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Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wastewater sludge is an overlooked source of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) that could be converted into biodiesel. The United States produces about 8 million tons of sludge per year. The disposal cost for this amount of sludge is about 2 billion dollars. The widespread availability and low cost of sludge compared to other biodiesel raw materials make it an economical choice for a renewable fuel. Using sludge as a raw material can produce 25 to 30 mg per gram of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME); the main component of biodiesel. Sludge biodiesel has the potential of transforming a portion ...


Analysis Of Fluid Flow In Redox Flow Batteries, Erfan asadipour 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Analysis Of Fluid Flow In Redox Flow Batteries, Erfan Asadipour

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Redox flow batteries (RFB) hold great potential for large-scale stationary energy storage. However, their low energy density compared to other energy storage systems must improve for feasibility. Electrolyte flow distribution affects current density distribution and providing a uniform current density distribution is one way to improve RFB performance. Additionally, reducing the power consumption of the electrolytes’ pump as a source of energy loss in RFB systems increases their efficiency. Investigating both subjects requires analysis of the fluid dynamics in RFB cells.

In this thesis, a novel, computationally cost-effective hydraulic-electrical analogous model (HEAM) was developed to study fluid dynamics by implementing ...


Data-Driven Tools Guided By First-Principles For Scale Modeling, Sadegh Poozesh 2021 Tuskegee university

Data-Driven Tools Guided By First-Principles For Scale Modeling, Sadegh Poozesh

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

For decades, traditional scale-modeling techniques have been relying on first-principles models (FPMs). FPMs have been used to find non-dimensional numbers (PIs) and identify normalized underlying forces and energies behind the phenomenon in focus. The two main challenges with FPM-based PIs extraction are finding the relevant PIs and proper correlations between PIs. The emergence and surge of data-driven modeling (DDM) provide a new opportunity to leverage experimental data in model development across scales/plants. In this paper, first, the two mentioned issues in PIs development will be elaborated to reveal the gap, and second, a new insight into scale modeling and ...


Testing The Effectiveness Of Various Fabrics For Use In Protective Face Coverings, Isaac Daley 2021 The University of Akron

Testing The Effectiveness Of Various Fabrics For Use In Protective Face Coverings, Isaac Daley

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Facemask requirements have been heavily implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to test various fabrics that could be used in face coverings and determine which materials are best for reducing virus transmission rates. Of the seven fabrics tested, five were conventional home-use fabrics and the other two were surfaces modified with hydrophobic organosilanes. Wettability and droplet adherence tests were performed on each material. The materials that performed the best were decyltrichlorosilane (DTS) modified cotton, perfluorotrichlorosilane (FTS) modified cotton, and polyester. Contact angles for water droplets on these fabrics were 106°, 93°, and ...


Simulation Of Water Loading In Filter Medium, Anthony Mole 2021 The University of Akron

Simulation Of Water Loading In Filter Medium, Anthony Mole

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This research will model fluid flow through a filter plugged with water droplets using FlexPDE software. After simulations are run at various initial conditions, curves will be developed to correlate the permeability of the filter to variables like water droplet distribution and size.


The Effects And Motion Of An Air-Filled Cylinder Being Submerged In Water In The Axial Direction, Ethan Davis 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects And Motion Of An Air-Filled Cylinder Being Submerged In Water In The Axial Direction, Ethan Davis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Submarines operate on the basis of a difference in relative densities between of vessel and the surrounding fluid. This principle is based on the force balance that exists between the total buoyancy force and the force due to gravity. Previous work focuses on the neutral buoyancy depths and velocities of object that once submerged, their buoyancy force is a constant along with the force due to gravity. This work aims to better understand how the compression of air at various depths below the surface of the water contribute to the neutral buoyancy depth, velocity of the object as it rises ...


Relating Modified Ergun's Equation To Hindered Settling Correlations, Ryan Zahniser 2021 The University of Akron

Relating Modified Ergun's Equation To Hindered Settling Correlations, Ryan Zahniser

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Correlations were developed between the Modified Ergun’s and Hindered settling correlations under the condition of dense packing of particles in the bed. As the porosity of the slurry increases, so does the interference between particles in the solution which mimics the behavior of a packed or densely concentrated fluidized bed. The similarity between the two sets of conditions was modeled using mathematical equations to calculate settling velocities and pressure drops by means of the Hindered Settling correlations and Modified Ergun’s equation at porosities ranging from 0.4242 to 0.89. The results showed that a porosity of 0 ...


Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin 2021 Bucknell University

Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin

Master’s Theses

Polymer gels can be used in the fabrication of materials for filtering liquid and gaseous media, solid-state electrolytes, and transdermal medical patches. This diverse range of applications primarily relies on the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels. Both sets of properties have shown excellent tunability, but typically in a coupled fashion. Establishing the independent tunability of the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels (using simple, cost-effective methods) is paramount if polymer gels are to be used to their full potential. Specifically, block copolymer gels self-assemble into organized nanoscale networks within the gel solvent, which allows for facile control ...


Assessing Solvent Viscosity Impact On The Physical Characteristics Of Polymeric Organogels, Cameron Hong 2021 Bucknell University

Assessing Solvent Viscosity Impact On The Physical Characteristics Of Polymeric Organogels, Cameron Hong

Honors Theses

Traditionally, studies of polymeric organogels focus on the impact of polymer factors (e.g., molecular weight and polymer concentration) on the gels’ mechanical and transport properties. Alternatively, this study seeks to assess the impact of altering solvent viscosity, while holding polymer factors constant. The gels in this study were composed of different viscosity mineral oils, styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) triblock copolymer as a gelator, and oleic acid (OA) as a model drug. Samples were formulated to have 6.5, 11.2, and 15.7 wt% SEBS copolymer for each mineral oil, varying in viscosity from ≈30 mPa*s to ≈500 mPa*s ...


Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

The mucosal barrier in the intestine is vital to maintain selective absorption of nutrients while protecting internal tissues and maintaining symbiotic relationship with luminal microbiota. This bio-barrier consists of a cellular epithelial barrier and an acellular mucus barrier. Secreted mucus regulates barrier function via in situ biochemical and biophysical interaction with luminal content that continually evolves during digestion and absorption. Increasing evidence suggests that a mucus barrier is indispensable to maintain homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the importance of mucus barrier is largely underrated for in vitro mucosal tissue modeling. The major gap is the lack of experimental material ...


Cfd Simulations Of Bubble Column Equipped With Bundles Of Concentric Tubes, Glen C. DSouza 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Cfd Simulations Of Bubble Column Equipped With Bundles Of Concentric Tubes, Glen C. Dsouza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bubble column reactors are multiphase contactors that have found several industrial applications owing to various attractive features including excellent thermal management, low maintenance cost due to simple construction and absence of moving parts. In order to attain desired performance for a given application, these reactors are usually equipped with internals such as vertical tube bundles to facilitate heat transfer. The column hydrodynamics and turbulence parameters are altered when the column is occluded with internals which adds to the complexity of the problem. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools for the study of multiphase flows has gained a lot ...


Optimizing Membrane Distillation With Solar Thermal Collectors, Andrew Mason, Ben Shulders, Siamak Nejati 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Optimizing Membrane Distillation With Solar Thermal Collectors, Andrew Mason, Ben Shulders, Siamak Nejati

UCARE Research Products

With rising human populations, the demand for freshwater is an ever-growing problem. One emerging technology to combat this problem is membrane distillation (MD). MD has several advantages for water desalination including 100% rejection of solute (salt, heavy metals, etc.) and mergeability with other affordable energy sources (solar heat, electric resistance, etc.) However, at the moment the specific energy consumption (SEC) of MD is very high due to low water production rates and large energy inputs to heat water. In a solar‐assisted design for MD, the high cost of solar collectors (~$200/m2) inhibits the low cost of water production ...


Theoretical Foundation Of Solution Dehydration In Porous Media: Effect Of Microstructure And Solute Interactions, FERNANDA SULANTAY VARGAS 2020 University of Connecticut

Theoretical Foundation Of Solution Dehydration In Porous Media: Effect Of Microstructure And Solute Interactions, Fernanda Sulantay Vargas

Honors Scholar Theses

Retention and evaporation of water have important implications in many natural and industrial settings. Here we focus on the effect of solute components (salts) as well as system geometry on evaporation rate of water. The study of multicomponent solutions with phase changes is challenging topic because of the complex and inter-connected physical phenomena that govern its dynamics. In the present work we review the theory of water evaporation and simulate evaporation of water as a function of composition and geometry for both droplets and bulk-scale (slit-like) systems. For droplets, we studied levitated droplets and droplets over hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces ...


Comparative Analysis Of Simulation Models Of The Production Of Ethylbenzene, Osariemen Imafidon 2020 University of Mississippi

Comparative Analysis Of Simulation Models Of The Production Of Ethylbenzene, Osariemen Imafidon

Honors Theses

Process Engineering is all about making sure a raw material can become the desired product with as little variation as possible, while achieving the customer's specifications. Many equipment used for chemical processes cannot be physically inspected during operation at steady state, hence, the need for simulation software. The objective of this study was to compare the results of three different simulation packages to evaluate their efficacy within process design.

