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Matlab Model To Predict Liquid Hydrogen Spill Characteristics And Safety, Amy Gravenstein 2022 The University of Akron

Matlab Model To Predict Liquid Hydrogen Spill Characteristics And Safety, Amy Gravenstein

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The potential of using liquid hydrogen for propulsion is often undermined due to its perilous nature. Hydrogen has a wide flammability range when mixed with air (4.0 - 75.0% hydrogen) and a low ignition energy (0.019 mJ). Liquid hydrogen adds to this high risk as a cryogenic fluid that is to be maintained below -22 K. A liquid hydrogen model has been created in MATLAB that can model various spill scenarios from cryogenic liquid hydrogen vessels. This model takes into consideration the spill rate, spill temperature, air temperature, duration of spill, and air flow conditions to calculate the ...


Scale Model Equations And Optimization For Annular Flow Of Non-Newtonian Fluids Between Eccentric And Rotating Cylinders, Wei Zhang, Pooya Khodaparast, Amin Mehrabian Dr., Amir Shojaei 2021 The Pennsylvania State University

Scale Model Equations And Optimization For Annular Flow Of Non-Newtonian Fluids Between Eccentric And Rotating Cylinders, Wei Zhang, Pooya Khodaparast, Amin Mehrabian Dr., Amir Shojaei

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

A broad range of engineering applications involves helical flow of non-Newtonian fluids between two eccentric cylinders. These applications often require estimation of the frictional pressure losses along the axes of the cylinders. Laboratory flow loops are commonly used to study the flow characteristics at smaller scales of investigation. This study uses the laws of similarity and dimensional analysis to obtain a set of scaling equations between the laboratory and prototype scales of the described annular flow. These equations are derived for four types of fluid rheology including Newtonian, power-law, Bingham-plastic, and yield power-law.

Results are expressed through a set of ...


Water Recovery From Bioreactor Mixed Liquors Using Forward Osmosis With Polyelectrolyte Draw Solutions, Calen Raulerson 2021 Clemson University

Water Recovery From Bioreactor Mixed Liquors Using Forward Osmosis With Polyelectrolyte Draw Solutions, Calen Raulerson

All Theses

The objective of this research was to test the feasibility of using forward osmosis (FO) with polyelectrolyte draw solutions to recover water from bioreactor mixed liquors. When combined with an Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor (AnOMBR), such a system could process fecal and food waste from astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and reclaim important nutrients and water. This project focused on measuring the obtainable water recovery rates from bioreactor effluent, and the identifying challenges associated with the operation.

AnOMBRs feature several advantages over aerobic bioreactors, and non-osmotic anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Anaerobic bioreactors avoid the significant energy costs of ...


Towards Long Term Colloid Suspension In A Vertically Rotated System., Md Mahmudur Rahman 2021 University of Louisville

Towards Long Term Colloid Suspension In A Vertically Rotated System., Md Mahmudur Rahman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Within a colloidal suspension gravity may compromise the observation of governing physical interactions, especially those that are weak and/or take significant time to develop. Conducting the experiment in a long-term microgravity environment is a viable option to negate gravitational effects, though significant resources are required to do so. While it may not be possible to simulate long-term microgravity terrestrially, particles can resist quick sedimentation in a confined suspension system rotating vertically with appropriate rotation speed. The goal of the investigation is to demonstrate the existence of long-term particle suspension regime for a certain colloidal suspension while characterizing colloidal behavior ...


Aggregation Dynamics Of Bulk Nanoparticle Haloing Systems And The Influence Of Non-Ambient Temperatures., Marzieh Moradi 2021 University of Louisville

Aggregation Dynamics Of Bulk Nanoparticle Haloing Systems And The Influence Of Non-Ambient Temperatures., Marzieh Moradi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the methods of assembling colloids into 3D crystal structures is through the use of nanoparticle haloing. Nanoparticle haloing is a stabilization mechanism in binary particle suspensions possessing both a size and charge asymmetry, with which the nanoparticles aid in the bulk suspension’s stability. By altering the volume fractions of nanoparticles, it is possible to control the effective repulsion between the microparticles. Understanding the colloidal interactions and aggregate crystallinity as a function of nanoparticle concentration, temperature, and time are key challenges in developing future materials and designing crystalized 3D colloidal systems. In this study, we investigated the effect ...


