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Effect Of Developer Temperature On Photoresist Contrast In Grayscale Lithography, Dale Farnan, George Patrick Watson 2021 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Effect Of Developer Temperature On Photoresist Contrast In Grayscale Lithography, Dale Farnan, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

SPR 220-3 photoresist was spin-coated onto a silicon wafer, exposed using a Heidelberg DWL66+ laserwriter at different laser powers, and developed at different temperatures. The effect of developer temperature on photoresist contrast was examined. Results show that increasing developer temperature decreased photoresist contrast and increased required dose.


Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wastewater sludge is an overlooked source of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) that could be converted into biodiesel. The United States produces about 8 million tons of sludge per year. The disposal cost for this amount of sludge is about 2 billion dollars. The widespread availability and low cost of sludge compared to other biodiesel raw materials make it an economical choice for a renewable fuel. Using sludge as a raw material can produce 25 to 30 mg per gram of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME); the main component of biodiesel. Sludge biodiesel has the potential of transforming a portion ...


Development Of An Integrated Salt Cartridge-Reverse Electrodialysis (Red) Device To Increase Electrolyte Concentrations Of Human Blood Flow To Power Biomedical Devices, Caroline Campbell 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of An Integrated Salt Cartridge-Reverse Electrodialysis (Red) Device To Increase Electrolyte Concentrations Of Human Blood Flow To Power Biomedical Devices, Caroline Campbell

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Emerging technologies in nanotechnology and biomedical sciences have led to an increase in biomedical implantable devices including cardiac pacemakers, artificial organs, drug pumps, and sensors. These devices require continuous stable and reliable power to operate, which creates the demand for the need to find a safe, reliable, and stable power source. A promising avenue for a power source for these devices is a miniaturized reverse electrodialysis (RED) biopower cell design that utilizes the salinity differences between bloodstreams that flow inside the human body. Initial results of the RED system demonstrate that higher gradient salinity differences between streams lead to a ...


Design Of An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing A Stirred-Tank, Jacketed Bioreactor, Brennen Middleton 2021 University of Mississippi

Design Of An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing A Stirred-Tank, Jacketed Bioreactor, Brennen Middleton

Honors Theses

Bioreactors are utilized in many industries, such as the food, alternative fuel, and pharmaceutical industries, to design and manufacture products. Unlike the similar chemical batch reactors utilized in many chemical processing facilities, bioreactor utilization requires engineers to consider a wider range of operating conditions and parameters. This results in a more complex reaction system and controls network. Due to this, it is imperative for chemical and biomedical engineering students to not only understand the theory surrounding these reactor systems, but also understand how to properly design and perform operating procedures with these systems. Thus, it was determined to create an ...


Biofuels For Aviation, Chase Novak, Thomas Vasquez, Molly Zawacki 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Biofuels For Aviation, Chase Novak, Thomas Vasquez, Molly Zawacki

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Paraffinic Kerosene fuels are the backbone of commercial air travel. Kerosene fuels are primarily derived from petroleum processing and contribute significantly to carbon emissions globally. A variety of processes have been proposed to create renewable or semi-renewable sources of kerosene fuel suitable for aviation. One such process outlined in a 2019 white paper published by Gevo proposes the use of bio-based alcohol feed stocks to produce isobutanol which may be converted to kerosene mixtures through well-established dehydration and oligomerizations processes. The proposed Alcohol to Jet Fuel Pathway (ATJ-SPK) is a potentially net carbon neutral process which can greatly reduce the ...


Protein Purification To Produce Edible Soybean Protein, Miyu Ono, Gracelynn Soesanto, Alia Wallenstrom 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Protein Purification To Produce Edible Soybean Protein, Miyu Ono, Gracelynn Soesanto, Alia Wallenstrom

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This project recommends a design for a soy processing facility to produce soy protein concentrates (SPC), soy oil and soy molasses from dehulled soybeans. Utilities were minimized, wherever possible by evaluating whether streams within the system had the capacity to heat or cool other processes. The plant has a production capacity of 170 MM lb soy protein concentrate/year and will be located in Decatur, IL. The proposed design also yields 114 MM lb soy oil/year and 62 MM lb soy molasses/year. The SPC, soy oil and soy molasses have less than 2 PPM residual solvent concentrations and ...


