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Biomass Derived Lignin Polymer Modification For Sustainable Chemical Engineering Applications, Samantha Glidewell, Keisha Walters 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Biomass Derived Lignin Polymer Modification For Sustainable Chemical Engineering Applications, Samantha Glidewell, Keisha Walters

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lignin is an abundant naturally occurring plant-based polymer that is branched, highly unsaturated, and rich in aliphatic and aromatic hydroxyl groups. Lignin is a significant byproduct of the wood pulp and paper industries; however, it has yet to be widely utilized in commercial applications due to its non-linear structure, broad range of molecular weights, hydrophobicity, high rigidity, and brittleness. Recent investigations into modifying lignin to broaden its potential uses have shown promising results. This thesis explores different modification techniques of the naturally occurring hardwood lignin polymer for specific applications in areas of water treatment and polyurethane (PU) production. The first …


Study Of Reactive Distillation Equipment For Eterification Process, Abbos ELMANOV, Abdulaziz BAKHTIYOROV, Adham NORKOBILOV, Olimjon MAKSUDOV, Zarif ORIPOV 2024 Shahrisabz Branch of the Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology, Shakhrisabz, Uzbekistan

Study Of Reactive Distillation Equipment For Eterification Process, Abbos Elmanov, Abdulaziz Bakhtiyorov, Adham Norkobilov, Olimjon Maksudov, Zarif Oripov

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The purpose of this work is to study the chemical technological processes for eterification processes, and the reactive distillation unit, which carries out the reaction and separation process in one device, was chosen as the object of research. А reаctive distillаtion system is exаmined to produce for the production of Ethyl Acetate (EtAc) viа eterificаtion of acetic acid (HAc) with ethаnol. Optimizаtion methods using sensitivity analysis аre аlso conducted. Cаlculаtion of vаpor liquid equilibrium of the mixture system is done using UNIFАC model. Heat integration from the distillate stream of the column to the acid feed stream and from bottom …


Research On 3d Printing Resin Exposure Properties And Its Application On Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform Based On Fluorescence Detection, Zheng Qiao 2024 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Research On 3d Printing Resin Exposure Properties And Its Application On Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform Based On Fluorescence Detection, Zheng Qiao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation encapsulates significant advancements in the field of SLA 3D printing and centrifugal microfluidics. Central to the research is the development of a novel mathematical model for predicting trapped resin thickness in SLA 3D printing, a groundbreaking contribution that addresses a critical aspect of printing intricate structures. This model, the first to establish a mathematical relationship for resin thickness, is rooted in a comprehensive study of the resin curing process. The research leverages the concept of 'critical dosage' for resin curing, leading to a more refined and theoretically grounded approach for calculating curing thickness. Experimentation further validates the model, …


Quasi-Static And Impact Load Response Of Bfrp-Reinforced Concrete Beams And Post-Terrorist-Attack Sub-Assemblages, José Luis Carrasquillo 2024 Old Dominion University

Quasi-Static And Impact Load Response Of Bfrp-Reinforced Concrete Beams And Post-Terrorist-Attack Sub-Assemblages, José Luis Carrasquillo

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation presents the outcome of a theoretical and experimental study of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) reinforced concrete beams and post-terrorist-attack subassemblages subjected to either quasi-static or impact load. Both BFRP reinforcement as well as BFRP fabric are used in this investigation. The sub-assemblage consists of an otherwise two-span beam converted to a fixed-end single-span one owing to the loss of a middle column blasted off during the terrorist attack. The simply supported beams are subjected to a midspan quasistatic or an impact load. However, each sub-assemblage is subjected to a quasi-static load up to collapse to simulate the …


Harnessing Nanocellulose For Sustainable Carbon Capture: Synthesis, Processing, And Performance Evaluation, Jerred C. Wassgren 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Harnessing Nanocellulose For Sustainable Carbon Capture: Synthesis, Processing, And Performance Evaluation, Jerred C. Wassgren

