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La Minería En La Conciencia Urbana: Las Estrategias De Los Yasunidos De Cuenca Contra La Minería En El Azuay, Alexandra Golden 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

La Minería En La Conciencia Urbana: Las Estrategias De Los Yasunidos De Cuenca Contra La Minería En El Azuay, Alexandra Golden

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En la provincia del Azuay, Ecuador, hay dos proyectos mineros a gran escala. Los proyectos Río Blanco y Loma Larga/Quimsacocha consisten en minas subterráneas de oro y plata, y ambos se acercan a la fase de explotación. Los proyectos están ubicados en la Reserva de Biosfera Macizo del Cajas en la zona de amortiguamiento del Parque Nacional el Cajas. La zona es un páramo de alto endemismo e importancia con respecto a la regulación hídrica. Los páramos suministran agua potable a los pueblos campesinos y a los habitantes de la ciudad de Cuenca. La minería consume muchísima agua y ...


“Ellas Miran La Realidad”: La Sequía Y La Gestión De Mujeres En Santa Julia, Nicaragua, Deborah Secular 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

“Ellas Miran La Realidad”: La Sequía Y La Gestión De Mujeres En Santa Julia, Nicaragua, Deborah Secular

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Por los últimos dos años, Nicaragua ha experimentado una sequía con efectos drásticos en la población rural. Esta investigación estudió los efectos de la sequía en las mujeres de Santa Julia, una comunidad de 60 familias en El Crucero, Managua que estaba una hacienda monocultivo. Santa Julia fue escogida porque su acceso a agua ha sido limitado mucho tiempo, y porque tiene una cooperativa de mujeres que es activa en su gestión. La investigación involucró alrededor de 40 entrevistas y observaciones continuas como participante durante tres semanas en la comunidad. A través de entrevistas que involucraban las historias de las ...


L’Insecte Sage In The Age Of Global Climate Crisis: A Biocultural And Ontological Study Of Vulnerability And Resilience In The Manakara Beekeeping Network, Tamar Law 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

L’Insecte Sage In The Age Of Global Climate Crisis: A Biocultural And Ontological Study Of Vulnerability And Resilience In The Manakara Beekeeping Network, Tamar Law

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The effects of climate change are felt unevenly throughout the globe. Impoverished populations with high levels of subsistence agriculture are particularly vulnerable due to their direct dependence on the land. However, these populations are also the possible agents of change and solutions, as their traditional ecological knowledge has evolved in relation to their context. The honeybee is directly implicated in climate change vulnerability due to its role in pollination services, by ensuring food security. In the past decade, honeybees have risen to international fame and scrutiny due to a global vanishing of bees, attributed in part to climate change and ...


An Assessment Of Soil Erosion On Pemba Island Using The Universal Soil Loss Equation, Emily Gillispie 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

An Assessment Of Soil Erosion On Pemba Island Using The Universal Soil Loss Equation, Emily Gillispie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Healthy soil is necessary for maintaining agricultural productivity, which is the basis of the economy on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Soil erosion is a notable concern for subsidence-farming villages, as it reduces the agricultural potential of farmland through the loss of nutrients, organic matter, and depth of quality growing soil (Georhing, 2009). The island of Pemba is the perfect case study for soil erosion, as their economy is largely based in agriculture, and the combined hilly topography and monsoonal climate make it highly susceptible to soil erosion. Yet, Pemba’s main cash crops are clove and fruit trees, which have potential ...


The Use Versus Availability Of Wood Extraction At The Baga Ii Forest Reserve Border Adjacent To Kizanda Village In The West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, Rebecca Halter 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

The Use Versus Availability Of Wood Extraction At The Baga Ii Forest Reserve Border Adjacent To Kizanda Village In The West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, Rebecca Halter

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Tropical forests, especially in developing countries, continue to face serious threats of deforestation due to human pressures and poor management. These forests are at risk of disappearing and taking their water catchment and ecosystem services with them. Kizanda Villagers’ illegal woodfuel and polewood extraction poses a threat to the future health and existence of the Baga II Forest. This study, conducted from April 5th to April 19th, 2016, aimed to examine the use versus availability of tree species along the forest border. Twenty disturbance transects, each 4 meters wide, were conducted perpendicular to the Baga II forest border. The transects ...