Co2 Capture And Conversion To Methanol With Eempa, Yatin Arora, Ashwin Koul, Melissa Tanaka 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Co2 Capture And Conversion To Methanol With Eempa, Yatin Arora, Ashwin Koul, Melissa Tanaka

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has been a primary contributor to the changing climate is having disastrous impacts on our planet and its inhabitants. Creating new strategies to combat the ongoing climate crisis has gained significant momentum in recent years with the efforts to slow and reverse climate change. Of these promising new technologies, the implementation of carbon capture and utilization (CCU) has been recognized to have a high potential by taking in CO2 emitted from point sources and using it to produce a value-added product. With a wide range of methanol uses and ...


Production Of A Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Vaccine Using The Baculovirus Expression Vector System, Rachel Adler, Nathan Kelsey, Michelle Maik, Jun Ho Song 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Production Of A Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Vaccine Using The Baculovirus Expression Vector System, Rachel Adler, Nathan Kelsey, Michelle Maik, Jun Ho Song

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Various COVID-19 vaccines are currently in development, as the COVID-19 pandemic has created an unmet need for protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While there are many different types of vaccines, we focused on developing one that would be safe, affordable, and quickly available for emergency use. A vaccine synthesized using recombinant proteins utilizes a reliable and well-studied technological platform, avoids the safety risks inherent to viral vectors, and provides a cost-effective, scalable method of production of antigen used to induce an immune response. Other vaccines on the market notably include Pfizer’s and Moderna’s mRNA based vaccines. Although these ...


Formulation Of A High-Volume Small Molecule Drug Product, Carolyn Watkins, Reeti Shah, Ogheneruteyan Onosode 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Formulation Of A High-Volume Small Molecule Drug Product, Carolyn Watkins, Reeti Shah, Ogheneruteyan Onosode

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Small molecule drug products play an enormous role in innovative treatments for a vast number of diseases and have comprised most annual FDA drug approvals each year to date. Thus, economically efficient mass production of small molecule drugs is an essential public health concern. While batch production of these types of pharmaceuticals dominates the industry, continuous manufacturing has emerged as a promising technology with positive economic implications. However, due to the newness of the technology, pharmaceutical companies have been reluctant to adopt continuous manufacturing. This project presents a full economic evaluation of batch versus continuous manufacturing of a high-volume small ...


Manufacturing Strategy For The Production Of 200 Million Sterile Doses Of An Mrna Vaccine For Covid-19, Irene Labarta, Sarabeth Hoffman, Alison Simpkins 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Manufacturing Strategy For The Production Of 200 Million Sterile Doses Of An Mrna Vaccine For Covid-19, Irene Labarta, Sarabeth Hoffman, Alison Simpkins

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

mRNA vaccines are a new frontier of medicine. Unlike pre-existing vaccine technologies, mRNA vaccines present the human body with the genetic information to make a protein whose production incites a natural immune response. In this manner, mRNA vaccines create antibodies and build immunity towards pathogens resulting in the same protection as traditional vaccines yet without presenting the body with the foreign virus. Among the many advantages of this new technology is that the manufacturing process, rather than being specific to a virus or recombinant protein, is specific to mRNA. In this manner, the process is independent of the actual disease ...


Co2 Sequestration By Allam Cycle, Raghav Chaturvedi, Eric Kennedy, Sarron Metew 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Co2 Sequestration By Allam Cycle, Raghav Chaturvedi, Eric Kennedy, Sarron Metew

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Natural gas powerplants account for 40% of the electricity generation in the United States[1] and 617 million tons of CO2 emissions a year[2]. The largest powerplants with carbon capture technology utilize a post-combustion absorption technology that must treat a large volume of flue gas and compress CO2 to pipeline specifications from near-ambient pressure. The Allam cycle, patented in 2013 by Rodney Allam, uses oxy-combustion and a supercritical CO2 stream as the working fluid to produce high-purity liquid pipeline CO2. While it was developed commercially at a 50-megawatt thermal (MWt) plant in 2018, the economics ...