Doctoral Dissertations

Scientists and governments have recognized the need for environmental remediation, most notably with the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2016. One of the major concerns is the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The major GHG is carbon dioxide (CO2) in which humans emit over 36 gigatons yearly. Atmospheric CO2 is responsible for 60% of the heat retained by the earth – resulting in rising temperatures, melting ice caps, and increasing ocean acidification. Therefore, a major goal of the Paris Agreement was to reduce GHG emissions as well as the capture of CO2 from the atmosphere. …


Experimental Evaluation Of Mesh Size In Physically Crosslinked Polymer Gels Using Dynamic Light Scattering, Duncan M. Hill 2024 Bucknell University

Experimental Evaluation Of Mesh Size In Physically Crosslinked Polymer Gels Using Dynamic Light Scattering, Duncan M. Hill

Honors Theses

Block copolymer gels are under consideration as drug delivery patches. Controlling and modeling the transport inside the gel is an important contribution to the successful delivery of pharmaceuticals. The diffusive transport of a solute – such as a therapeutic compound – within the gel can be described by the mesh size of the gel, which is defined as the distance between polymer chains. Existing experimental evaluations of mesh size do not work for block copolymer gels due to differences in the fundamental gel structure. As such, an experimental method of measuring mesh size of block copolymer gels using dynamic light …


Schaeffler Icvd Coating Machine, Louis McGrath 2024 The University of Akron

Schaeffler Icvd Coating Machine, Louis Mcgrath

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is mutual technology used to deposit thin film through a gaseous phase by vaporizing the solid materials. This conventional process usually requires high thermal stability of the materials, which is not applicable for most of the polymeric materials. Therefore, a novel process, initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is developed by introducing the gaseous monument and initiator to form the thin film in-situ. By adjusting the free-radical polymerization in the vapor phase, a variety of thin and uniform polymer films can be achieved. Depending on the chemistry, iCVD has many categories. This report explains the design …


Optimized Pi Compound Mixing Strategy, Cecilia Mainzer 2024 The University of Akron

Optimized Pi Compound Mixing Strategy, Cecilia Mainzer

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The project focuses on developing an optimal mixing strategy for a polyisoprene (PI) compound at the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. The aim is to optimize performance objectives of the compound. The project involved research, design iterations, mixing analyses, and performance evaluations, while adhering to engineering codes and standards.

The design process includes analyzing differences between two mixing technologies, intermesh and tangential rotors; altering mixing conditions; and exploring additional polymer systems and coupling technology of the compound.

Validation data confirms that the mixing technology and compound recipe meets all success metrics, including stiffness, hysteresis, adhesion, cure rate, and tear performance …


Degradable Staples And Delivery Device, Meha Elango, Jessica Cabrera, Makayla Scarpitti, Kareemat Melaiye 2024 The University of Akron

Degradable Staples And Delivery Device, Meha Elango, Jessica Cabrera, Makayla Scarpitti, Kareemat Melaiye

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The scope of this project is to design a method to secure skin grafts to healthy tissue. The ultimate goal for the proposed method is to be dissolvable in some form. Currently, skin grafts procedures utilize staples in most cases to hold a skin graft in place, but there are disadvantages that come with it. Staples are easy to place, but time consuming during the removal procedure. They also cause a lot of pain and discomfort for the patient. The goal of this project is to determine a way a secure skin grafts to healthy skin in order to reduce …


The Effects Of Relative Humidity And Valency On Water Absorption And Structure In Polyelectrolyte Brushes, Andrea Klima 2024 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Relative Humidity And Valency On Water Absorption And Structure In Polyelectrolyte Brushes, Andrea Klima

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project was to understand the relationship between relative humidity, ion valency, and the structure of water on positively (PMETAC) and negatively (PSPMA) charged polyelectrolyte brushes. The polyelectrolyte brushes were synthesized using Activators Regenerated by Electron Transfer Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ARGET ATRP) and were soaked in concentrations containing 0.1 M of the target counterion. The brushes were then exposed to humid vapor, and spectra were collected in 5% intervals between 0% and 85% for each counterion. Two trials were completed for each counterion studied to ensure agreement between datasets. In all spectra, peaks appeared for the …


Robust Gasification Trial Results For A Variety Of Difficult-To-Recycle Packaging-Related Materials, Bruce A. Welt 2023 University of Florida

