GFP were identified by detecting cell fluorescence. GFP expression in yeast is confirmed by green fluorescence. Using electrophoresis in PAAG the molecular weight of the synthesized protein (≈27 kDa) is determined. The resulting reporter constructs and recombinant strains can be used to study ...


Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford 2020 West Virginia University

Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties related to cellulose dissolution by tetrabutylphosphonium chloride (TBPCl) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPH)-water mixtures have been calculated via molecular dynamics simulations. For both ionic liquid (IL)-water solutions, water veins begin to form between the TBPs interlocking arms at 80 mol % water, opening a pathway for the diffusion of the anions, cations, and water. The water veins allow for a diffusion regime shift in the concentration region from 80 to 92.5 mol % water, providing a higher probability of solvent interaction with the dissolving cellulose strand. The hydrogen bonding was compared between small and ...


Review Of Established And Emergent Methods For The Production Of C4 Olefins, James Matthew Koval 2020 West Virginia University

Review Of Established And Emergent Methods For The Production Of C4 Olefins, James Matthew Koval

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Current production of C4 olefins is dominated by naphtha cracking and butane dehydrogenation, but significant research interest is developing in alternate feedstocks due to an abundance of inexpensive natural gas and bioethanol. The current C4 olefin production methods are costly, make use of already-depleted petroleum resources, and are often hazardous to workers, which forms the impetus for investigation into alternative methods and assessment of their viability as a future means of olefin production. Methods of natural gas conversion to higher order hydrocarbons are discussed, including Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and oxidative methane coupling, each of which could form the first ...


Optimization Of E-Textiles For Lactic Acid Detection, Andrew Laboy, Mallory David 2020 The University of Akron

Optimization Of E-Textiles For Lactic Acid Detection, Andrew Laboy, Mallory David

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The overall goal of the project is to develop an e-textile that will be able to determine different characteristics of an athlete's health through multiple sensors. The goal of these sensors is to monitor physiological parameters for health and fitness uses in real time. Building from the existing sodium concentration sensor, these new sensors will detect lactate levels within sweat to monitor instantaneous health which allows customization of workout and overall health regimen.


Utilizing Virtual High-Throughput Screens To Identify Promising Inhibitors Of Complement Factor C1s, Lyndsey Schmucker 2020 The University of Akron

Utilizing Virtual High-Throughput Screens To Identify Promising Inhibitors Of Complement Factor C1s, Lyndsey Schmucker

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

A large study was conducted to identify possible drug candidates to treat various diseases using computer algorithms, virtual high-throughput screens, and experimental validation of activity. Since the algorithm has the capability to screen millions of compounds, it is beneficial to pharmaceutical development as it allows a larger pool of compounds to be considered that would have otherwise been overlooked. As part of this larger study, this project attempts to identify drug candidates to treat human complement factor C1, a protein which causes tissue damage when underregulated1. A series of designed experiments validate candidates and confirm the performance of the ...


Optimization And Validation Of The Neurolux Wireless Optoelectronics System For Optogenetics, Karis Courey, Su Hyun Lee Ph.D., Adam Smith Ph.D., Nicholas Cilz Ph.D., Sarah K. Williams Avram Ph.D., Adi Cymerblit-Sabba Ph.D., June Song, Nicholas Leipzig Ph.D., W. Scott Young M.D., Ph.D. 2020 University of Akron

Optimization And Validation Of The Neurolux Wireless Optoelectronics System For Optogenetics, Karis Courey, Su Hyun Lee Ph.D., Adam Smith Ph.D., Nicholas Cilz Ph.D., Sarah K. Williams Avram Ph.D., Adi Cymerblit-Sabba Ph.D., June Song, Nicholas Leipzig Ph.D., W. Scott Young M.D., Ph.D.