Physical And Chemical Properties, Elemental Composition And Microbiological Purity Of Oil Extract Of Chamomile Flowers In Bitter Almond Oil, Khakim TUKHTAEV, Sevara KHAZRATKULOVA 2021 Toshkent Pharmaceutical Institute

Physical And Chemical Properties, Elemental Composition And Microbiological Purity Of Oil Extract Of Chamomile Flowers In Bitter Almond Oil, Khakim Tukhtaev, Sevara Khazratkulova

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The aim of the study was to obtain an oil extract with the participation of chamomile officinalis (Matrigaria Recutito) grown in the Tashkent region using bitter almond oil (Amygdalus communis L.). Its chromatographic and elemental analyzes have been carried out, its microbiological purity and physicochemical constants have been determined. For extraction, we used bitter almond oil obtained by cold pressing. Extraction of chamomile flowers in bitter almond oil was carried out by maceration in the ratio of raw material: solvent (1:10). Analysis of fatty acids in the fatty extract was carried out chromatographically. The fatty extract was found to ...


Obtaining Of Bacterial Polysaccharides, KULONOV Abdulaziz, MIRZARAKHMETOVA Dilbar, TURAEVA Nigora 2021 Institute of microbiology, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan

Obtaining Of Bacterial Polysaccharides, Kulonov Abdulaziz, Mirzarakhmetova Dilbar, Turaeva Nigora

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The aim of this work was to develop a technology for obtaining bacterial exopolysaccharides. The problem was solved by using the bacterial strain Halovibrio variabilis UzAS3 as a polysaccharide producer. The optimal parameters of bacterial cultivation have been determined. A technological scheme for obtaining bacterial polysaccharides has been developed, which includes such stages as the cultivation of bacteria, the separation of bacterial biomass from the culture liquid, desalting, precipitation, washing and drying. The obtained results show that bacteria have a high potential for the yield of bacterial exopolysaccharides (7.1-9.5 mg/ml).


Development Of A Recombinant Brewing Yeast To Produce Beer From Hemp Extract (Cannabis Sativa L.), Mehmet Ugur Gulmen 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of A Recombinant Brewing Yeast To Produce Beer From Hemp Extract (Cannabis Sativa L.), Mehmet Ugur Gulmen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Cannabis industry is a rapidly-growing market in Canada. With the legalization of edible products in 2019, many cannabis-derived candies, baked goods, beverages appeared on shelves. Cannabis beer can be brewed by replacing barley with pretreated cannabis plant. However, using a traditional brewing yeast to brew cannabis beer will result in incomplete fermentation which will affect the beer’s composition and flavour because traditional brewing yeasts are not able to utilize xylose which is an abundant carbohydrate in lignocellulosic extracts. Using a recombinant strain of a brewing yeast and a xylose-fermenting yeast can overcome this issue. The work presented in ...


Optimization Of Bilayer Lift-Off Process To Enable The Gap Size Of 1Μm Using Lor 3a And S1813, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson 2021 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Optimization Of Bilayer Lift-Off Process To Enable The Gap Size Of 1Μm Using Lor 3a And S1813, Yeonjoon Suh, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

Bilayer lift-off process for 1μm feature size is demonstrated using LOR 3A and S1813 photoresist. The thickness of photoresists was fixed, whereas development time is varied. The process was further investigated by measuring the undercut depth and undercut rate by scanning electron microscopy. An optimized and reproducible recipe is provided.


Comparison Of The Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Transition Temperature Of Two Thermoresponsive Polymers, Ashley Knight 2021 The University of Akron

Comparison Of The Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Transition Temperature Of Two Thermoresponsive Polymers, Ashley Knight

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It has been hypothesized that poly(vinylmethylether) (PVME) could be used to replace poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAM) in various thermoresponsive applications based on literature searches and previous lab experiments. PVME is cheaper and easier to process, and would make pNIPAAM applications more cost effective. In order to verify this, experimental data was gathered on the effects of four anions from the Hofmeister series (SO42-, Cl-, I-, and SCN-) on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of pNIPAAM and compared to previous data collected on PVME. Commercial pNIPAAM from Sigma Aldrich and Polysciences were used. The reported LCST range for pNIPAAM ...