Robust Gasification Trial Results For A Variety Of Difficult-To-Recycle Packaging-Related Materials, Bruce A. Welt

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Currently, recycling requires nearly absolute sorting of materials to accommodate the limited capabilities of existing recycling infrastructure. Whether a material is “recyclable” depends more on the method of recycling than the material itself. Our dependence upon sorting has limited success of recycling and has stifled our ability to achieve circular economy sustainability with plastic packaging materials. Our dependence upon sorting is rooted in our material-specific recycling processes. However, newer robust recycling processes are commercially available that reduce or eliminate the need to sort waste, and can convert mixed waste into primary feedstock chemicals, such as methanol for subsequent manufacture of …


Advances In Cellulose Nanomaterial-Based Foams For Environmental Applications, Md Musfiqur Rahman 2023 University of Maine

Advances In Cellulose Nanomaterial-Based Foams For Environmental Applications, Md Musfiqur Rahman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of metal-oxide nanoparticles adsorbents is limited to fixed-bed columns in industrial-scale water treatment applications. This limitation is commonly attributed to the tendency of nanoparticles to aggregate, the use of non-sustainable and inefficient polymeric resins as supporting materials, or a lack of adsorption capacity. Foams and aerogels derived from cellulose nanomaterials have unique characteristics, such as high porosity and low density, which enables their use in a variety of environmental applications, including water treatment. However, the overall use of cellulose nanomaterial-based foams in various environmental sectors is limited due to the high cost of production associated with time- and …


The Development Of An Advanced Biorefinery To Produce Cellulosic Sugars And Bionanomaterials, Carlaile Fernanda de Oliveira Nogueira 2023 University of Maine

The Development Of An Advanced Biorefinery To Produce Cellulosic Sugars And Bionanomaterials, Carlaile Fernanda De Oliveira Nogueira

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Market trends show growing interest in cellulose nanomaterials due to their low environmental impact. However, current nanocellulose isolation technologies face technoeconomic and life cycle limitations. Previous research has shown that enzymatic treatments effectively reduce the energy input for mechanical nanocellulose isolation. Simultaneously, there is potential to improve the viability of cellulosic ethanol facilities by coproducing nanocelluloses as high-value product obtained from agricultural feedstock. Here, our goal was to study the mass balance of enzymatic-mechanical processes that coproduces cellulosic sugars and nanocelluloses, evaluating the technical feasibility of converting lignified and non-lignified materials.

First, we have determined a feasible 50:50 mass ratio …


Using Afm-Ir To Study Nanoscopic Phase Behavior Of Polymer Blends And Photovoltaic Bulk Heterojunctions, Nathaniel L. Prine 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

Using Afm-Ir To Study Nanoscopic Phase Behavior Of Polymer Blends And Photovoltaic Bulk Heterojunctions, Nathaniel L. Prine

Dissertations

Conjugated polymers (CPs) and polymer blends harbor the potential for high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs) due to their short energy payback time, low cost, solution processability, lightweight attributes, and flexibility. However, OSCs suffer from poor thermal stability compared to their inorganic equivalents. This study explores the thermal instability of OSCs, focusing on phase separation of the photoactive layer under heat, resulting in morphology changes and degradation of power conversion efficiency (PCE). Utilizing atomic-force microscopy coupled with infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we delve into thermal stability-morphology relationships to devise strategies to improve OSC blend durability under thermal …


Development Of Lignin-Based Copolymers And Polymer Blends, David Chem 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Development Of Lignin-Based Copolymers And Polymer Blends, David Chem

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing industrial interest in reducing fossil fuels in virgin polymer production and incorporating bio-based polymeric materials has led researchers to explore the potential of utilizing plant-based polymers such as lignin. Chapter 1 of this thesis presents a comprehensive overview of copolymerization and blending techniques for lignin and synthetic polymers, emphasizing different types of modifications and copolymerization techniques as well as key parameters such as temperature, reaction time, pH level, and solution compositions. These valorization methods are directed towards the development of high-value lignin-based materials with properties well-suited for various commercial applications. Chapter 2 offers a fundamental exploration into the amination …