Crafting A Campus Sustainability Action Plan: A Grassroots Approach, Jolina A. Kenney 2016 Gettysburg College

Crafting A Campus Sustainability Action Plan: A Grassroots Approach, Jolina A. Kenney

Student Publications

In recent decades, colleges and universities have taken a leadership role in developing institution-based Sustainability Action Plans (SAPs). A SAP includes a summation of past achievements, current initiatives, and the prioritized goals and implementation strategies for future action in terms of promoting environmental sustainability. These plans can also serve as pedagogical devices that teach students, staff and faculty important lessons of intentional living, global citizenship, and environmental responsibility. While many plans are adopted as top-down initiatives, there is great value in finding ways to engage the entire campus community in such endeavors at the grassroots level. This project documents a ...


An Adaptive Visual Learning Approach For Waterborne Disease Prevention In Rural West Africa, Jonathan Le Mar Oglesby 2016 Western Kentucky University

An Adaptive Visual Learning Approach For Waterborne Disease Prevention In Rural West Africa, Jonathan Le Mar Oglesby

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Depleted water supplies, along with industrial and human waste, are driving a world water crisis that poses a growing risk to food markets, energy production, political stability, and human health (Global Water Security 2012). One obvious example of the this crisis is the more than 1 billion people who obtain their drinking water from contaminated sources (WHO/UNICEF 2006; Clasen et al. 2008). With a projected increase of 1.3 billion people between now and 2050, Africa will add more to the global population than any other world region (Haub and Kaneda 2013). For this research, visual learning design factors ...


A Study On The Effect Of Non – Asthmatic Atopy On Pregnancy Outcomes, Ayesha Johnson 2016 University of South Florida

A Study On The Effect Of Non – Asthmatic Atopy On Pregnancy Outcomes, Ayesha Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives – To measure the effect of non – asthmatic atopy (NAA) on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes; low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (PTB), among primiparous women 19 – 25 years of age.

Methods – Vital Statistics records from births occurring between 2004 and 2014, from approximately 60,000 primiparous women in South Carolina, aged 19 to 25 years, were linked to their Medicaid records. Maternal records were examined to determine if they had a previous diagnosis of NAA. Women with a diagnosis of NAA were frequency matched with a ratio of 1:4 to non ...


Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha 2016 First Solar

Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

The environmental sciences have been critical to identifying global environmental challenges such as climate change, but they have been less extensively utilized in deploying solutions to those challenges, such as solar energy. Environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, aerosols, clouds, soiling, and snowfall have important effects on solar PV performance, and these effects can vary regionally. The current status of large-scale solar PV deployment will be discussed along with the role of environmental variables on PV performance.


Comparison Of Urinary Pahs Among Firefighters And Asphalt Pavers, Theodore Aquino 2016 University of South Florida

Comparison Of Urinary Pahs Among Firefighters And Asphalt Pavers, Theodore Aquino

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Firefighters and asphalt pavers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during various work activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate urinary PAH levels and compare these bio-monitoring levels among firefighters, asphalt pavers, and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urinary PAH levels were used for non-occupationally exposed controls. When compared to the NIST standard for smokers and non-smokers, firefighters demonstrated statistically significant differences in urinary concentration differences for the following metabolites: 2-OH-fluorene, 3-OH-fluorene and 1-OH-pyrene, which were lower in firefighters than the NIST mean for smokers. 1-OH-phenanthrene, 2-OH-phenanthrene and 3-OH-phenanthrene were higher ...


Effects Of Watershed Characteristics On Stream Vulnerability To Urbanization: Implications Of Future Land Use On Streams In Maine, Usa, Kristen Weil 2016 The University of Maine

Effects Of Watershed Characteristics On Stream Vulnerability To Urbanization: Implications Of Future Land Use On Streams In Maine, Usa, Kristen Weil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Catchment urbanization has deleterious effects on freshwater resources and aquatic communities in small stream ecosystems. In the State of Maine, many streams have been negatively affected by urbanization and are in need of management and restoration. Impervious cover (IC), i.e., any surface that impedes water infiltration into the ground, can serve as a measure of watershed urbanization. Recent studies conducted in Maine have indicated that stream biotic community structure and function begin to decline at impervious cover levels of approximately 1 to 15%. This wide range presents a challenge to regulatory agencies and watershed managers charged with protecting stream ...


