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Understanding The Promotion Effect: A Density Functional Theory Study Based On High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images For Mos2-Cobalt Promoted Interfaces, Manuel A. Ramos 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Understanding The Promotion Effect: A Density Functional Theory Study Based On High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images For Mos2-Cobalt Promoted Interfaces, Manuel A. Ramos

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Many studies had been done in order to understand promotion effect and structure/function in unsupported catalyst. Results indicated that d-electrons play an important role promoting catalytical active sites at the edges of MoS2 catalytically structures. Sulfur removal from crude oil, occurs on the edge of molybdenum di-sulfide (MoS2) nano structures, due to promotion of MoS2 nano structures with nickel or cobalt in sulfur-terminated or molybdenum-terminated edge planes. The promotion leads to formation of so-called CoMoS phase (MoS2/Co9S8) first discovered by meaning of Mössbauer spectroscopy, much more CoMoS phase usually called unsupported catalytical particles, have been topic of great interest in …


Direct Measurements Of Island Growth And Step-Edge Barriers In Colloidal Epitaxy, Rajesh Ganapathy, Mark R. Buckley, Sharon J. Gerbode, Itai Cohen 2010 Cornell University

Direct Measurements Of Island Growth And Step-Edge Barriers In Colloidal Epitaxy, Rajesh Ganapathy, Mark R. Buckley, Sharon J. Gerbode, Itai Cohen

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

Epitaxial growth, a bottom-up self-assembly process for creating surface nano- and microstructures, has been extensively studied in the context of atoms. This process, however, is also a promising route to self-assembly of nanometer- and micrometer-scale particles into microstructures that have numerous technological applications. To determine whether atomic epitaxial growth laws are applicable to the epitaxy of larger particles with attractive interactions, we investigated the nucleation and growth dynamics of colloidal crystal films with single-particle resolution. We show quantitatively that colloidal epitaxy obeys the same two-dimensional island nucleation and growth laws that govern atomic epitaxy. However, we found that in colloidal …


Demonstration Of A Neutral Atom Controlled-Not Quantum Gate, L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, Todd A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, M. Saffman 2010 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Demonstration Of A Neutral Atom Controlled-Not Quantum Gate, L. Isenhower, E. Urban, X. L. Zhang, A. T. Gill, T. Henage, Todd A. Johnson, T. G. Walker, M. Saffman

Physics Faculty Publications

We present the first demonstration of a CNOT gate between two individually addressed neutral atoms. Our implementation of the CNOT uses Rydberg blockade interactions between neutral atoms held in optical traps separated by >8  μm. Using two different gate protocols we measure CNOT fidelities of F=0.73 and 0.72 based on truth table probabilities. The gate was used to generate Bell states with fidelity F=0.48±0.06. After correcting for atom loss we obtain an a posteriori entanglement fidelity of F=0.58.


Synthesis And Characterization Of Ruthenium Complexes Containing Chlorophenanthroline And Bipyridine, Anwar A. Bhuiyan, S. Kudo, J. Bartlett 2010 Arkansas Tech University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Ruthenium Complexes Containing Chlorophenanthroline And Bipyridine, Anwar A. Bhuiyan, S. Kudo, J. Bartlett

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The divalent ruthenium polypyridine complexes hold promise as efficient photocatalysts for solar energy conversion schemes. This paper deals with the synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of ruthenium polypyridine complexes, which may be useful as photosensitizers. The homoleptic ruthenium(II) complex Ru(Cl-phen)3(PF6)2 (where Cl-phen = 5- chloro-1,10-phenanthroline), and heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complexes Ru(Cl-phen)2(bpy)(PF6)2, and Ru(Cl-phen)(bpy)2(PF6)2 (where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) have been prepared by following the standard synthetic procedure. Silica and alumina column chromatographies were used to purify the compounds. Mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis were used to confirm the identity and the integrity of the complexes. Absorption and emission …


Optical Characterization Of Silver Doped Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Films, W. A. Jabbar, N. F. Habubi, S. S. Chiad 2010 Al Mustasiriyah University

Optical Characterization Of Silver Doped Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Films, W. A. Jabbar, N. F. Habubi, S. S. Chiad

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Silver-doped PVA films were prepared by casting method in order to study the effect of silver on the optical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) using UV/VIS spectroscopy. It was found that these thin films have an indirect optical band gap (2.4-1.3) eV as the doping percentage increase. Extinction coefficient and refractive index increase as the doping percentage increase, while in general the optical dispersion parameters show an opposite behavior with doping