Non-Circular Hydraulic Jumps Due To Inclined Jets, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelaziz 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Non-Circular Hydraulic Jumps Due To Inclined Jets, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelaziz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

When a laminar inclined circular jet impinges on a horizontal surface, it forms a non-circular hydraulic jump governed by a non-axisymmetric flow. In this thesis, we use the boundary-layer and thin-film approaches in the three dimensions to theoretically analyse such flow and the hydraulic jumps produced in such cases. We particularly explore the interplay among inertia, gravity, and the effective inclination angle on the non-axisymmetric flow.

The boundary-layer height is found to show an azimuthal dependence at strong gravity level only; however, the thin film thickness as well as the hydraulic jump profile showed a strong non-axisymmetric behaviour at all ...


Vermiculations In Painted Caves: New Inputs From Laboratory Experiments And Field Observations, Perrine Freydier, Eric Weber, Jérôme Martin, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Béatrice Guerrier, Frédéric Doumenc 2021 Université Paris-Saclay, France

Vermiculations In Painted Caves: New Inputs From Laboratory Experiments And Field Observations, Perrine Freydier, Eric Weber, Jérôme Martin, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Béatrice Guerrier, Frédéric Doumenc

International Journal of Speleology

Vermiculations are aggregates of small particles commonly found on cave walls. They are a major concern for the conservation of painted caves, as they can potentially alter valuable prehistoric cave paintings. A previous rheological study of fine sediment deposits on cave walls revealed that this material can undergo a solid-to-liquid transition triggered by variations in the chemical composition of the water film on the wall. Such a transition could occur at the origin of vermiculations by allowing the sediment to flow under low mechanical stress. In this work, we provide quantitative information on the conditions leading to this transition and ...


Understanding Complex Coacervation Of Low Charge Density Copolymers And Latexes, Nicholas Bryant 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Understanding Complex Coacervation Of Low Charge Density Copolymers And Latexes, Nicholas Bryant

Masters Theses

Many coatings only need to either be durable or fast drying, usually sacrificing long term stability in favor of quick setting, or vice versa. One coating type that cannot afford to sacrifice either performance feature is traffic paint. These paints are made up of a weak polycation, an anionic latex, and a volatile base which evaporates upon application. The high pH in the initial formulation deprotonates the polycation, rendering it charge neutral. However, upon evaporation, the resulting drop in pH allows for the electrostatic complexation between the polycation and the latex. The electrostatic interactions used in these formulations parallels that ...


Investigative Study Of Microalgal And Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment Systems And Modeling Of The Wafer-Enhanced Electrodeionization Using Supervised Learning, Humeyra Betul Ulusoy Erol 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigative Study Of Microalgal And Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment Systems And Modeling Of The Wafer-Enhanced Electrodeionization Using Supervised Learning, Humeyra Betul Ulusoy Erol

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wastewater has a serious impact on environment and public health due to its high concentration of nutrients and toxic contaminants. Without proper treatment, excess nutrients discharged in wastewater can cause a damage to the ecosystem such as undesirable pH shifts, cyanotoxin production, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations.

Main objectives of this dissertation work were to investigate i) the biofuel potential of P. cruentum when grown in swine wastewater, ii) the influence of four most commonly used ion exchange resins on the system efficiency and selectivity for the removal of sodium, calcium, and magnesium ions, and iii) the modeling of wafer-enhanced ...


Image Analysis Of Charged Bimodal Colloidal Systems In Microgravity., Adam J. Cecil 2021 University of Louisville

Image Analysis Of Charged Bimodal Colloidal Systems In Microgravity., Adam J. Cecil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Colloids are suspensions of two or more phases and have been topics of research for advanced, tunable materials for decades. Stabilization of colloids is typically attributed to thermodynamic mechanisms; however, recent studies have identified transport or entropic mechanisms that can potentially stabilize a thermodynamically unstable colloidal system. In this study, suspensions of silsesquioxane microparticles and zirconia nanoparticles were dispersed in a nitric acid solution and allowed to aggregate for 8-12 days in microgravity aboard the International Space Station. The suspensions were subsequently imaged periodically at 2.5x magnification. Due to the inadequacy of existing image analysis programs, the python package ...