Characterization Of Interlayer Laser Shock Peening During Fused Filament Fabrication Of Polylactic Acid (Pla), Fabien Denise 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Interlayer Laser Shock Peening During Fused Filament Fabrication Of Polylactic Acid (Pla), Fabien Denise

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The field of additive manufacturing (AM) has gained a significant amount of popularity due to the increasing need for more sustainable manufacturing techniques and the adaptive development of complex product geometries. The problem is that AM parts routinely exhibit flaws or weaknesses that affect functionality or performance. Over the years, surface treatments have been developed to compensate certain flaws or weaknesses in manufactured products. Combining surface treatments with the modularity of additive manufacturing could lead to more adaptable and creative improvements of product functions in the future. The current work evaluates the feasibility of pursuing a new research axis in …


Optimizing Channel Formation In Peg Maleimide Hydrogels, Bakthavachalam Kannadasan 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Optimizing Channel Formation In Peg Maleimide Hydrogels, Bakthavachalam Kannadasan

Masters Theses

Blood vessels including the arteries, veins, and capillaries are a critical and indispensable component of various organisms. Some studies estimate that if all the blood vessels present in our body are arranged in line, they would amount to a total length of approximately 60,000 miles. This distance is enough to circle the world two and a half times! In addition to being all pervasive, blood vessels perform certain key functions such as delivery of oxygen and nutrients to various tissues in the body. They also assist in the spread of diseases such as cancer. Therefore, it is important to study …


Machine Learning Modeling Of Polymer Coating Formulations: Benchmark Of Feature Representation Schemes, Nelson I. Evbarunegbe 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Machine Learning Modeling Of Polymer Coating Formulations: Benchmark Of Feature Representation Schemes, Nelson I. Evbarunegbe

Masters Theses

Polymer coatings offer a wide range of benefits across various industries, playing a crucial role in product protection and extension of shelf life. However, formulating them can be a non-trivial task given the multitude of variables and factors involved in the production process, rendering it a complex, high-dimensional problem. To tackle this problem, machine learning (ML) has emerged as a promising tool, showing considerable potential in enhancing various polymer and chemistry-based applications, particularly those dealing with high dimensional complexities.

Our research aims to develop a physics-guided ML approach to facilitate the formulations of polymer coatings. As the first step, this …


Engineering Of Functionalized Carbon Nano-Onions Embedded Bsa Nanocomposite Fibers For Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release, Ramiro Manuel Velasco Delgadillo, Narsimha Mamidi 2023 Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey

Engineering Of Functionalized Carbon Nano-Onions Embedded Bsa Nanocomposite Fibers For Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release, Ramiro Manuel Velasco Delgadillo, Narsimha Mamidi

Research Symposium

Background: Advanced drug delivery systems (DDSs) have received enormous attention in biomedical applications due to their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug properties. For the present study, poly 4-hydroxyphenyl methacrylate (PHPMA)/CNOs (f-CNOs) inserted bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanofibers were prepared for stimuli-responsive release of Doxorubicin (DOX). Temperature and pH would be altered to study the release of DOX in acidic microenvironments.

Methods: PHPMA were coupled with COOH-CNOs via ester coupling via the sonochemical method to produce PHPMA-CNOs (f-CNOs). Then, f-CNOs/DOX embedded BSA nanofibers were prepared at room temperature using Forcespinning. UV spectra of DOX-loaded nanofibers were studied to investigate the …


Investigating The Rheological Behavior Of A Simple Yield Stress Fluid Under Shear Flows, Francesco Accetta 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Investigating The Rheological Behavior Of A Simple Yield Stress Fluid Under Shear Flows, Francesco Accetta

Theses

Many soft materials display unique and complex rheological behavior characterized by a transition from a solid-like to a fluid-like state upon the application of a force that exceeds the threshold to flow, known as the yield stress. Yield stress fluids are found in a wide range of commonly encountered materials including microgels, emulsions, and foams, and have been widely studied by rheologists over the last several decades. Carbopol is a popular polymeric microgel system as it displays simple, non-thixotropic rheological behavior and is typically seen as an ideal yield stress fluid. Previous research has demonstrated the reproducible behavior of shear …


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