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Superlattice Ultrasonic Generation, Thomas E. Wilson, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, H-J. L. Gossmann 2011 Marshall University

Superlattice Ultrasonic Generation, Thomas E. Wilson, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, H-J. L. Gossmann

Physics Faculty Research

We report the first experimental evidence for the resonant excitation of coherent high-frequency acoustic phonons in semiconducting doping superstructures by far-infrared laser radiation. After a grating-coupled delta-doped silicon doping superlattice is illuminated with ~1 kW/mm2 nanosecond-pulsed 246 GHz laser radiation, a delayed nanosecond pulse is detected by a superconducting bolometer at a time corresponding to the appropriate time-of-flight for ballistic longitudinal acoustic phonons across the (100) silicon substrate. The absorbed phonon power density in the microbolometer is observed to be ~10 μW/mm2, in agreement with theory. The phonon pulse duration also matches the laser pulse duration. The …


Evidence For The Generation Of Coherent Longitudinal Acoustic Phonons Through The Resonant Absorption Of Pulsed Far-Infrared Laser Radiation In Silicon Doping Superlattices, Thomas E. Wilson 2011 Marshall University

Evidence For The Generation Of Coherent Longitudinal Acoustic Phonons Through The Resonant Absorption Of Pulsed Far-Infrared Laser Radiation In Silicon Doping Superlattices, Thomas E. Wilson

Physics Faculty Research

We report the first experimental evidence for the direct excitation of coherent high-frequency acoustic phonons in semiconducting doping superstructures by electromagnetic fields of the same frequency. Nanosecond pulses of acoustic phonons have been detected by a superconducting bolometer at the appropriate time-of-flight across a (100) silicon substrate for ballistic longitudinal phonons when a silicon doping superlattice is illuminated with grating-coupled nanosecond-pulsed 246-GHz laser radiation with power density of ∼1 kW/mm2. The absorbed phonon power density in the microbolometer is estimated to be ∼ 10/Wmm2, in agreement with theory. The phonon pulse duration matches the laser pulse …


Raman Scattering Analysis Of Silicon Dioxide Single Crystal Treated By Direct Current Plasma Discharge, Dusan M. Poparic, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Andrijana Zekic, N Romcevic, Steven Daniels 2011 Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Raman Scattering Analysis Of Silicon Dioxide Single Crystal Treated By Direct Current Plasma Discharge, Dusan M. Poparic, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Andrijana Zekic, N Romcevic, Steven Daniels

Articles

Low-k materials such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) play an important role in the semiconductor industry. Plasma has become indispensable for advanced materials processing. In this work a treatment of SiO2single crystal by direct current plasma discharge is studied in detail. Offline metrology is conducted for silicon dioxide wafers by Raman scattering, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. Broad Raman peak at around 2800 cm−1 is observed for the treatedSiO2 wafers. Effects of plasma treatment on position of this peak are reported in the paper. An analysis of this correlation could be a framework for creating virtual etch rate sensors, which might …


Monte Carlo Simulation Of The Spatial Resolution And Depth Sensitivity Of Two-Dimensional Optical Imaging Of The Brain, Peifang Tian, Anna Devor, Sara Sakadžić, Anders Dale, David Boas 2011 John Carroll University

Monte Carlo Simulation Of The Spatial Resolution And Depth Sensitivity Of Two-Dimensional Optical Imaging Of The Brain, Peifang Tian, Anna Devor, Sara Sakadžić, Anders Dale, David Boas

Peifang Tian

Absorption or fluorescence-based two-dimensional (2-D) optical imaging is widely employed in functional brain imaging. The image is a weighted sum of the real signal from the tissue at different depths. This weighting function is defined as “depth sensitivity.” Characterizing depth sensitivity and spatial resolution is important to better interpret the functional imaging data. However, due to light scattering and absorption in biological tissues, our knowledge of these is incomplete. We use Monte Carlo simulations to carry out a systematic study of spatial resolution and depth sensitivity for 2-D optical imaging methods with configurations typically encountered in functional brain imaging. We …


Analysis Of The Theory Of Abstraction, Subhajit Kumar Ganguly 2011 SelectedWorks

Analysis Of The Theory Of Abstraction, Subhajit Kumar Ganguly

Subhajit Kumar Ganguly

In this paper,a few more implications of the laws of physical transactions as per the Theory of Abstraction are dealt with.Analysis of these implications suggests the existence of `hidden` mass and `hidden` energy in a given physical transaction.Trajectory - examination of such possible transport is carried out. Relativistic cyclist phenomena are also dealt with in this paper.