Quantifying Mafenide Release From 3d Printed Phenylalanine-Coumarin Copolyester Scaffolds, Jacob Seeh 2021 The University of Akron

Quantifying Mafenide Release From 3d Printed Phenylalanine-Coumarin Copolyester Scaffolds, Jacob Seeh

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project addressed burn wound healing through controlled release of the antibacterial drug mafenide encapsulated by a copolyster into 3D printed scaffolds. Scaffolds were printed at 25oC and 0.77-1 bar in a cross-hatch pattern with uniform thickness, distance between parallel layers, and diameter then photo-crosslinked. The number of scaffolds available for testing was limited by the amount of polymer that could be synthesized. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed specifically for this experiment and used to determine daily release of mafenide from the scaffold into a 2-mL phosphate buffer solution. During the first 24 hours a ...


Investigation Of Surface Charge Using Faraday Bucket Measurements: Analysis On Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Fiber Mats, Ryan Kantenwein 2021 The University of Akron

Investigation Of Surface Charge Using Faraday Bucket Measurements: Analysis On Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Fiber Mats, Ryan Kantenwein

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Piezoelectric polymer materials such as polyvinylidene fluoride exhibit beneficial properties for use in personal protective equipment (PPE) against viral contaminants and other foreign microparticles. The electrospinning process of this material allows for surface charge to develop over a controlled surface area. Kynar 761 at 10 wt% demonstrates increased surface charge after withstanding a flow of aerated NaCl particles from a TSI 8130 instrument. Utilizing voltage measurements from a Faraday bucket, 18 wt% Kynar 761 and MG-15 exhibit surface charge when undergoing an electrospinning process; however, Kynar MG-15 displays lower charge values than that of Kynar 761. Several critical factors such ...


Development Of Phagotrophic Algae-Based Process For Conversion Of Waste Organics To Algae Lipids As Potential Feedstock For Biofuel, Hannah Nelson 2021 The University of Akron

Development Of Phagotrophic Algae-Based Process For Conversion Of Waste Organics To Algae Lipids As Potential Feedstock For Biofuel, Hannah Nelson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Interest in sustainable feedstock for biofuel has encouraged research on the production of phagotrophic algae from bacteria using a two-staged continuous-flow system. Bacteria cultures were fed the content of a waste stream from The J.M. Smuckers Company containing high concentrations of sugar. In the design, the bacteria effluent overflowed into the algae tank which was kept at a set volume. Several methods were developed to assist in maintaining the system at steady state and minimize the impact from contaminants. A rigorous cleaning protocol was implemented for both tanks, effectively eliminating protozoa from the bacteria system. The protozoa were decreased ...


Optimal Conditions Of Fermentation Of The Pichia Pastoris Yeast Expressing The Recombinant Pres2-S Protein (M-Hbsag) Of Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv), SASMAKОV Sobirdjan, ASHIRОV Оybek, ABDURAKHMANОV Jaloliddin, XASANОV Shuhrat 2020 Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances

Optimal Conditions Of Fermentation Of The Pichia Pastoris Yeast Expressing The Recombinant Pres2-S Protein (M-Hbsag) Of Hepatitis B Virus (Hbv), Sasmakоv Sobirdjan, Ashirоv Оybek, Abdurakhmanоv Jaloliddin, Xasanоv Shuhrat

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

The aim of this study is determination of optimal fermentation conditions of the Pichia pastoris yeast expressing the recombinant Pres2-S protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV). For this purpose we investigated the main factors influencing for the cultivation of recombinant strain of the yeast Pichia pastoris pPIC3,5-S-HBsAg - the composition of the nutrient medium, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO). As a result, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the optimal concentration of methanol ≈1.0 %, which is the initiator and the only source of carbon for protein expression in the Mut+ phenotype Pichia pastoris yeast cells was determined. In the selected ...


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