Pressure Induced Dynamical Instabilities In Body Center Cubic Crystals, Oscar Guerrero 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Pressure Induced Dynamical Instabilities In Body Center Cubic Crystals, Oscar Guerrero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Large-scale atomistic simulations of shock-wave propagation in single crystals exhibit large anisotropies in the elastic-plastic and solid-liquid transitions. Characteristic of this type of simulations are the large strains at which the crystal yields plastically, regardless of crystal orientation. At these large strains, uniaxial deformations, such as those produced in planar shock loading generate dynamical instabilities. We have investigated the directional anisotropy of the elastic limit in bcc crystals, in particular Tantalum (Ta), employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the elastic - plastic transition in BCC defect-free crystals is caused by the appearance of soft-phonon modes and not via …


Unusual Resistance Hysteresis In N-Layer Graphene Field Effect Transistors Fabricated On Ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2ti0.8)O3, X. Hong, J. Hoffman, A. Posadas, K. Zou, C. H. Ahn, J. Zhu 2010 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Unusual Resistance Hysteresis In N-Layer Graphene Field Effect Transistors Fabricated On Ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2ti0.8)O3, X. Hong, J. Hoffman, A. Posadas, K. Zou, C. H. Ahn, J. Zhu

Xia Hong Publications

We have fabricated n-layer graphene field effect transistors on epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films. At low gate voltages, PZT behaves as a high-k dielectric with k up to 100. An unusual resistance hysteresis occurs in gate sweeps at high voltages, with its direction opposite to that expected from the polarization switching of PZT. The relaxation of the metastable state is thermally activated, with an activation barrier of 50–110 meV and a time constant of 6 h at 300 K. We attribute its origin to the slow dissociation/recombination dynamics of water molecules adsorbed at …


Magnetodielectric Coupling Of Infrared Phonons In Single-Crystal Cu2oseo3, K. H. Miller, X. S. Xu, H. Berger, E. S. Knowles, D. J. Arenas, M. W. Meisel, D. B. Tanner 2010 University of Florida

Magnetodielectric Coupling Of Infrared Phonons In Single-Crystal Cu2oseo3, K. H. Miller, X. S. Xu, H. Berger, E. S. Knowles, D. J. Arenas, M. W. Meisel, D. B. Tanner

Xiaoshan Xu Papers

Reflection and transmission as a function of temperature (5–300 K) have been measured on a single crystal of the magnetoelectric ferrimagnetic compound Cu2OSeO3 utilizing light spanning the far infrared to the visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The complex dielectric function and optical properties were obtained via Kramers-Kronig analysis and by fits to a Drude-Lortentz model. The fits of the infrared phonons show a magnetodielectric effect near the transition temperature (Tc~60 K). Assignments to strong far-infrared phonon modes have been made, especially those exhibiting anomalous behavior around the transition temperature.


Lattice Dynamical Probe Of Charge Order And Antipolar Bilayer Stacking In Lufe2o4, X. S. Xu, J. de Groot, Q.-C. Sun, B. C. Sales, D. Mandrus, M. Angst, A. P. Litvinchuk, J. L. Musfeldt 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Lattice Dynamical Probe Of Charge Order And Antipolar Bilayer Stacking In Lufe2o4, X. S. Xu, J. De Groot, Q.-C. Sun, B. C. Sales, D. Mandrus, M. Angst, A. P. Litvinchuk, J. L. Musfeldt

Xiaoshan Xu Papers

We investigated the infrared response of LuFe2O4 through the series of charge, magnetic, and structural transitions. All vibrational modes couple strongly to the charge order, whereas the LuO zone-folding modes are also sensitive to magnetic order and structural distortion. The dramatic splitting of the LuO2 layer mode is attributed to charge-rich/poor proximity effects and its temperature dependence reveals the antipolar nature of the W layer pattern.


Deposition Of High-Quality Hfo2 On Graphene And The Effect Of Remote Oxide Phonon Scattering, K. Zou, X. Hong, D. Keefer, J. Zhu 2010 The Pennsylvania State University

Deposition Of High-Quality Hfo2 On Graphene And The Effect Of Remote Oxide Phonon Scattering, K. Zou, X. Hong, D. Keefer, J. Zhu

Xia Hong Publications

We demonstrate atomic layer deposition of high-quality dielectric HfO2 films on graphene and determine the magnitude of remote oxide surface phonon scattering in dual-oxide structures. The carrier mobility in these HfO2-covered graphene samples reaches 20 000 cm2/Vs at low temperature. Distinct contributions to the resistivity from surface optical phonons in the SiO2 substrate and the HfO2 overlayer are isolated. At 300 K, surface phonon modes of the HfO2 film centered at 54 meV limit the mobility to approximately 20 000 cm2/Vs.