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Utilizing light and genetic engineering, optogenetics permits the manipulation of events within cells via light using the light-sensitive properties of single-component microbial opsins. Microbial opsins are activated by a light source, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, and incandescent sources that deliver light to the region of interest either directly or indirectly, such as through fiberoptics. In classical in vivo optogenetics, the wiring of optic fibers necessitates tethering of animals by the optic fiber to the light source. The novel NeuroLux wireless optoelectronic system for optogenetics circumvents issues pertaining to classical optogenetics by utilizing near-field power transfer via magnetic coil antennae ...


Higher Tensile Forces Across Cellular Junctions And An Intact Nuclear Linc Complex Is Required For Epithelial Function And Stability, FNU Vani Narayanan 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Higher Tensile Forces Across Cellular Junctions And An Intact Nuclear Linc Complex Is Required For Epithelial Function And Stability, Fnu Vani Narayanan

Theses and Dissertations

Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems have provided key insights into the understanding of biochemical and physiological states of native tissue. A significant progress in the field of mechanobiology involves measuring cellular traction forces in a more native 3D environment. However, the effects of mechanical forces exerted across cellular junctions and the nuclear LINC complex, in an organized 3D system has not been investigated thus far. Epithelial cells spontaneously form acini (also known as cysts or spheroids) with a single, fluid-filled central lumen, when grown in 3D matrices. The size of the lumen is dependent on apical secretion ...


Mechanisms Of Pathogen Inactivation In Wastewater And Pharmaceutical Applications, Christa L. Meingast 2020 Michigan Technological University

Mechanisms Of Pathogen Inactivation In Wastewater And Pharmaceutical Applications, Christa L. Meingast

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Infectious diseases are a significant threat to public health. Though society enacts practices to prevent the spread of these dangerous diseases, challenges remain. Therefore, continual advancements in treatment and prevention are required. Wastewater treatment and viral clearance in pharmaceutical applications are two key health measures that prevent the spread of infections.

A low-cost, low-technology biosolids treatment process was developed to improve wastewater treatment by collecting key information on storage temperature, ammonia, volatile solids, moisture content, pH, and pathogen inactivation in biosolids over long-term storage at two wastewater treatment plants located in northern climates of the United States. Inactivation of pathogens ...


Reaction Profiling Of Extracellular Protein Phosphorylation Through A Microfluidic Reactor Coupled With Raman Spectroscopy, Abigail Casey 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Reaction Profiling Of Extracellular Protein Phosphorylation Through A Microfluidic Reactor Coupled With Raman Spectroscopy, Abigail Casey

Theses and Dissertations

Diseases and disorders in the human body are considered abnormalities of proper cellular function. Understanding the signal transduction mechanisms that cause these abnormalities is crucial to developing earlier detection methods, better treatment options and effective cures. While current diagnostic procedures are powerful tools in diagnosing diseases, they are ineffective in informing physicians on the real-time behavior of the signal transduction mechanisms associated with diseases and disorders. Currently, disease progression is monitored over time through routine patient visits and testing by one or more of the above techniques. By developing an approach that can monitor structural and conformational changes of proteins ...


A Framework For Heterologous Biosynthesis Of Natural Products In Mammalian Cells Via Polymer-Mediated Transfections, Logan Warriner 2020 University of Kentucky

A Framework For Heterologous Biosynthesis Of Natural Products In Mammalian Cells Via Polymer-Mediated Transfections, Logan Warriner

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

With the promise to treat a multi-faceted list of serious inherited and acquired diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and infectious diseases, and inherited genetic indications, gene therapy has continued to push the boundaries of traditional medicine since its earliest implementation. While much progress has been made, clinical success has largely remained elusive. Immunogenicity, difficulty producing commercially relevant quantities, and having a limited genetic payload still limits the ability of viruses to act as directed delivery agents for genetic material. As such, researchers have turned to cationic synthetic materials as a means of delivering nucleic acids, which can circumvent the immune ...