Heat Recovery Mechanism In The Excitation Of Radiative Polaritons By Broadband Infrared Radiation In Thin Oxide Films, Anita J. Vincent-Johnson, Kyle A. Vasquez, John E. Bridstrup, Andrew E. Masters, Xiaofeng Hu, Giovanna Scarel 2011 James Madison University

Heat Recovery Mechanism In The Excitation Of Radiative Polaritons By Broadband Infrared Radiation In Thin Oxide Films, Anita J. Vincent-Johnson, Kyle A. Vasquez, John E. Bridstrup, Andrew E. Masters, Xiaofeng Hu, Giovanna Scarel

Department of Physics and Astronomy - Faculty Scholarship

This work probes radiative polaritons in thin oxide layers as a mean to capture and absorb broadband infrared radiation and transform it into heat. A heat recovery mechanism, based on the Seebeck effect, is used as the tool of the investigation. Heat production challenges the current understanding which views the excitation of radiative polaritons as only accompanied by the emission of electromagnetic radiation. The heat recovery mechanism presented here can inspire the design of infrared energy harvesting devices, similar to photovoltaic cells, and other devices to convert energy from a wide range of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum using thermoelectric power …


Generation Of Mid-Ir Wavelengths, Deborah Robinson, Robert Hartsock, Kelly Gaffney 2011 San Jose State University

Generation Of Mid-Ir Wavelengths, Deborah Robinson, Robert Hartsock, Kelly Gaffney

STAR Program Research Presentations

Generation of mid-IR wavelengths

Deborah Robinson, Robert Hartsock, and Kelly Gaffney

Abstract

Research to determine basic molecular properties utilizing pump/probe experiments is an on going effort at SLAC. Here we have been given the task to generate mid-IR laser pulses and commission a mid-IR detector for said experiments and research. The mid-IR pulses will be used to probe the changes in molecular properties induced by exciting the electrons in molecules with visible pump pulses. In order to accomplish this, an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) has been set-up and aligned. The pump beam for the OPA is a 40 femtosecond 800nm …


Colossal Negative Magnetoresistance In Dilute Fluorinated Graphene, X. Hong, S. -H. Cheng, C. Herding, J. Zhu 2011 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Colossal Negative Magnetoresistance In Dilute Fluorinated Graphene, X. Hong, S. -H. Cheng, C. Herding, J. Zhu

Xia Hong Publications

Adatoms offer an effective route to modify and engineer the properties of graphene. In this work, we create dilute fluorinated graphene using a clean, controlled, and reversible approach. At low carrier densities, the system is strongly localized and exhibits an unexpected, colossal negative magnetoresistance. The zero-field resistance is reduced by a factor of 40 at the highest field of 9 T and shows no sign of saturation. Unusual staircaselike field dependence is observed below 5 K. The magnetoresistance is highly anisotropic. These observations cannot be explained by existing theories, but likely require adatom-induced magnetism and/or a metal-insulator transition driven by …


Structure And Magnetism Of Mnau Nanoclusters, X. Wei, Damien Le Roy, Ralph Skomski, Xingzhong Li, Zhiguang Sun, Jeffrey E. Shield, M. J. Kramer, David J. Sellmyer 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Structure And Magnetism Of Mnau Nanoclusters, X. Wei, Damien Le Roy, Ralph Skomski, Xingzhong Li, Zhiguang Sun, Jeffrey E. Shield, M. J. Kramer, David J. Sellmyer

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience

Equiatomic MnAu clusters with average sizes of 4 and 10 nm are produced by inert-gas condensation. As-produced clusters are used to form both dense cluster films and films with clusters embedded in a W matrix with a cluster volume fraction of 25%. Both structure and magnetism are size-dependent. Structural analysis of the 10 nm clusters indicate a distorted tetragonal body-centered cubic structure with lattice parameters a=0.315 and c=0.329 nm. The 4 nm clusters have a partially ordered tetragonal L10 structure with lattice parameters a=0.410 nm and c=0.395 nm. Magnetic properties of the clusters show evidence at …


Oscillator Strength Measurements In Singly-Ionized, Doubly-Ionized And Neutral Lanthanides And Transition Elements (Sm, Nd, Pr, Gd, Cu, And Fe) Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy., Caleb Ryder 2011 Wayne State University

Oscillator Strength Measurements In Singly-Ionized, Doubly-Ionized And Neutral Lanthanides And Transition Elements (Sm, Nd, Pr, Gd, Cu, And Fe) Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy., Caleb Ryder

Wayne State University Dissertations

Models for stellar nucleosynthesis, age determinations for stars in the Milky Way's galactic halo, and stellar chemical abundance determinations are dependent upon accurate atomic spectroscopic data to allow the correct interpretation of stellar absorption and emission spectra. It is well known that calculations of many astrophysically important atomic parameters are limited due to line blending, insufficient spectral resolution of some key spectral lines, and also the complicated electronic structure of the important heavy elements. Astrophysicists have therefore looked to laboratory astrophysics experiments to provide accurate atomic data to help resolve these limiting issues. In this dissertation, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) …