Relating Modified Ergun's Equation To Hindered Settling Correlations, Ryan Zahniser 2021 The University of Akron

Relating Modified Ergun's Equation To Hindered Settling Correlations, Ryan Zahniser

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Correlations were developed between the Modified Ergun’s and Hindered settling correlations under the condition of dense packing of particles in the bed. As the porosity of the slurry increases, so does the interference between particles in the solution which mimics the behavior of a packed or densely concentrated fluidized bed. The similarity between the two sets of conditions was modeled using mathematical equations to calculate settling velocities and pressure drops by means of the Hindered Settling correlations and Modified Ergun’s equation at porosities ranging from 0.4242 to 0.89. The results showed that a porosity of 0 ...


Experimental Study Of Viscoelastic Fluid-Structure Interactions, Anita Anup Dey 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Experimental Study Of Viscoelastic Fluid-Structure Interactions, Anita Anup Dey

Doctoral Dissertations

It is well known that when a flexible or flexibly-mounted structure is placed perpendicular to a Newtonian fluid flow, it can oscillate due to the shedding of vortices at high Reynolds numbers. Unlike Newtonian fluids, viscoelastic fluid flow can become unstable even at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability occurring at large Weissenberg numbers. This thesis focuses on exploring the mechanisms of viscoelastic fluid-structure interactions (VFSI) through experimental investigations on several different combinations of flexible and flexibly-mounted circular cylinders, micro and macro-scale cantilevered beams and viscoelastic fluids such as wormlike micelle solutions and polymer solutions.

VFSI ...


Modeling Residence Time Distribution Of Chromatographic Perfusion Resin For Large Biopharmaceutical Molecules: A Computational Fluid Dynamic Study, Kevin Vehar 2020 Claremont Colleges

Modeling Residence Time Distribution Of Chromatographic Perfusion Resin For Large Biopharmaceutical Molecules: A Computational Fluid Dynamic Study, Kevin Vehar

KGI Theses and Dissertations

The need for production processes of large biotherapeutic particles, such as virus-based particles and extracellular vesicles, has risen due to increased demand in the development of vaccinations, gene therapies, and cancer treatments. Liquid chromatography plays a significant role in the purification process and is routinely used with therapeutic protein production. However, performance with larger macromolecules is often inconsistent, and parameter estimation for process development can be extremely time- and resource-intensive. This thesis aimed to utilize advances in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling to generate a first-principle model of the chromatographic process while minimizing model parameter estimation's physical resource demand ...


An Improved Foam Modeling Technique And Its Application To Petroleum Drilling And Production Practice, Yanfang Wang 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

An Improved Foam Modeling Technique And Its Application To Petroleum Drilling And Production Practice, Yanfang Wang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Foam is one of the most common used multiphase fluid in Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) and Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD). Because of its low density, high capacity of lifting and carrying cuttings, low cost and compatibility with formations, foam has become more superior than the conventional drilling mud when depleted reservoir pressure, severe lost circulation, or unstable borehole are encountered. In general, the success of foam applications rely on the understanding of the fundamentals of foam rheology in downhole conditions.

Foam rheology has been studied for decades. Conventional foam rheological models such as Power Law, Bingham Plastic, Herschel-Bulkley to explain foam ...


Kinetics Of The Crystal-Melt Phase Transformation In Semicrystalline Polymers, Kiran Subramaniam Iyer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Kinetics Of The Crystal-Melt Phase Transformation In Semicrystalline Polymers, Kiran Subramaniam Iyer

Doctoral Dissertations

The assembly of long-chain polymers into an ordered state is a process that has puzzled polymer scientists for several decades. A process that is largely controlled by the strength of intermolecular attractions in small molecular systems, this crystallization in the case of polymers is controlled by a competition between the aforementioned force of attraction between monomers and the formidable conformational entropy of polymer chains. Any factor that affects this conformational entropy, whether that is an equilibrium thermodynamic factor or a kinetic factor, has the ability to control polymer crystallization. In this thesis, we focus on understanding the underlying kinetic processes ...


Microfluidic Study Of The Electrocoalescence Of Aqueous Droplets In Crude Oil, Thomas Leary, Mohsen Yeganeh, Charles Maldarelli 2020 CUNY City College

Microfluidic Study Of The Electrocoalescence Of Aqueous Droplets In Crude Oil, Thomas Leary, Mohsen Yeganeh, Charles Maldarelli

Publications and Research

In electrocoalescence, an electric field is applied to a dispersion of conducting water droplets in a poorly conducting oil to force the droplets to merge in the direction of the field. Electrocoalescence is used in petroleum refining to separate water from crude oil and in droplet-based microfluidics to combine droplets of water in oil and to break emulsions. Using a microfluidic design to generate a two-dimensional (2D) emulsion, we demonstrate that electrocoalescence in an opaque crude oil can be visualized with optical microscopy and studied on an individual droplet basis in a chamber whose height is small enough to make ...