Detection And Thermal Stabilization Of Virus Based On Surface Properties, Xue Mi 2020 Michigan Technological University

Detection And Thermal Stabilization Of Virus Based On Surface Properties, Xue Mi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Viral diseases take the lives of millions of people each year. The most effective methods to prevent viral disease outbreak are viral detection to reduce contact with viral pathogens and vaccines to prevent disease. To reduce the costs of the detection of viruses and improve vaccine formulation, we explored viral surface properties. The properties we have focused on are viral hydrophobicity and surface charge using chemical force microscopy (CFM). CFM is a single-particle technique that measures the adhesion force of a functionalized atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe, and in this study, a virus covalently bound to a surface. The non-enveloped ...


Virus Purification Framework And Enhancement In Aqueous Two-Phase System, Pratik Umesh Joshi 2020 Michigan Technological University

Virus Purification Framework And Enhancement In Aqueous Two-Phase System, Pratik Umesh Joshi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Viral infections regularly pose detrimental health risks to humans. Preventing viral infections through global immunization requires the production of large doses of vaccines. The increasing demand for vaccines, especially during pandemics such as COVID-19, has challenged current manufacturing strategy to develop advanced unit operations with high throughput capability. Over the decade, the upstream processing responsible for synthesizing viral products in cell cultures has shown significant success in yielding high titers of viruses and virus-like particles. The progress in the upstream stage has now shifted the bottleneck to the downstream processing (DSP). Overlooked for decades, the DSP responsible for viral product ...


Systems Analysis For Sustainability Assessment Of Biogas And Bio-Ch4 Production From Food Waste And Dairy Manure Mixtures In The Us, Sharath Kumar Ankathi 2020 Michigan Technological University

Systems Analysis For Sustainability Assessment Of Biogas And Bio-Ch4 Production From Food Waste And Dairy Manure Mixtures In The Us, Sharath Kumar Ankathi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of the dissertation is to relate systems analysis for bioenergy to identify optimum configurations for improved scenarios and to make better decisions in a systems perspective.

Chapter 1 is a review of the literature to identify the state of the knowledge in terms of systems analysis for anaerobic digestion (AD) bioenergy systems. The key outcomes from this review showed that anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste and animal manure has great potential to achieve economic and environmental benefits compared to other treatments of organic waste materials, such as landfilling or conventional manure management.

Chapter 2 focuses on ...


Synthesis And Applications Of Theranostic Oligonucleotides Carrying Multiple Fluorine Atoms, Valeriy G. Metelev, Alexei A. Bogdanov 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Synthesis And Applications Of Theranostic Oligonucleotides Carrying Multiple Fluorine Atoms, Valeriy G. Metelev, Alexei A. Bogdanov

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The use of various oligonucleotide (ON) syntheses and post-synthetic strategies for targeted chemical modification enables improving their efficacy as potent modulators of gene expression levels in eukaryotic cells. However, the search still continues for new approaches designed for increasing internalization, lysosomal escape, and tissue specific delivery of ON. In this review we emphasized all aspects related to the synthesis and properties of ON derivatives carrying multifluorinated (MF) groups. These MF groups have unique physico-chemical properties because of their simultaneous hydrophobicity and lipophobicity. Such unusual combination of properties results in the overall modification of ON mode of interaction with the cells ...


Innovative Sustainable Wood Preservatives From Pulp And Paper Industry Byproduct, Raisa Carmen Andeme Ela 2020 Michigan Technological University

Innovative Sustainable Wood Preservatives From Pulp And Paper Industry Byproduct, Raisa Carmen Andeme Ela

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

In the modern forest industry, the need for bio-based, renewable, and environmentally-benign wood preservatives is increasing. Preservatives are used to prevent or limit decay and there has been an increasing interest in developing wood preservatives from renewable materials. To support the need for bio-based, environmentally-friendly preservatives, this work employed kraft lignin as a raw material to produce a novel bio-based wood preservative.

For the first project, a statistical design of experiments approach in Minitab® was used to study how fractionation process variables during acid precipitation of lignin influence the lignin mass yield and characteristics. After precipitating lignin from black liquor ...


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