Tunable Band Gap In Bi(Fe1−Xmnx)O3 Films, X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, J. L. Musfeldt 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tunable Band Gap In Bi(Fe1−Xmnx)O3 Films, X. S. Xu, J. F. Ihlefeld, J. H. Lee, O. K. Ezekoye, E. Vlahos, R. Ramesh, V. Gopalan, X. Q. Pan, D. G. Schlom, J. L. Musfeldt

Xiaoshan Xu Papers

In order to investigate band gap tunability in polar oxides, we measured the optical properties of a series of Bi(Fe1−xMnx)O3 thin films. The absorption response of the mixed metal solid solutions is approximately a linear combination of the characteristics of the two end members, a result that demonstrates straightforward band gap tunability in this system.


Adsorption-Controlled Growth Of Bimno3 Films By Molecular-Beam Epitaxy, J. H. Lee, X. Ke, R. Misra, J. F. Ihlefeld, X. S. Xu, Z. G. Mei, T. Heeg, M. Roeckerath, J. Schubert, Z. K. Liu, J. L. Musfeldt, P. Schiffer, D. G. Schlom 2010 Cornell University

Adsorption-Controlled Growth Of Bimno3 Films By Molecular-Beam Epitaxy, J. H. Lee, X. Ke, R. Misra, J. F. Ihlefeld, X. S. Xu, Z. G. Mei, T. Heeg, M. Roeckerath, J. Schubert, Z. K. Liu, J. L. Musfeldt, P. Schiffer, D. G. Schlom

Xiaoshan Xu Papers

We have developed the means to grow BiMnO3 thin films with unparalleled structural perfection by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and determined its band gap. Film growth occurs in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. Within this growth window bounded by oxygen pressure and substrate temperature at a fixed bismuth overpressure, single-phase films of the metastable perovskite BiMnO3 may be grown by epitaxial stabilization. X-ray diffraction reveals phase-pure and epitaxial films with w rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 11 arc sec (0.003°). Optical absorption measurements reveal that BiMnO3 has a direct band gap of 1.1±0.1 …


Optical Properties Of Quasi-Tetragonal Bifeo3 Thin Films, P. Chen, N. J. Podraza, X. S. Xu, A. Melville, E. Vlahos, V. Gopalan, R. Ramesh, D. G. Schlom, J. L. Musfeldt 2010 University of Tennessee

Optical Properties Of Quasi-Tetragonal Bifeo3 Thin Films, P. Chen, N. J. Podraza, X. S. Xu, A. Melville, E. Vlahos, V. Gopalan, R. Ramesh, D. G. Schlom, J. L. Musfeldt

Xiaoshan Xu Papers

Optical transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to extract the optical properties of an epitaxially grown quasi-tetragonal BiFeO3 thin film in the near infrared to near ultraviolet range. The absorption spectrum is overall blue shifted compared with that of rhombohedral BiFeO3, with an absorption onset near 2.25 eV, a direct 3.1 eV band gap, and charge transfer excitations that are ~0.4 eV higher than those of the rhombohedral counterpart. We interpret these results in terms of structural strain and local symmetry breaking.


Reflectivity Of A Cholesteric Liquid Crystal, Justin Lawson 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Reflectivity Of A Cholesteric Liquid Crystal, Justin Lawson

Physics

In this paper we investigate the light properties of a chiral liquid crystal or a crystal for which the director angle relative to some fixed axis changes as a function of the crystal depth. Sometimes a dopant can introduce a chirality or "twist" in a nematic liquid crystal. For such cases of non-linear depth dependence (where chirality is determined by a diffusion equation) we may use this research to work backwards from a crystal's light properties to intensity and duration of dopant exposure.