Mesoscale Flux-Closure Domain Formation In Single-Crystal Batio3, R. G.P. McQuaid, L. J. McGilly, Pankaj Sharma, Alexei Gruverman, J. M. Gregg 2011 Queen’s University Belfast

Mesoscale Flux-Closure Domain Formation In Single-Crystal Batio3, R. G.P. Mcquaid, L. J. Mcgilly, Pankaj Sharma, Alexei Gruverman, J. M. Gregg

Alexei Gruverman Publications

Over 60 years ago, Charles Kittel predicted that quadrant domains should spontaneously form in small ferromagnetic platelets. He expected that the direction of magnetization within each quadrant should lie parallel to the platelet surface, minimizing demagnetizing fields, and that magnetic moments should be configured into an overall closed loop, or flux-closure arrangement. Although now a ubiquitous observation in ferromagnets, obvious flux-closure patterns have been somewhat elusive in ferroelectric materials. This is despite the analogous behaviour between these two ferroic subgroups and the recent prediction of dipole closure states by atomistic simulations research. Here we show Piezoresponse Force Microscopy images of …


Ultrafast Rempi In Benzene And The Monohalobenzenes Without The Focal Volume Effect, Timothy D. Scarborough, James Strohaber, David B. Foote, Collin J. McAcy, Cornelis J. Uiterwaal 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ultrafast Rempi In Benzene And The Monohalobenzenes Without The Focal Volume Effect, Timothy D. Scarborough, James Strohaber, David B. Foote, Collin J. Mcacy, Cornelis J. Uiterwaal

C.J.G.J. Uiterwaal Publications

We report on the photoionization and photofragmentation of benzene (C6H6) and of the monohalobenzenes C6H5–X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) under intense-field, single-molecule conditions. We focus 50-fs, 804-nm pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser source, and record ion mass spectra as a function of intensity in the range ~1013 W/cm2 to ~1015 W/cm2. We count ions that were created in the central, most intense part of the focal area; ions from other regions are rejected. For all targets, stable parent ions (C6H5X+) are …


Electron Attachment To Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Components: Cyanoacetic Acid, Alberto Modelli, Paul Burrow 2011 Università di Bologna

Electron Attachment To Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Components: Cyanoacetic Acid, Alberto Modelli, Paul Burrow

Paul Burrow Publications

The energies of electron attachment associated with temporary occupation of the lower-lying virtual orbitals of cyanoacetic acid (CAA), proposed as a possible component of dye-sensitized solar cells, and its derivative methyl cyanoacetate (MCA) are measured in the gas phase with electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The corresponding orbital energies of the neutral molecule, supplied by B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations and scaled using an empirically calibrated linear equation, are compared with the experimental vertical attachment energies (VAEs). The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities are also evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy …


Schottky Barrier Formation At The Au To Rare Earth Doped Gan Thin Film Interface, S. R. McHale, J. W. McClory, J. C. Petrosky, J. Wu, R. Palai, Yaroslav B. Losovyj, Peter A. Dowben 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Schottky Barrier Formation At The Au To Rare Earth Doped Gan Thin Film Interface, S. R. Mchale, J. W. Mcclory, J. C. Petrosky, J. Wu, R. Palai, Yaroslav B. Losovyj, Peter A. Dowben

Peter Dowben Publications

The Schottky barriers formed at the interface between gold and various rare earth doped GaN thin films (RE = Yb, Er, Gd) were investigated in situ using synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy. The resultant Schottky barrier heights were measured as 1.68 ± 0.1 eV (Yb:GaN), 1.64 ± 0.1 eV (Er:GaN), and 1.33 ± 0.1 eV (Gd:GaN). We find compelling evidence that thin layers of gold do not wet and uniformly cover the GaN surface, even with rare earth doping of the GaN. Furthermore, the trend of the Schottky barrier heights follows the trend of the rare earth metal work function.


In Memoriam: Robert Katz (1917–2011), M. P. R. Waligorski, Francis A. Cucinotta 2011 Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, Poland

In Memoriam: Robert Katz (1917–2011), M. P. R. Waligorski, Francis A. Cucinotta

Robert Katz Publications

Bob Katz will be well remembered for his enthusiasm and strong personality. In a scientific dispute, few indeed could match his wit or his sense of humor or survive the cutting logic of his arguments. To those who had appreciation for his science and his personality, he was truly a great scientist and a master teacher. There are many people around the world who will remember Bob Katz for what he offered them and for the way he showed them what truth in science is.