Three-Phase Hydrodynamic Simulation And Experimental Validation Of An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor, Camila D' Bastiani, Jéferson Luis Alba, Gabriel Tomazzoni Mazzarotto, Severino Rodrigues de Farias Neto, Anthony Reynolds, David Kennedy, Lademir Luiz Beal 2020 Technological University Dublin

Three-Phase Hydrodynamic Simulation And Experimental Validation Of An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor, Camila D' Bastiani, Jéferson Luis Alba, Gabriel Tomazzoni Mazzarotto, Severino Rodrigues De Farias Neto, Anthony Reynolds, David Kennedy, Lademir Luiz Beal

Articles

This research focuses on performing multiphase solid/liquid/gas CFD simulations of a UASB reactor in order to obtain a validated model that provides a clearer understanding of the hydrodynamic behaviour of the three phases in UASB reactors. Eulerian–Eulerian, laminar, three-dimensional, multiphase simulations are carried out using Fluent 16.2. The liquid phase velocity and flow profile are validated through PIV experiments. A liquid mean velocity difference of 8.45% is found between the experimental and numerical results, thus validating the CFD model. Shadowgraphy is applied successfully to validate the biogas phase velocity and bubble size. Based on the ...


The Desorption Kinetics Of Methane From Nonaqueous Fluids For Enhanced Well Control, James Lee Nielsen Jr. 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Desorption Kinetics Of Methane From Nonaqueous Fluids For Enhanced Well Control, James Lee Nielsen Jr.

LSU Master's Theses

The mass transfer of a dissolved gas evolving to return to the gaseous phase from a liquid is governed by many parameters. This process affects the development of an oil and gas well due to the possibility of gas contamination occurring from either an influx entering the wellbore, or drilling through gas-bearing formations. Once this dissolved hydrocarbon gas circulates up the wellbore, it will begin to evolve from solution and poses a potential risk to drilling equipment, the environment, and personnel at a drilling rig. Being able to predict the behavior of gas desorption based on a known set of ...


Desarrollo De Un Esquema De Gestión Hídrica En El Sistema Acuífero Sap 3.1 Apoyado De La Tipificación De Suelos Y El Modelo Conceptual De Thöt, Maria Camila Soriano Espinosa, Camilo José Rodríguez Carvajal 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Desarrollo De Un Esquema De Gestión Hídrica En El Sistema Acuífero Sap 3.1 Apoyado De La Tipificación De Suelos Y El Modelo Conceptual De Thöt, Maria Camila Soriano Espinosa, Camilo José Rodríguez Carvajal

Ingeniería Ambiental y Sanitaria

El presente proyecto tiene como objetivo principal desarrollar un esquema de gestión hídrica (EGH) en el sistema acuífero SAP 3.1, provincia llanos orientales, con base en la tipificación de suelos y el modelo conceptual de Tӧth, partiendo de que las aguas subterráneas se consideran una fuente alternativa de abastecimiento por su mejor calidad y el bajo costo de manejo en comparación al agua superficial, y teniendo en cuenta que el Departamento del Meta conoce la riqueza hídrica que está en su jurisdicción, no cuenta con una regulación adecuada en pro de una gestión hídrica a nivel subterráneo. La metodología ...


Coarse-Grained Dynamically Accurate Simulations Of Ionic Liquids At Vacuum-Interface, Tyler D. Stoffel 2020 University of Kentucky

Coarse-Grained Dynamically Accurate Simulations Of Ionic Liquids At Vacuum-Interface, Tyler D. Stoffel

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Ionic liquids, possessing improved properties in many areas of technical application, are excellent candidates as components in development of next-generation technology, including ultra-high energy batteries. If they are thus applied, however, extensive interfacial analysis of any selected ionic configuration will likely be required. Molecular dynamics (MD) provides an advantageous route by which this may be accomplished, but can fall short in observing some phenomena only present at larger time/length scales than it can simulate. Often times this is approached by coarse-graining (CG), with which scope of simulation can be significantly increased. However, coarse-grained MD systems are generally known to ...


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