This study focused on the economic analysis of the production of Ethylbenzene using various models. The base case variables were inputted into each model to simulate the calculations for a ...


Removal Of Fluoride From Mine Water Via Adsorption For Land-Applied Soil Amendment, Michelle Dopp, Kevin Le, Ethan Phan, Mary Johnson, Jacqueline Payne, Adrian Damian, Courtney Golman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Removal Of Fluoride From Mine Water Via Adsorption For Land-Applied Soil Amendment, Michelle Dopp, Kevin Le, Ethan Phan, Mary Johnson, Jacqueline Payne, Adrian Damian, Courtney Golman

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Moo Pig Sooie’s researched, designed, and economically analyzed a full-scale adsorption column system to be applied in mining processes that leave high amounts of fluoride in their effluent. This system was designed to remove fluoride from water saturated with calcium sulfate, as calcium sulfate is present in high amounts in certain mining processes. Currently, high density sludge (HDS) is commonly employed to reduce fluoride concentrations, but due to solubility limits the sludge treatment cannot lower fluoride below 10 mg/L (ppm). The current enforceable EPA standard for discharged water is at 4 mg/L (ppm), although mining companies ...


The Effect Of Oxygen On Properties Of Zirconium Metal, Jie ZHAO 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Effect Of Oxygen On Properties Of Zirconium Metal, Jie Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium has been investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations was subjected to multiple melt cycles during which the thermophysical properties, such as density, viscosity and surface tension, have been measured at various undercooled and superheated temperatures. Also, there are melt cycles for verifying the solidification mechanism. Similar samples were found to show anomalous nucleation of the solid for certain ranges ...


Metabolic Modeling Of Multispecies Microbial Biofilms, Poonam Phalak 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Metabolic Modeling Of Multispecies Microbial Biofilms, Poonam Phalak

Doctoral Dissertations

Biofilms are ubiquitous in medical, environmental, and engineered microbial systems. The majority of naturally occurring microbes grow as mixed species biofilms. These complicated biofilm consortia are comprised of many cell phenotypes with complex interactions and self-organized into three-dimensional structures. Approximately 2% of the US population suffers from non-healing chronic wounds infected by a combination of commensal and pathogenic bacteria whereas about 500,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are reported annually. These polymicrobial infections are often resilient to antibiotic treatment due to the nutrient-rich environments and species interactions that promote community stability and robustness. This thesis focusses on developing ...


The Desorption Kinetics Of Methane From Nonaqueous Fluids For Enhanced Well Control, James Lee Nielsen Jr. 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Desorption Kinetics Of Methane From Nonaqueous Fluids For Enhanced Well Control, James Lee Nielsen Jr.

LSU Master's Theses

The mass transfer of a dissolved gas evolving to return to the gaseous phase from a liquid is governed by many parameters. This process affects the development of an oil and gas well due to the possibility of gas contamination occurring from either an influx entering the wellbore, or drilling through gas-bearing formations. Once this dissolved hydrocarbon gas circulates up the wellbore, it will begin to evolve from solution and poses a potential risk to drilling equipment, the environment, and personnel at a drilling rig. Being able to predict the behavior of gas desorption based on a known set of ...


A Study Of Particle-Laden Flows From Meso And Micro-Scale Perspectives, Daniel Guedes de Oliveira 2020 Louisiana State University

A Study Of Particle-Laden Flows From Meso And Micro-Scale Perspectives, Daniel Guedes De Oliveira

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Particle-laden flows are investigated numerically from a meso-scale perspective using Computational Fluid Dynamics coupled with Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM) and from a micro-scale perspective using Particle Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation (PR-DNS). For the former, the dynamics of a pseudo-2D pulsed fluidized bed (PFB) consisting of 400,000 to 800,000 particles was investigated (Chapters 2 and 3). The focus is on the capabilities of CFD-DEM to (1) reproduce pattern formation in these systems and (2) further the understanding of the dynamics of PFB's as a function of pulsation parameters. In Chapter 4, a two-spheres system is investigated with a ...


Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford 2020 West Virginia University

Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties related to cellulose dissolution by tetrabutylphosphonium chloride (TBPCl) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPH)-water mixtures have been calculated via molecular dynamics simulations. For both ionic liquid (IL)-water solutions, water veins begin to form between the TBPs interlocking arms at 80 mol % water, opening a pathway for the diffusion of the anions, cations, and water. The water veins allow for a diffusion regime shift in the concentration region from 80 to 92.5 mol % water, providing a higher probability of solvent interaction with the dissolving cellulose strand. The hydrogen bonding was compared between small and ...


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