Imaging Live Cells Grown On A Three Dimensional Collagen Matrix Using Raman Microspectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, Peter Knief, Basil Lim, Aidan Meade, Jennifer Dorney, Kunal Bhattacharya, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne 2010 Technological University Dublin

Imaging Live Cells Grown On A Three Dimensional Collagen Matrix Using Raman Microspectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, Peter Knief, Basil Lim, Aidan Meade, Jennifer Dorney, Kunal Bhattacharya, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Three dimensional collagen gels have been used as matrices for the imaging of live cells by Raman spectroscopy. The study is conducted on a human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and a spontaneously immortalized human epithelial keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. The lateral resolution of the system has been estimated to be


Quantum Interference Experiments, Modular Variables And Weak Measurements, Jeff Tollaksen, Yakir Aharonov, Aharon Casher, Tirzah Kaufherr, Shmuel Nussinov 2010 Chapman University

Quantum Interference Experiments, Modular Variables And Weak Measurements, Jeff Tollaksen, Yakir Aharonov, Aharon Casher, Tirzah Kaufherr, Shmuel Nussinov

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We address the problem of interference using the Heisenberg picture and highlight some new aspects through the use of pre-selection, post-selection, weak measurements and modular variables. We present a physical explanation for the different behaviors of a single particle when the distant slit is open or closed; instead of having a quantum wave that passes through all slits, we have a localized particle with non-local interactions with the other slit(s). We introduce a Gedanken experiment to measure this non-local exchange. While the Heisenberg and Schrodinger pictures are equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics, nevertheless, the results discussed here support a new …


A Systematic Study Of The Dispersion Of Swnts In Organic Solvents, Qiaohuan Cheng, Sourabhi Debnath, Luke O'Neill, Theresa Hedderman, Elizabeth Gregan, Hugh Byrne 2010 Technological University Dublin

A Systematic Study Of The Dispersion Of Swnts In Organic Solvents, Qiaohuan Cheng, Sourabhi Debnath, Luke O'Neill, Theresa Hedderman, Elizabeth Gregan, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Dispersions of as-produced HiPco single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a series of organic solvents were prepared by dilution with the aid of tip sonication. Mild centrifugation (~ 945 g) was carried out to remove large bundles. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed that the bundle size decreased as the dispersion was diluted. By measuring the UV-vis-NIR absorption before and after centrifugation as a function of the concentration, the dispersion limit of SWNTs in each solvent can be determined. Correlations between the dispersion limit and solvent solubility parameters, including the Hildebrand solubility parameter and three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters, are explored, …


Inelastic Collisions In Cold Dipolar Gases, Catherine A. Newell 2010 University of Kentucky

Inelastic Collisions In Cold Dipolar Gases, Catherine A. Newell

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Inelastic collisions between dipolar molecules, assumed to be trapped in a static electric field at cold (> 10−3K) temperatures, are investigated and compared with elastic collisions. For molecules with a Λ-doublet energy-level structure, a dipole moment arises because of the existence of two nearly degenerate states of opposite parity, and the collision of two such dipoles can be solved entirely analytically in the energy range of interest. Cross sections and rate constants are found to satisfy simple, universal formulas. In contrast, for molecules in a Σ electronic ground state, the static electric field induces a dipole moment in …


A Measurement Of The Neutron Electric Form Factor At Very Large Momentum Transfer Using Polarized Electrons Scattering From A Polarized Helium-3 Target, Aidan Michael Kelleher 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

A Measurement Of The Neutron Electric Form Factor At Very Large Momentum Transfer Using Polarized Electrons Scattering From A Polarized Helium-3 Target, Aidan Michael Kelleher

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. GEn was measured …


Dynamical Theory Calculations Of Spin-Echo Resolved Grazing-Incidence Scattering From A Diffraction Grating, Rana Ashkar, P. Stonaha, A. L. Washington, V. R. Shah, M. R. Fitzsimmons, B. Maranville, C. F. Majkrzak, W. T. Lee, W. L. Schaich, Roger Pynn 2010 Indiana University - Bloomington

Dynamical Theory Calculations Of Spin-Echo Resolved Grazing-Incidence Scattering From A Diffraction Grating, Rana Ashkar, P. Stonaha, A. L. Washington, V. R. Shah, M. R. Fitzsimmons, B. Maranville, C. F. Majkrzak, W. T. Lee, W. L. Schaich, Roger Pynn

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience

Neutrons scattered or reflected from a diffraction grating are subject to a periodic potential analogous to the potential experienced by electrons within a crystal. Hence, the wavefunction of the neutrons can be expanded in terms of Bloch waves and a dynamical theory can be applied to interpret the scattering phenomenon. In this paper, a dynamical theory is used to calculate the results of neutron spin-echo resolved grazing-incidence scattering (SERGIS) from a silicon diffraction grating with a rectangular profile. The calculations are compared with SERGIS measurements made on the same grating at two neutron sources: a pulsed source and a continuous …


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