The Katz Model, developed at that time for solid-state detectors and for cell cultures, relates …


Magnetism Of Cluster-Deposited Y–Co Nanoparticles, Balamuruga Balamurugan, Ralph Skomski, Xingzhong Li, V. R. Shah, George C. Hadjipanayis, Jeffrey E. Shield, David J. Sellmyer 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Magnetism Of Cluster-Deposited Y–Co Nanoparticles, Balamuruga Balamurugan, Ralph Skomski, Xingzhong Li, V. R. Shah, George C. Hadjipanayis, Jeffrey E. Shield, David J. Sellmyer

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience

Nanoparticles of YCo2, YCo3, and YCo5 are produced by cluster-deposition and investigated both structurally and magnetically. The nanoparticles have sizes of less than 10 nm and are superparamagnetic at 300 K, irrespective of stoichiometry. As-produced nanoparticles exhibit disordered structures with magnetic properties differing from those of the bulk particles. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves of the nanoparticles reveal blocking temperatures from 110 to 250 K, depending on stoichiometry. The magnetic anisotropy constant K1 of disordered YCo5 nanoparticles of 7.8 nm in size is 3.5×106ergs/cm3, higher than those of the disordered YCo …


Resonant Photoemission Of Rare Earth Doped Gan Thin Films, S. R. McHale, J. W. McClory, J. C. Petrosky, J. Wu, R. Palai, Yaroslav B. Losovyj, Peter A. Dowben 2011 Air Force Institute of Technology

Resonant Photoemission Of Rare Earth Doped Gan Thin Films, S. R. Mchale, J. W. Mcclory, J. C. Petrosky, J. Wu, R. Palai, Yaroslav B. Losovyj, Peter A. Dowben

Peter Dowben Publications

The 4d → 4f Fano resonances for various rare earth doped GaN thin films (RE = Gd, Er, Yb) were investigated using synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy. The resonant photoemission Fano profiles show that the major Gd and Er rare earth 4f weight is at about 5–6 eV below the valence band maximum, similar to the 4f weights in the valence band of many other rare earth doped semiconductors. For Yb, there is very little resonant enhancement of the valence band of Yb doped GaN, consistent with a largely 4f14 occupancy.


Metastability Of Free Cobalt And Iron Clusters: A Possible Precursor To Bulk Ferromagnetism, Xiaoshan Xu, Shuangye Yin, Ramiro Moro, Anthony Liang, John Bowlan, Walt A. de Heer 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Metastability Of Free Cobalt And Iron Clusters: A Possible Precursor To Bulk Ferromagnetism, Xiaoshan Xu, Shuangye Yin, Ramiro Moro, Anthony Liang, John Bowlan, Walt A. De Heer

Xiaoshan Xu Papers

Homonuclear cobalt and iron clusters CoN and FeN measured in a cryogenic molecular beam exist in two states with distinct magnetic moments (μ), polarizabilities, and ionization potentials, indicating distinct valences. The μ is approximately quantized: μN ~ 2B in the ground states and μN* ~ NμB in the excited states for Co; μN ~ 3N μB and μN * ~ B for Fe. At a large size, the average μ of the two states converges to the bulk value with diminishing ionization potential differences. …


In Vitro Analysis Of Immersed Human Tissues By Raman Microspectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, A. Mehmood, Peter Knief, Aidan Meade, Helen Lambkin, Kathleen Flynn, V. McDonagh, C. Healy, T. C. Lee, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne 2011 Technological University Dublin

In Vitro Analysis Of Immersed Human Tissues By Raman Microspectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, A. Mehmood, Peter Knief, Aidan Meade, Helen Lambkin, Kathleen Flynn, V. Mcdonagh, C. Healy, T. C. Lee, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Raman microspectroscopy is a powerful tool for the analysis of tissue sections, providing a molecular map of the investigated samples. Nevertheless, data pre-processing and, particularly, the removal of the broad background to the spectra remain problematic. Indeed, the physical origin of the background has not been satisfactorily determined. Using 785 nm as source in a confocal geometry, it is demonstrated for the example of the protein kappa-elastin that the background and resulting quality of the recorded spectrum are dependent on the morphology of the sample. Whereas a fine powder yields a dominant broad background, compressed pellets and solution-cast thin films …


Effects Of Annealing On The Electronic Transitions Of Zns Thin Films, S. S. Chiad, W. A. Jabbar, N. F. Habubi 2011 Al_Mustasiriyah University

Effects Of Annealing On The Electronic Transitions Of Zns Thin Films, S. S. Chiad, W. A. Jabbar, N. F. Habubi

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Thin films of zinc sulphide were prepared using a flash evaporation technique. The obtained thin films were subjected to heat treatment to investigate the effect of annealing on the transmittance spectrum and the electronic transitions. It has been found that annealing affected the transmission spectrum and caused an increase in the direct optical band gap. The optical parameters, oscillator energy E0 and dispersion energy Ed were determined using the Wemple DiDomenico single oscillator model. The optical energy gap obtained from the Wemple and DiDomenico model was in good agreement with the optical energy gap proposed by the Tauc theory.


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