Powering The Planet: The Role Chemistry Plays In Solar Energy Technology, Amy M. Scott 2016 University of Miami

Powering The Planet: The Role Chemistry Plays In Solar Energy Technology, Amy M. Scott

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

Global energy demands are projected to double by 2050, according to the U.S. Department of Energy, and solar energy has the greatest potential as the most benign, universal resource for generating electricity. However, harnessing the solar energy efficiently and converting it towards useful forms of power that are compatible with our current infrastructure remains an elusive goal. Today’s solar energy utilization relies on silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, which converts photon energy to electrical energy. The efficiency of these devices remains low (< 30%) and the cost of processing silicon and installing solar panels in homes makes PV uneconomical compared to the current price of electricity. Research efforts towards developing new inorganic and organic materials for thin film PV to replace silicon are currently underway. Organic materials are particularly interesting from the standpoint of developing simple, cheap materials that can be easily tailored for future PV devices. The future of solar energy utilization relies on developing solar paints for vehicles, solar shingles for rooftops, and spray-on solar ink for small device applications, but continued fundamental research is needed for decreasing cost and improving efficiency for next generation devices.


Thawing Out: The Role Of The Arctic Council Service In A Melting Arctic, Taylor J. Enos 2016 Salve Regina University

Thawing Out: The Role Of The Arctic Council Service In A Melting Arctic, Taylor J. Enos

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

With the changing natural and political climate of the Arctic, conflicts over resource extraction and navigation will become inevitable. Empowering an intergovernmental institution like the Arctic Council Service may be the only solution. This paper analyzes the importance and history of the Arctic as a political environment, which is prone to abuse in the very near future at the hands of Russia and the United States.


Climate Change Impacts On New York Wine Grape Growing Regions, Benjamin L. Davis 2016 American Public University System

Climate Change Impacts On New York Wine Grape Growing Regions, Benjamin L. Davis

Master's Capstone Theses

This study aimed to determine whether changes in climate would influence the quality and quantity of New York wine grape growing regions by analyzing historical temperature and precipitation levels and forecasting future levels. It was shown that the climate in New York and within New York climate divisions that encompass federally accepted New York American Viticultural Areas has changed over time; specifically average minimum, average maximum, and overall average temperatures have gradually increased since the year 1895 with statistical significance. The cool New York climate is normally on the edge of acceptability for supporting many of the grape varieties that ...


The Socio-Political Impact Of Large-Scale Damming Along The Mekong River, Particularly In Cambodia, John M. Lynch 2016 American Public University System

The Socio-Political Impact Of Large-Scale Damming Along The Mekong River, Particularly In Cambodia, John M. Lynch

Master's Capstone Theses

Potential ecological change along in the Mekong River Basin do to the rapid development of hydropower is well-researched. However, little is known about socio-political factors that are contributing to the creation of numerous dams along the Mekong River and major tributaries. A quantitative analysis of precipitation amounts and water levels in the Upper Mekong River Basin attempts to establish a relationship between dams in China and alterations to water levels through the Lower Mekong River. A qualitative analysis is used to explore the political and economic influences that contribute to additional dam construction within the Lower Mekong River Basin that ...


Questioning Ecosystem Assessment And Restoration Practices In A Major Urban Estuary: Perpetuating Myths Of Degradation In Spite Of Facts, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Martin P. Schreibman, Kevin McDonnell 2016 Molloy College

Questioning Ecosystem Assessment And Restoration Practices In A Major Urban Estuary: Perpetuating Myths Of Degradation In Spite Of Facts, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Martin P. Schreibman, Kevin Mcdonnell

Faculty Works: CERCOM

The Jamaica Bay ecosystem is a dichotomy. It encompasses more than 12,000 acres of coastal estuarine marshes and an ecological diversity rivaling any coastal environment in the world. It is considerably altered, and is affected by a variety of ecological insults directly related to the fact that more than 14 million people live in its vicinity. Environmental protection institutions responded to the challenge of protecting the bay, surrounding wetlands and recreational benefits by addressing the increasing load of contaminants into the ecosystem. Billions of dollars have been spent during the past five decades on restoration attempts, including upgrading wastewater ...


Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...


Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the ...


Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input-output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


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